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Sports, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Physiological, Technical, and Tactical Analysis during a Friendly Football Match of Elite U19
Sports 2016, 4(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020035 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
The main objective was to analyze a friendly match of youth elite soccer players identifying the variance of tactical and physiological response parameters during the game. In addition, detecting the impact of both halves on player performance. For the purposes of this study [...] Read more.
The main objective was to analyze a friendly match of youth elite soccer players identifying the variance of tactical and physiological response parameters during the game. In addition, detecting the impact of both halves on player performance. For the purposes of this study twenty-two U19 players were analyzed playing 11v11. Activity profile, heart rate (HR and HRmax), grouped in five different zones were analyzed via Bluetooth technology, technical performance was analyzed by the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP), and tactical performance was measured by Social Network Analysis. A comparison of heart rate responses showed significant main effects in the halves (p = 0.001; η p 2 = 0.623). A comparison between tactical position and technical performance had significant main effects (p = 0.001; η p 2 = 0.390). Tactical position showed statistically significant effects on tactical prominence (p = 0.002; η p 2 = 0.296). Therefore, fatigue is a component distinguished in technical/tactical parameters, such as volume of play and efficiency index. Results suggest that fatigue effects may constrain technical performance and, for that reason, the use of instruments to monitor the fatigue effect during matches may be suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
Open AccessArticle
Physiological Characteristics of Incoming Freshmen Field Players in a Men’s Division I Collegiate Soccer Team
Sports 2016, 4(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020034 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Freshmen college soccer players will have lower training ages than their experienced teammates (sophomores, juniors, seniors). How this is reflected in field test performance is not known. Freshmen (n = 7) and experienced (n = 10) male field soccer players from [...] Read more.
Freshmen college soccer players will have lower training ages than their experienced teammates (sophomores, juniors, seniors). How this is reflected in field test performance is not known. Freshmen (n = 7) and experienced (n = 10) male field soccer players from the same Division I school completed soccer-specific tests to identify potential differences in incoming freshmen. Testing included: vertical jump (VJ), standing broad jump, and triple hop (TH); 30-m sprint, (0–5, 5–10, 0–10, and 0–30 m intervals); 505 change-of-direction test; Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2); and 6 × 30-m sprints to measure repeated-sprint ability. A MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc was conducted on the performance test data, and effect sizes and z-scores were calculated from the results for magnitude-based inference. There were no significant between-group differences in the performance tests. There were moderate effects for the differences in VJ height, left-leg TH, 0–5, 0–10 and 0–30 m sprint intervals, and YYIRT2 (d = 0.63–1.18), with experienced players being superior. According to z-score data, freshmen had meaningful differences below the squad mean in the 30-m sprint, YYIRT2, and jump tests. Freshmen soccer players may need to develop linear speed, high-intensity running, and jump performance upon entering a collegiate program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Reported Use and Reasons among the General Population for Using Sports Nutrition Products and Dietary Supplements
Sports 2016, 4(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020033 - 07 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplements (DS’s) and sport nutrition product (SNPs) among the general population, to identify differences for gender, age, and exercise frequency, and to determine the main reasons for use. The study [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplements (DS’s) and sport nutrition product (SNPs) among the general population, to identify differences for gender, age, and exercise frequency, and to determine the main reasons for use. The study was designed as a web-based questionnaire in a representative sample (n = 1544) of the Dutch population. Sixty-two percent (n = 957) of the respondents reported having used DS’s, SNPs, or both in the last twelve months. Women and older people reported the highest DS use. The highest use of SNPs was reported by regular exercising men and younger people with improving sporting performance as their main objective. Most frequently reported DS’s were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (19%)—for SNPs, energy drinks (22%) and isotonic drinks (19%). Health considerations were the most important motivation (DS’s 90% and SNPs 52%), but also performance was substantially reported (DS’s 14% and SNPs 35%). A substantial group of sedentary respondents also reported the use of SNPs. This study confirms that DS’s, SNPs, or both are widely used among the general population. Both health as performance are important reasons for use. It can be questioned whether the use of SNPs fits all respondents’ physical activity needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Health and Performance)
Open AccessReview
The Effects of Exercise on Natriuretic Peptides in Individuals without Heart Failure
Sports 2016, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020032 - 31 May 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A systematic review on the effects of exercise on NPs in patients with heart failure reported that aerobic and resistance training reduced NPs; [...] Read more.
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A systematic review on the effects of exercise on NPs in patients with heart failure reported that aerobic and resistance training reduced NPs; however, the effects of exercise on NPs and the underlying mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion in subjects without heart failure remain unknown. In athletes and young, healthy subjects, the NP concentration at rest is not elevated, but strenuous endurance exercise significantly increases NPs. The exercise-induced increase in NPs may be caused by transient myocardial wall stress, cardiomyocyte metabolic changes, or neuroendocrinological response, which may have cytoprotective and growth-regulating effects on the heart. On the other hand, in elderly, overweight/obese subjects, and patients with hypertension, NP concentrations also increase during exercise; however, NP secretion may be more susceptible to cardiac stress compared to young, healthy individuals. Recent studies have shown that NPs are associated with thermogenesis in fat tissue and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles. NPs may also have a protective role for skeletal muscle in humans, although further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heart Rate Responses during Small Sided Games and Official Match-Play in Soccer
Sports 2016, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020031 - 30 May 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
Small sided games (SSGs) are a match specific type of training. In addition, there is an insufficient number of studies that compare heart rate (HR) responses of SSGs and official match-play (OM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the heart rate [...] Read more.
Small sided games (SSGs) are a match specific type of training. In addition, there is an insufficient number of studies that compare heart rate (HR) responses of SSGs and official match-play (OM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the heart rate responses during SSGs and OM in young soccer players. Twenty-two male soccer players (mean ± SD; age 17.4 ± 0.9 years, height 174.9 ± 6.6 cm, body weight 67.7 ± 8.1 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The first session included anthropometric measurements and a maximum running test (RT). Following the RT session, all players participated in five different randomly ordered SSG sessions (3-, 4-, 5-, 7- and 9-a-side with goalkeepers). OMs were also monitored in the fourth week of the study. A one-way multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) was then conducted to evaluate the differences between the SSGs and OM. The results showed that 3-a-side elicited significantly higher HR and %HRmax than other SSGs and OM, whereas 9-a-side resulted in significantly lower HR and %HRmax compared to other SSG formats and OM (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 3-a-side, 4-a-side and 5-a-side SSG formats provide players with the opportunity to spend sufficient proportion of time spent in high intensity zones that are specific to match demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance in Soccer)
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ)
Sports 2016, 4(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020030 - 26 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in young children (<5 years) is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and [...] Read more.
Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in young children (<5 years) is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ). In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years) from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6%) questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4%) were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD) = 1.1). All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC) and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47) and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)(ICC = 0.35). The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1) and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1) limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19) and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30). The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not possible for measurement of young children’s MVPA, the EY-PAQ may be a suitable alternative but only if boundaries are applied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement in 100-m Sprint Performance at an Altitude of 2250 m
Sports 2016, 4(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020029 - 12 May 2016
Viewed by 2084
Abstract
A fair system of recognizing records in athletics should consider the influence of environmental conditions on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an altitude of 2250 m on the time for a 100-m sprint. Competition results from [...] Read more.
A fair system of recognizing records in athletics should consider the influence of environmental conditions on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an altitude of 2250 m on the time for a 100-m sprint. Competition results from the 13 Olympic Games between 1964 and 2012 were corrected for the effects of wind and de-trended for the historical improvement in performance. The time advantage due to competing at an altitude of 2250 m was calculated from the difference between the mean race time at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City and the mean race times at the low-altitude competition venues. The observed time advantage of Mexico City was 0.19 (±0.02) s for men and 0.21 (±0.05) s for women (±90% confidence interval). These results indicate that 100-m sprinters derive a substantial performance advantage when competing at a high-altitude venue and that an altitude of 1000 m provides an advantage equivalent to a 2 m/s assisting wind (0.10 s). Therefore, the altitude of the competition venue as well as the wind speed during the race should be considered when recognizing record performances. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases
Sports 2016, 4(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020028 - 09 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect [...] Read more.
Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Timing for Post-Activation Potentiation in Women Collegiate Volleyball Players
Sports 2016, 4(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020027 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been shown to acutely amplify muscular power output and may be advantageous for athletes looking to improve performance. PAP may have an acute window of effectiveness between 2 to 20 min. With correct timing and implementation it may be [...] Read more.
Post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been shown to acutely amplify muscular power output and may be advantageous for athletes looking to improve performance. PAP may have an acute window of effectiveness between 2 to 20 min. With correct timing and implementation it may be possible to induce PAP in competitive situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the time frame of potentiation following a PAP warm-up in collegiate female volleyball players. In this study, nine female collegiate volleyball players completed three laboratory sessions over the course of 10 days. During the first session, the athlete’s 5-RM back squat was determined for subsequent use as the conditioning activity to initiate PAP. A repeated measures experimental design was then employed for Sessions 2 and 3 where half of the participants alternately performed either a dynamic or PAP warm-up prior to performing a standing long jump (SLJ) at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min. A mixed-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the two warm-up strategies (PAP vs. dynamic) on standing long jump (SLJ) performance across time. There was a significant effect for time (p < 0.01) and warm-up strategy (p < 0.01). Bonferroni post hoc techniques determined that the SLJs that followed the PAP warm-up were significantly greater at 2 (4.8%), 6 (3.6%), and 10 (3.6%) min compared to SLJs post-dynamic warm-up (p < 0.05). However, those differences did not persist at 14 or 18 min (p > 0.05). Further analysis included non-parametric pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) between the SLJ scores at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min (PAP vs. dynamic). The non-parametric results were consistent with the parametric results. Within the parameters of this study, it is concluded that performing a 5-RM back squat induces a measureable PAP effect for up to 10 min. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College Athletes
Sports 2016, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020026 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training [...] Read more.
Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training protocol. Twenty male college athletes were equally assigned to MIPS and placebo (PLA) groups for supplementation (three pills, twice daily) in conjunction with resistance training and specialized sports training (e.g., nine total sessions/week) for six weeks. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry determined body composition at weeks 0 and 6. Serum samples collected at weeks 0 and 6 determined free testosterone (FT), total testosterone (TT), IGF-1 and total estrogen (TE) levels. PLA experienced a significant decline in lean body mass (LBM) (−1.5 kg; p < 0.05) whereas the MIPS sustained LBM. The MIPS increased TT 21.9% (541.5 ± 48.7 to 639.1 ± 31.7) and increased FT 15.2% (13.28 ± 1.1 to 15.45 ± 1.3 ng/dL) (p < 0.05). Conversely, PLA decreased TT 7.9% (554.5 ± 43.3 to 497.2 ± 39.1 ng/dL), decreased FT 17.4% (13.41 ± 1.8 to 11.23 ± 2.55 ng/dL), and decreased FT:E 12.06% (p < 0.05). These findings suggest the MIPS can prevent decrements in LBM and anabolic hormone profiles during intense training periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Nutrition for Health and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomy Mediates the Relationship between Personality and Physical Activity: An Application of Self-Determination Theory
Sports 2016, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020025 - 29 Apr 2016
Viewed by 2054
Abstract
This study sought to examine tenets of Self-Determination Theory by testing a mediation model of physical activity and personality via autonomy. A total of 290 adults were recruited to complete a one-time online survey of exercise habits and individual characteristics. Surveys assessed personality, [...] Read more.
This study sought to examine tenets of Self-Determination Theory by testing a mediation model of physical activity and personality via autonomy. A total of 290 adults were recruited to complete a one-time online survey of exercise habits and individual characteristics. Surveys assessed personality, autonomy, and physical activity. A measurement model specifying direct effects between personality dimensions and physical activity and indirect effects operating through autonomy provided an excellent fit to the data (Χ2 = 0.66, df = 3, p = 0.88, RMSEA(90% CI) = 0.00 (0.00–0.05), CFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.01). Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) effects of Extroversion (β = 0.42), Conscientiousness (β = 0.96), and Emotional Stability (β = 0.60) on autonomy, which in turn, was significantly associated with physical activity (β = 0.55). No significant effects were observed for Agreeableness or Intellect. None of the personality constructs were found to be directly associated with physical activity. This model accounted for 27% of the variance in physical activity. The results of this study suggest that autonomy is significantly associated with physical activity. Therefore, attempts to improve autonomy in individuals may be a useful intervention strategy in improving physical activity levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radiographic Assessment of Anatomic Risk Factors Associated with Acute, Lateral Patellar Dislocation in the Immature Knee
Sports 2016, 4(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020024 - 15 Apr 2016
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely [...] Read more.
Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely unknown in children. A retrospective review of all skeletally immature patients diagnosed with acute lateral patellar dislocation who had MRI imaging were included for analysis. An age-based control group was also identified. Six radiographic measurements were compared: lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), trochlear facet asymmetry (TFA), trochlear depth (TD), tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG), sulcus angle (SA) and patellar height ratio. A total of 178 patients were included for analysis (study: n = 108, control: n = 70). The mean age of patients in the study and control groups was 13.7 and 12.1 years respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Study group patients had significant differences in all radiographic measurements including a decreased LTI (p < 0.001), increased TFA (p < 0.001) and SA (p < 0.001). The mean trochlear depth was 3.4 mm and 5.6 mm for patients in the study and control groups respectively (p < 0.001). Study group patients had an increased patellar height ratio (p < 0.001) and TT–TG distance (p < 0.001). Morphologic abnormalities may predispose skeletally immature patients to an increased risk of acute lateral patellar instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Exercise Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Mental Imagery with Video-Modeling on Self-Efficacy and Maximal Front Squat Ability
Sports 2016, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020023 - 14 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either [...] Read more.
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10) or a control (n = 10) group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Acute Effects of Heavy Deadlifts on Vertical Jump Performance in Men
Sports 2016, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020022 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of deadlifts as a postactivation potentiation stimulus on vertical jump performance. Fifteen men (age, 23.9 ± 4.2 years; height, 176.3 ± 8.6 cm; mass, 76.1 ± 16.3 kg) participated in the study. Participants [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of deadlifts as a postactivation potentiation stimulus on vertical jump performance. Fifteen men (age, 23.9 ± 4.2 years; height, 176.3 ± 8.6 cm; mass, 76.1 ± 16.3 kg) participated in the study. Participants visited the lab for three sessions, each separated by at least 48 h. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the deadlift was measured during the first visit. For Visit 2, participants performed one of two experimental sessions: a deadlift session or a control session. Participants performed a single maximal vertical jump (VJ; counter movement jump without an arm swing), then either performed five repetitions of the deadlift using 85% 1RM (deadlift session) or were told to stand still for ten seconds (control). Following either condition, participants performed single VJ at 15 s, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 min post condition. Peak VJ height and peak ground reaction forces (pGRF) were measured using a force plate. For Visit 3, whatever condition was not administered at Visit 2 was performed. The results showed that VJ height was significantly lower 15 s following deadlifting (36.9 ± 5.1 cm) compared to the control condition (40.1 ± 4.6 cm). In addition, VJ height 15 s after the deadlift was lower than VJ height measured at minutes 2–16 following the deadlift. Performance of five repetitions of deadlifting did not affect pGRF. These results suggest that performing five repetitions of the deadlift exercise at 85% 1RM does not induce a postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect, and may in fact cause an acute reduction in VJ performance. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry
Sports 2016, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4020021 - 23 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
(1) Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2) Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS) was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3) Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4) Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence. Full article
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