The present work intends to provide a brief account of the most recent advances in the use of ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) in the field of tribology, that is, the development of new lubricants with the ability to reduce the coefficients of friction and the wear rates of materials under sliding conditions. After a definition of ILCs and their relationship with neutral liquid crystals (LCs) and ionic liquids (ILs), the review will be focused on the influence of molecular structure and composition on the tribological performance, the combination with base oils, surfactants or water, and the different sliding configuration and potential applications. The main mechanisms proposed in order to justify the lubricating ability of ILCs will be analyzed. Special emphasis will be made for recent results obtained for fatty acid derivatives due to their renewable and environmentally friendly nature.
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