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Lubricants, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The gaseous-phase areas in small bore journal bearings under flooded and starved lubrication [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Surface- and Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering in Tribology and Lubricant Detection—A Prospective
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090081 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) are fast, convenient, and non-destructive molecular detection techniques, which provide a practical method for studying interfacial reactions with high resolution and accuracy. Both techniques are able to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the [...] Read more.
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) are fast, convenient, and non-destructive molecular detection techniques, which provide a practical method for studying interfacial reactions with high resolution and accuracy. Both techniques are able to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the chemical properties, conformational changes, order state, and molecular orientation of various surfaces. This paper aims at summarizing the research efforts in the field of SERS and TERS related to tribological systems with a special emphasis on thin film and nanoparticles. This overview starts with a brief introduction for both techniques. Afterwards, it summarizes pros and cons of both techniques related to the advanced characterization of tribologically induced reactions layers. Moreover, the feasibility of both techniques to evaluate the friction and wear performance of new lubricant additives including solid lubricants is discussed. At the end of this review article, the main challenges and future directions in this field are prospected to emphasize the development direction of SERS and TERS in tribology and lubricants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Scale Simulation Approach to Investigate Local Contact Temperatures for Commercial Cu-Full and Cu-Free Brake Pads
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090080 - 04 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Copper from vehicles disc brakes is one main contributor of the total copper found in the environment. Therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the automotive industries started the Copper-Free Brake Initiative. The pad friction material is essentially composed of a binder, [...] Read more.
Copper from vehicles disc brakes is one main contributor of the total copper found in the environment. Therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the automotive industries started the Copper-Free Brake Initiative. The pad friction material is essentially composed of a binder, fillers, reinforcing fibres and frictional additives. Copper and brass fibres are the most commonly used fibres in brake pads. There is a need to understand how the contact temperature distribution will change if copper-based fibres are changed to steel fibres. The aim of this work is, therefore, to investigate how this change could influence the local contact temperatures. This is done by developing a multi-scale simulation approach which combines cellular automaton, finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches with outputs from inertia brake dyno bench tests of Cu-full and Cu-free pads. FEA and thermal-CFD are used to set the pressure and the temperature boundary conditions of the cellular automaton. The outputs of dyno tests are used to calibrate FEA and CFD simulations. The results of the study show lower peaks in contact temperature and a more uniform temperature distribution for the Cu-free pad friction material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Contact Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Role of a ZDDP in the Tribological Performance of Femtosecond Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Titanium Alloy against Different Counterbody Materials
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090079 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) with ~500–700 nm period were produced on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon scan processing in air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. The tribological performance of the surfaces were qualified in linear reciprocating sliding tribological tests against balls [...] Read more.
Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) with ~500–700 nm period were produced on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon scan processing in air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. The tribological performance of the surfaces were qualified in linear reciprocating sliding tribological tests against balls made of different materials using different oil-based lubricants. The corresponding wear tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and confocal profilometry. Extending our previous work, we studied the admixture of the additive 2-ethylhexyl-zinc-dithiophosphate to a base oil containing only anti-oxidants and temperature stabilizers. The presence of this additive along with the variation of the chemical composition of the counterbodies allows us to explore the synergy of the additive with the laser-oxidized nanostructures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Transient Response of Turbochargers and Turbines Using Database Method for the Nonlinear Forces of Journal Bearings
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090078 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The paper extents the fluid film bearing database method to arbitrary fixed bearing profiles including floating ring bearings. The method is applied to evaluate rotordynamic response of an automotive turbocharger, modeled as rigid rotor, and of a turbine-generator shaft train for power generation [...] Read more.
The paper extents the fluid film bearing database method to arbitrary fixed bearing profiles including floating ring bearings. The method is applied to evaluate rotordynamic response of an automotive turbocharger, modeled as rigid rotor, and of a turbine-generator shaft train for power generation modeled as flexible rotor through the transient transfer matrix method. The methodology claims to render drastically faster evaluation of transient response of rotating systems with nonlinear bearings regardless the complexity of the bearing models implemented. The computational time of transient response is similar to this when short bearing expressions are used. Turbocharger rotordynamic simulation considers the use of nonlinear bearing models as mandatory, and several case studies have to be performed for the definition of key design parameters of floating ring bearings. The bearing database method offers the tool for a severe total time reduction in rotordynamic calculations, with the possibility to implement advanced thermohydrodynamic bearing models to the rotordynamic algorithm as fast as short bearing approximation formulas. Furthermore, the rotordynamic design of large turbine shaft trains is still based on linear harmonic analysis which leads to conservative designs. The database method aims to include the transient response of nonlinear rotor models as a standard procedure in the rotordynamic design of large shaft trains, which nowadays is avoided due to high time cost and complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Film Lubrication II)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Transitions in Regimes of Lubrication for Rough Surface Contact
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090077 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Accurately predicting frictional performance of lubrication systems requires mathematical predictive tools with reliable lubricant shear-related input parameters, which might not be easily accessible. Therefore, the study proposes a semi-empirical framework to predict accurately the friction performance of lubricant systems operating across a wide [...] Read more.
Accurately predicting frictional performance of lubrication systems requires mathematical predictive tools with reliable lubricant shear-related input parameters, which might not be easily accessible. Therefore, the study proposes a semi-empirical framework to predict accurately the friction performance of lubricant systems operating across a wide range of lubricant regimes. The semi-analytical framework integrates laboratory-scale experimental measurements from a pin-on-disk tribometer with a unified numerical iterative scheme. The numerical scheme couples the effect of hydrodynamic pressure generated from the lubricant and interacting asperity pressure, essential along the mixed lubrication regime. The lubricant viscosity-pressure coefficient is determined using a free-volume approach, requiring only the lubricant viscosity-temperature relation as the input. The simulated rough surface contact shows transition in lubricant regimes, from the boundary to the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime with increasing sliding velocity. Through correlation with pin-on-disk frictional measurements, the slope of the limiting shear stress-pressure relation γ and the pressure coefficient of boundary shear strength m for the studied engine lubricants are determined. Thus, the proposed approach presents an effective and robust semi-empirical framework to determine shear properties of fully-formulated engine lubricants. These parameters are essential for application in mathematical tools to predict more accurately the frictional performance of lubrication systems operating across a wide range of lubrication regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Powertrain Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Rheological and Tribological Behaviors of Coconut Oil Modified with Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090076 - 31 Aug 2019
Viewed by 363
Abstract
In metal-forming processes, the use of lubricants for providing desirable tribological conditions at the tool–workpiece interface is critical to increase the material formability and prolonging tool life. Nowadays, the depletion of crude oil reserves in the world and the global concern in protecting [...] Read more.
In metal-forming processes, the use of lubricants for providing desirable tribological conditions at the tool–workpiece interface is critical to increase the material formability and prolonging tool life. Nowadays, the depletion of crude oil reserves in the world and the global concern in protecting the environment from contamination have renewed interest in developing environmentally-friendly lubricants derived from alternative sources such as vegetable oils. In the present study, the rheological and tribological behavior of coconut oil modified with nanoparticle additives was experimentally evaluated. Two different nanoparticle additives were investigated: Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and copper oxide (CuO). For the two conditions, nanoparticles were dispersed at different concentrations within the coconut oil. The effects of concentration and shear rate on the viscosity were evaluated and the experimental data was compared with conventional models. A custom-made tribotester was used to evaluate the effect of concentration on the tribological performance of the nano-lubricants. The experimental results showed that wear volume loss was lowered by 37% and 33% using SiO2 and CuO nanoparticles, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of SiO2 and CuO nanoparticles decreased the coefficient of friction (COF) by 93.75% and 93.25%, respectively, as compared to coconut oil without nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Friction and Tribo-Chemical Behavior of SPD-Processed CNT-Reinforced Composites
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090075 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Nickel (Ni) and carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced Ni-matrix composites were manufactured by solid state processing and severely deformed by high-pressure torsion (HPT). Micro-tribological testing was performed by reciprocating sliding and the frictional behavior was investigated. Tribo-chemical and microstructural changes were investigated using energy dispersive [...] Read more.
Nickel (Ni) and carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced Ni-matrix composites were manufactured by solid state processing and severely deformed by high-pressure torsion (HPT). Micro-tribological testing was performed by reciprocating sliding and the frictional behavior was investigated. Tribo-chemical and microstructural changes were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB). The CNT lubricity was hindered due to the continuous formation of a stable oxide layer promoted by a large grain boundary area and by irreversible damage introduced to the reinforcement during HPT, which controlled the frictional behavior of the studied samples. The presence of CNT reduced, to some extent, the tribo-oxidation activity on the contact zone and reduced the wear by significant hardening and stabilization of the microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reproducibility of Gaseous Phase Area on Journal Bearing Utilizing Multi-Phase Flow CFD Analysis under Flooded and Starved Lubrication Conditions
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090074 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 343
Abstract
It is important to predict the gaseous phase area of journal bearing. However, a detailed calculation method for such gaseous phase areas has not yet been proposed. In this study, the gaseous-phase areas in small bore journal bearings under flooded and starved lubrication [...] Read more.
It is important to predict the gaseous phase area of journal bearing. However, a detailed calculation method for such gaseous phase areas has not yet been proposed. In this study, the gaseous-phase areas in small bore journal bearings under flooded and starved lubrication conditions are analyzed in terms of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of two-phase flow while using a volume of fluid (VOF) method. Furthermore, the influence of surface tension and vapor pressure conditions were investigated, and the analytical and experimental results were compared. The analytical results of VOF for vapor pressure and surface tension were observed to be consistent with the experimental observations under both flooded and starved lubrication conditions. Furthermore, under starved lubrication condition, the analytical results agree well with the observed results for the interface of the oil film and cavitation upon the rupture of the oil film. While using these results, CFD analysis of the two-phase flow of the VOF can be conducted in terms of vapor pressure and surface tension to estimate the gaseous-phase areas of journal bearings under flooded and starved lubrication conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Film Lubrication II)
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Open AccessArticle
Fretting Behavior of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090073 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Fretting tests were conducted with five different thermoplastic polyurethanes against a steel ball. Their fretting behaviors were investigated under various test parameters, such as normal load and displacement amplitude. In order to test the sliding performances, tribological tests were conducted using a ring-on-disc [...] Read more.
Fretting tests were conducted with five different thermoplastic polyurethanes against a steel ball. Their fretting behaviors were investigated under various test parameters, such as normal load and displacement amplitude. In order to test the sliding performances, tribological tests were conducted using a ring-on-disc setup. The results show that their fretting behaviors can be related to the dynamic mechanical properties, which were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The three fretting regimes were identified by means of hysteresis and wear scar analysis. In addition, investigations were carried out until the transition regimes occurred. Different wear processes were revealed for each of the three regimes. Differences were identified using dissipated energy. The profiles of wear scars and the counterparts were analyzed using a microscope. The coefficient of friction was calculated separately for the partial slip and gross slip regimes. In the mixed fretting regime, the coefficient of friction is almost at the same level among the five materials. In the partial slip regime, however, it can be distinguished. Temperature measurements were conducted on the counterparts during the tests. Overall, the material that showed the best tribological properties also performed the best in the fretting tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Viscoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Ionic Liquid Crystals in Tribology
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090072 - 21 Aug 2019
Viewed by 352
Abstract
The present work intends to provide a brief account of the most recent advances in the use of ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) in the field of tribology, that is, the development of new lubricants with the ability to reduce the coefficients of friction [...] Read more.
The present work intends to provide a brief account of the most recent advances in the use of ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) in the field of tribology, that is, the development of new lubricants with the ability to reduce the coefficients of friction and the wear rates of materials under sliding conditions. After a definition of ILCs and their relationship with neutral liquid crystals (LCs) and ionic liquids (ILs), the review will be focused on the influence of molecular structure and composition on the tribological performance, the combination with base oils, surfactants or water, and the different sliding configuration and potential applications. The main mechanisms proposed in order to justify the lubricating ability of ILCs will be analyzed. Special emphasis will be made for recent results obtained for fatty acid derivatives due to their renewable and environmentally friendly nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystalline and Ionic Liquid Crystalline Lubricants)
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