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Lubricants, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Superlubricity is a highly sought-after state of vanishing friction, which has only been identified [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological and Thermal Transport Performance of SiO2-Based Natural Lubricants
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080071 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Fluids and lubricants are critical for the mechanical manufacturing processing of metals, due to a high amount of friction generated, also reflected as heat, could wear and damage tooling and machine components. The proper application of lubricants increases machinery lifetime, decreases long-term costs, [...] Read more.
Fluids and lubricants are critical for the mechanical manufacturing processing of metals, due to a high amount of friction generated, also reflected as heat, could wear and damage tooling and machine components. The proper application of lubricants increases machinery lifetime, decreases long-term costs, and energy and time consumption due to the maintenance or components exchange/repairs. Besides being non-renewable, mineral oils bring consequences to the environment due to their low biodegradability and could affect the user with respiratory and skin diseases. Recently, due to an increase in environmental awareness, the search of biocompatible and efficient lubricants has become a technology goal. The vegetable oil-based lubricants are slowly emerging as ecofriendly and high-performance alternatives to petroleum-based lubricants. This study evaluates soybean, sunflower, corn and paraffinic oils reinforced with SiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal and tribological evaluations were performed varying the temperature and nanofiller concentrations. The thermal conductivity improvements were observed for all nanolubricants as the temperature and filler fraction increased. The highest thermal conductivities were observed at 323 K with 0.25 wt % SiO2. The soybean and corn oils unveiled a maximum enhancement of ~11%. The tribological evaluations showed that SiO2 addition, even in small concentration, resulted into a significant improvement on a load-carrying capacity. For instance, at 0.25 wt % enhancements of 45% and 60% were observed for soybean and sunflower oils, respectively. The coefficient of friction performance also showed enhancements between 10% and 26%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabricating Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Medical Grade Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum: Tribological, Wetting and Leaching Properties
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080070 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Hip-implants structured with anti-bacterial textures should show a low-friction coefficient and should not leach hazardous substances into the human body. The surface of a typical material used for hip-implants, namely Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum (CoCrMo) was textured with different types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)—i.e., [...] Read more.
Hip-implants structured with anti-bacterial textures should show a low-friction coefficient and should not leach hazardous substances into the human body. The surface of a typical material used for hip-implants, namely Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum (CoCrMo) was textured with different types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)—i.e., low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL), hierarchical structures consisting of grooves superimposed with high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and Triangular shaped Nanopillars (TNP)—using a picosecond pulsed laser source. The effect of LIPSS on the wettability, friction, as well as wear of the structures, when slid against a polyethylene (PE) counter surface and biocompatibility was analyzed. Surfaces covered with LSFL show superhydrophobicity and grooves with superimposed HSFL, as well as TNP, show hydrophobic behavior. The coefficient of friction (CoF) of LIPSS against a polyethylene (PE) counter surface was found to be higher (ranging from 0.40 to 0.66) than the CoF of (polished) CoCrMo, which was found to equal 0.22. It was found that the samples release cobalt within biocompatible limits. Compared to polished reference surfaces, LIPSS cause higher friction of CoCrMo against PE contact. However, the wear of the PE counter surface only increased significantly for the LSFL textures. For these reasons, it is concluded that LIPSS are not suitable for a heavily loaded metal-on-plastic bearing contact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on Shearing Mechanisms in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Line Contacts
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080069 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 485
Abstract
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the thermal elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) line contact problem has been developed for the purpose of exploring the physical processes that occur inside a thin EHL film subjected to shearing motion. The Navier–Stokes equations are solved by [...] Read more.
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the thermal elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) line contact problem has been developed for the purpose of exploring the physical processes that occur inside a thin EHL film subjected to shearing motion. The Navier–Stokes equations are solved by using the finite volume method (FVM) in a commercial CFD software, ANSYS Fluent. A set of user-defined functions (UDF) are used for computing viscosity, density, heat source, temperature of moving surfaces and elastic deformation of the top roller according to well-established equations commonly used in the EHL theory. The cavitation problem is solved by taking into account multiphase mixture flow. The model combinations of Houpert and Ree–Eyring and of Tait and Carreau were used for modeling the non-Newtonian behavior of Squalane and the results were compared. Both rheological models suggest the existence of shear-band and plug-flow at high fluid pressure. Due to the differences in viscosity at GPa-level pressure, the chosen model has substantial influence on the computed shear stress and temperature distributions in the high-pressure region. This shows the importance of using correct rheology information in the whole range of pressure, temperature, and shear strain rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Film Lubrication II)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Surface Texturing on the Frictional Behaviour in Starved Lubricated Parallel Sliding Contacts
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080068 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Starvation occurs when the lubricated contact uses up the lubricant supply, and there is not enough lubricant in the contact to support the separation between solid surfaces. On the other hand, the use of textures on surfaces in lubricated contacts can result in [...] Read more.
Starvation occurs when the lubricated contact uses up the lubricant supply, and there is not enough lubricant in the contact to support the separation between solid surfaces. On the other hand, the use of textures on surfaces in lubricated contacts can result in a higher film thickness. In addition, a modification of the surface’s geometrical parameters can benefit the tribological behaviour of the contacts. In this article, for parallel sliding surfaces in starved lubricated conditions, the effect of surface texturing upon the coefficient of friction is investigated. It is shown that surface texturing may improve film formation under the conditions of starvation, and as a result, the frictional behaviour of the parallel sliding contact. Furthermore, the effect of starved lubrication on textured surfaces with different patterns in the presence of a cavitation effect, and its influence on frictional behaviour, is investigated. It is shown that surface texturing can reduce the coefficient of friction, and that under certain conditions, the texturing parameter could have an influence on the frictional behaviour of parallel sliding contacts in the starved lubrication regime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Tribological Characterization of Tailored Laser-Induced Surface 3D Microtextures
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080067 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The aim of the present study was firstly to determine the manufacturing feasibility of a specific surface 3D-microtexturing on steel through an ultra-short pulsed laser, and secondly to investigate the tribological properties under 2 different lubrication conditions: oil-lubricated and antifriction coated. The selected [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was firstly to determine the manufacturing feasibility of a specific surface 3D-microtexturing on steel through an ultra-short pulsed laser, and secondly to investigate the tribological properties under 2 different lubrication conditions: oil-lubricated and antifriction coated. The selected 3D-microtexture consisted of 2 different levels of quadratic micropillars having side dimensions of approximately 45 µm, heights of about 35 µm and periods of 80 µm. It was shown that the production of specific 3D-microtextures on steel substrates using an ultra-short pulsed laser was feasible, and that the reproducibility of the texture dimensions over the entire textured region was extremely good. Frictional investigations have shown that, in comparison to the benchmark (untextured samples), the 3D-microtextured samples do not induce any significant improvements in the coefficient of friction (COF) under oil-lubricated conditions, but that under antifriction coated conditions, significant improvements in the friction coefficients may be achieved. Wear-based tribological tests have shown that the antifriction coating on benchmark samples was completely depleted, which greatly influenced their friction and wear behavior, since steel-steel contact occurred during testing. For the 3D-microtexture, the antifriction coating was also partially depleted; however, it accumulated itself in the microtexture which acted as a potential lubricant reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Friction vs. Area Scaling of Superlubric NaCl-Particles on Graphite
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080066 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Structural lubricity is an intriguing tribological concept, where extremely low friction is anticipated, if two surfaces in relative motion do not share the same lattice structure and consequently instabilities originating from interlocking surface potentials are strongly reduced. Currently, the challenges related to the [...] Read more.
Structural lubricity is an intriguing tribological concept, where extremely low friction is anticipated, if two surfaces in relative motion do not share the same lattice structure and consequently instabilities originating from interlocking surface potentials are strongly reduced. Currently, the challenges related to the phenomenon of structural lubricity are considered to be twofold. On one hand, experimental systems suitable for showing structural lubricity must be identified, while at the same time, it is also crucial to understand the intricate details of interface interaction. Here, we introduce a new material combination, namely NaCl-particles on highly oriented pyrolithic graphite (HOPG), where the nanoparticles coalesce under the influence of ambient humidity. Our experiments reveal that the interfacial friction can be described by the concept of structural lubricity despite the seemingly unavoidable contamination of the interface. By systematically analyzing the friction versus area scaling, this unlikely candidate for structural lubricity then shows two separate friction branches, with distinct differences of the friction versus area scaling. The exact tribological behavior of the nanoparticles can ultimately be understood by a model that considers the influence of nanoparticle preparation on the interface conditions. By taking into account an inevitable water layer at the interface between particle and substrate that can exist in different crystalline configurations all friction phenomena observed in the experiments can be understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview on the Tribological Performance of Titanium Alloys with Surface Modifications for Biomedical Applications
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080065 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The need for metallic biomaterials will always remain high with their growing demand in joint replacement in the aging population. This creates need for the market and researchers to focus on the development and advancement of the biometals. Desirable characteristics such as excellent [...] Read more.
The need for metallic biomaterials will always remain high with their growing demand in joint replacement in the aging population. This creates need for the market and researchers to focus on the development and advancement of the biometals. Desirable characteristics such as excellent biocompatibility, high strength, comparable elastic modulus with bones, good corrosion resistance, and high wear resistance are the significant issues to address for medical implants, particularly load-bearing orthopedic implants. The widespread use of titanium alloys in biomedical implants create a big demand to identify and assess the behavior and performance of these alloys when used in the human body. Being the most commonly used metal alloy in the fabrication of medical implants, mainly because of its good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance together with its high strength to weight ratio, the tribological behavior of these alloys have always been an important subject for study. Titanium alloys with improved wear resistance will of course enhance the longevity of implants in the body. In this paper, tribological performance of titanium alloys (medical grades) is reviewed. Various methods of surface modifications employed for titanium alloys are also discussed in the context of wear behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotribology in Human Body)
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Open AccessArticle
Reconstruction of Governing Equations from Vibration Measurements for Geometrically Nonlinear Systems
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080064 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Data-driven system identification procedures have recently enabled the reconstruction of governing differential equations from vibration signal recordings. In this contribution, the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics is applied to structural dynamics of a geometrically nonlinear system. First, the methodology is validated against the [...] Read more.
Data-driven system identification procedures have recently enabled the reconstruction of governing differential equations from vibration signal recordings. In this contribution, the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics is applied to structural dynamics of a geometrically nonlinear system. First, the methodology is validated against the forced Duffing oscillator to evaluate its robustness against noise and limited data. Then, differential equations governing the dynamics of two weakly coupled cantilever beams with base excitation are reconstructed from experimental data. Results indicate the appealing abilities of data-driven system identification: underlying equations are successfully reconstructed and (non-)linear dynamic terms are identified for two experimental setups which are comprised of a quasi-linear system and a system with impacts to replicate a piecewise hardening behavior, as commonly observed in contacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Contact Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of the Tribological Characteristics of AISI 8620, 8640 and 52100 Steels through Thermo-Reactive Treatments
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080063 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The production of vanadium and niobium carbides (VC and NbC) layers on AISI 8620, 8640, and 52100 steels may increase hardness and wear resistance of substrates. Thermochemical treatments were performed at 1000 °C for 2 and 4 h. The characterization of the treated [...] Read more.
The production of vanadium and niobium carbides (VC and NbC) layers on AISI 8620, 8640, and 52100 steels may increase hardness and wear resistance of substrates. Thermochemical treatments were performed at 1000 °C for 2 and 4 h. The characterization of the treated samples was carried out by means of Knoop microhardness tests, “calotest” type microadhesive wear test, layer adhesion test according to VDI 3198 standard, and X-ray diffraction. Compact and uniform layers of VC and NbC were obtained in all treatments, with hardness up to 2500 HK and microadhesive wear resistance far superior to that of the substrates, indicating the great efficiency of these treatments for tribological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Tribo-Systems and Future Development Trends)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Solid Lubricity of Electrophoretically Deposited Carbon Nanohorn Coatings
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080062 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 435
Abstract
In this study, dahlia-type carbon nanohorns (CNH) have been deposited onto a stainless steel substrate by using electrophoretic deposition. Secondly, the lubrication properties of the carbon nanohorn coating have been researched by tribometry and compared to an uncoated reference. Wear track analysis has [...] Read more.
In this study, dahlia-type carbon nanohorns (CNH) have been deposited onto a stainless steel substrate by using electrophoretic deposition. Secondly, the lubrication properties of the carbon nanohorn coating have been researched by tribometry and compared to an uncoated reference. Wear track analysis has been conducted to identify the underlying tribo-mechanisms. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the structural changes of the CNH during dispersion and tribological testing. Furthermore, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used in order to investigate the chemical composition of the wear tracks’ surface. This work has shown that CNH coatings have the ability to maintain effective solid lubrication on a polished stainless steel surface. A temporary friction reduction of 83% was achieved compared to the uncoated reference. Moreover, the lubricity was active for significant periods of time due to the formation of a Mg(OH)2 layer which provides a certain degree of substrate adhesion as it holds the CNH in the wear track. Once this holding layer wanes, the CNH are gradually removed from wear track resulting in an increase of the coefficient of friction. The complete removal of CNH from the wear track as well as considerable oxide formation was confirmed by EDX. Moreover, the amount of defects in the CNHs’ structure increases by being exposed to tribological strain. Adhesion has been identified as the dominant wear mechanism. Full article
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