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Open AccessArticle

A Multi-Scale Simulation Approach to Investigate Local Contact Temperatures for Commercial Cu-Full and Cu-Free Brake Pads

Brembo S.p.A., Advanced R&D Department, 24040 Stezzano (BG), Italy
Department of Machine Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 80;
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Contact Dynamics)
Copper from vehicles disc brakes is one main contributor of the total copper found in the environment. Therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the automotive industries started the Copper-Free Brake Initiative. The pad friction material is essentially composed of a binder, fillers, reinforcing fibres and frictional additives. Copper and brass fibres are the most commonly used fibres in brake pads. There is a need to understand how the contact temperature distribution will change if copper-based fibres are changed to steel fibres. The aim of this work is, therefore, to investigate how this change could influence the local contact temperatures. This is done by developing a multi-scale simulation approach which combines cellular automaton, finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches with outputs from inertia brake dyno bench tests of Cu-full and Cu-free pads. FEA and thermal-CFD are used to set the pressure and the temperature boundary conditions of the cellular automaton. The outputs of dyno tests are used to calibrate FEA and CFD simulations. The results of the study show lower peaks in contact temperature and a more uniform temperature distribution for the Cu-free pad friction material. View Full-Text
Keywords: disc brakes; non-exhaust; simulation; wear; contact temperature disc brakes; non-exhaust; simulation; wear; contact temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Riva, G.; Perricone, G.; Wahlström, J. A Multi-Scale Simulation Approach to Investigate Local Contact Temperatures for Commercial Cu-Full and Cu-Free Brake Pads. Lubricants 2019, 7, 80.

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