Special Issue "Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nano- and Microstructures for Tribological Applications"

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jörn Bonse
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin, Germany
Interests: laser–matter interaction; femtosecond laser technology; laser ablation; ultrashort laser pulses and applications; micro- and nanostructured surfaces; tribology, biomimetics, time-resolved diagnostics; laser processes in photovoltaics; laser safety
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Dirk Spaltmann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin, Germany
Interests: tribological performance and wear resistance of (dlc-) coatings; slip-rolling; reciprocating sliding, lubrication; extreme pressure; high-frequency reciprocating tribo-tests; tribological properties of laser textured surfaces; particle erosion simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Laser material processing is an emerging technology that generates surface functionalities on the basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. In the form of laser surface texturing (LST), it has attracted a remarkable amount of research to tailor surface properties towards various tribological applications. The main advantages of this single-step, laser-based technology are the contactless machining, featuring a high flexibility, efficiency, and speed, along with the excellent quality of the processed products. LST can be applied precisely localized to sub-micrometric areas, but, via laser beam scanning, it is also feasible for structuring large surface areas at the square meter size.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest developments concerning the tribological performance of laser-generated periodic surface nano- and microstructures and their applications. This includes the laser-based processing of different surface patterns, such as “self-organized” laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples), grooves, micro-spikes, hierarchical hybrid nano-/micro-structures, microfeatures generated by direct laser interference patterning (DLIP), or even dimples or other topographic geometries shaped by direct laser modification or ablation. The applications of these periodically nano- and micro-patterned surfaces may improve the lubricated or non-lubricated tribological performance of surfaces in conformal and even non-conformal contact through a reduction of wear, a variation of the coefficient of friction, altered load carrying capacity, etc., resulting in energy saving, improved reliability, increased lifetimes as well as durability, leading in turn to extended maintenance intervals/reduced down-time. This can be beneficial in terms of bearings, gears, engines, seals, cutting tools, or other tribological components. Fundamental aspects addressed may involve the investigation of the relevant physical and chemical effects accompanying the laser-generated nano- and microscale topographies, such as alterations of the material structures, the hardness, superficial oxidation, the role of additives contained in lubricants, surface wettability, micro-hydrodynamic effects, etc.

For this Special Issue we aim to attract both academic and industrial researchers and would like to provide a bridge between research in the fields of tribology and laser material processing in order to foster the current knowledge and present new ideas for future applications and new technologies.

Dr. Jörn Bonse
Dr. Dirk Spaltmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additives
  • Application
  • Laser ablation
  • Laser materials processing
  • Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)
  • Direct laser interference patterning (DLIP)
  • Periodic
  • Nanostructures
  • Microstructures
  • Dimples
  • Friction
  • Wear
  • Tribology
  • Laser surface texturing (LST)
  • Lubricants
  • Oxidation
  • Hardness
  • Wettability

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of High-Speed Uniform Femtosecond Laser Patterning on Stainless Steel
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100083 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this work, an analysis of the tribological performance of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) treated X5CrNi1810 stainless steel was conducted. The approach followed by authors was to generate LIPSS-patterned circular tracks, composed of radial straight grooves with uniform angular periodicity. This permitted [...] Read more.
In this work, an analysis of the tribological performance of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) treated X5CrNi1810 stainless steel was conducted. The approach followed by authors was to generate LIPSS-patterned circular tracks, composed of radial straight grooves with uniform angular periodicity. This permitted to measure the tribological properties in a pin-on-flat configuration, keeping fixed the orientation between the grooves and the sliding direction. A Stribeck curve was measured, as well as the consequent wear. A deep analysis of the sub-surface conditions after LIPSS generation was moreover performed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) cross-section. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Role of a ZDDP in the Tribological Performance of Femtosecond Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Titanium Alloy against Different Counterbody Materials
Lubricants 2019, 7(9), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7090079 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) with ~500–700 nm period were produced on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon scan processing in air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. The tribological performance of the surfaces were qualified in linear reciprocating sliding tribological tests against balls [...] Read more.
Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) with ~500–700 nm period were produced on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon scan processing in air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser. The tribological performance of the surfaces were qualified in linear reciprocating sliding tribological tests against balls made of different materials using different oil-based lubricants. The corresponding wear tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and confocal profilometry. Extending our previous work, we studied the admixture of the additive 2-ethylhexyl-zinc-dithiophosphate to a base oil containing only anti-oxidants and temperature stabilizers. The presence of this additive along with the variation of the chemical composition of the counterbodies allows us to explore the synergy of the additive with the laser-oxidized nanostructures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabricating Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures on Medical Grade Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum: Tribological, Wetting and Leaching Properties
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080070 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
Hip-implants structured with anti-bacterial textures should show a low-friction coefficient and should not leach hazardous substances into the human body. The surface of a typical material used for hip-implants, namely Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum (CoCrMo) was textured with different types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)—i.e., [...] Read more.
Hip-implants structured with anti-bacterial textures should show a low-friction coefficient and should not leach hazardous substances into the human body. The surface of a typical material used for hip-implants, namely Cobalt–Chrome–Molybdenum (CoCrMo) was textured with different types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)—i.e., low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL), hierarchical structures consisting of grooves superimposed with high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and Triangular shaped Nanopillars (TNP)—using a picosecond pulsed laser source. The effect of LIPSS on the wettability, friction, as well as wear of the structures, when slid against a polyethylene (PE) counter surface and biocompatibility was analyzed. Surfaces covered with LSFL show superhydrophobicity and grooves with superimposed HSFL, as well as TNP, show hydrophobic behavior. The coefficient of friction (CoF) of LIPSS against a polyethylene (PE) counter surface was found to be higher (ranging from 0.40 to 0.66) than the CoF of (polished) CoCrMo, which was found to equal 0.22. It was found that the samples release cobalt within biocompatible limits. Compared to polished reference surfaces, LIPSS cause higher friction of CoCrMo against PE contact. However, the wear of the PE counter surface only increased significantly for the LSFL textures. For these reasons, it is concluded that LIPSS are not suitable for a heavily loaded metal-on-plastic bearing contact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Surface Texturing on the Frictional Behaviour in Starved Lubricated Parallel Sliding Contacts
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080068 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
Starvation occurs when the lubricated contact uses up the lubricant supply, and there is not enough lubricant in the contact to support the separation between solid surfaces. On the other hand, the use of textures on surfaces in lubricated contacts can result in [...] Read more.
Starvation occurs when the lubricated contact uses up the lubricant supply, and there is not enough lubricant in the contact to support the separation between solid surfaces. On the other hand, the use of textures on surfaces in lubricated contacts can result in a higher film thickness. In addition, a modification of the surface’s geometrical parameters can benefit the tribological behaviour of the contacts. In this article, for parallel sliding surfaces in starved lubricated conditions, the effect of surface texturing upon the coefficient of friction is investigated. It is shown that surface texturing may improve film formation under the conditions of starvation, and as a result, the frictional behaviour of the parallel sliding contact. Furthermore, the effect of starved lubrication on textured surfaces with different patterns in the presence of a cavitation effect, and its influence on frictional behaviour, is investigated. It is shown that surface texturing can reduce the coefficient of friction, and that under certain conditions, the texturing parameter could have an influence on the frictional behaviour of parallel sliding contacts in the starved lubrication regime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Tribological Characterization of Tailored Laser-Induced Surface 3D Microtextures
Lubricants 2019, 7(8), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7080067 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
The aim of the present study was firstly to determine the manufacturing feasibility of a specific surface 3D-microtexturing on steel through an ultra-short pulsed laser, and secondly to investigate the tribological properties under 2 different lubrication conditions: oil-lubricated and antifriction coated. The selected [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was firstly to determine the manufacturing feasibility of a specific surface 3D-microtexturing on steel through an ultra-short pulsed laser, and secondly to investigate the tribological properties under 2 different lubrication conditions: oil-lubricated and antifriction coated. The selected 3D-microtexture consisted of 2 different levels of quadratic micropillars having side dimensions of approximately 45 µm, heights of about 35 µm and periods of 80 µm. It was shown that the production of specific 3D-microtextures on steel substrates using an ultra-short pulsed laser was feasible, and that the reproducibility of the texture dimensions over the entire textured region was extremely good. Frictional investigations have shown that, in comparison to the benchmark (untextured samples), the 3D-microtextured samples do not induce any significant improvements in the coefficient of friction (COF) under oil-lubricated conditions, but that under antifriction coated conditions, significant improvements in the friction coefficients may be achieved. Wear-based tribological tests have shown that the antifriction coating on benchmark samples was completely depleted, which greatly influenced their friction and wear behavior, since steel-steel contact occurred during testing. For the 3D-microtexture, the antifriction coating was also partially depleted; however, it accumulated itself in the microtexture which acted as a potential lubricant reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Avoiding Starvation in Tribocontact Through Active Lubricant Transport in Laser Textured Surfaces
Lubricants 2019, 7(6), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7060054 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
Laser texturing is a viable tool to enhance the tribological performance of surfaces. Especially textures created with Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) show outstanding improvement in terms of reduction of coefficient of friction (COF) as well as the extension of oil film lifetime. [...] Read more.
Laser texturing is a viable tool to enhance the tribological performance of surfaces. Especially textures created with Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) show outstanding improvement in terms of reduction of coefficient of friction (COF) as well as the extension of oil film lifetime. However, since DLIP textures have a limited depth, they can be quickly damaged, especially within the tribocontact area, where wear occurs. This study aims at elucidating the fluid dynamical behavior of the lubricant in the surroundings of the tribocontact where channel-like surface textures are left after the abrasion wear inside the tribocontact area. In a first step, numerical investigations of lubricant wetting phenomena are performed applying OpenFOAM®. The results show that narrow channels (width of 10 μ m ) allow higher spreading than wide channels (width of 30 μ m ). In a second step, fluid transport inside DLIP textures is investigated experimentally. The results show an anisotropic spreading with the spreading velocity dependent on the period and depth of the laser textures. A mechanism is introduced for how lubricant can be transported out of the channels into the tribocontact. The main conclusion of this study is that active lubricant transport in laser textured surfaces can avoid starvation in the tribocontact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Possibilities of Dry and Lubricated Friction Modification Enabled by Different Ultrashort Laser-Based Surface Structuring Methods
Lubricants 2019, 7(5), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7050043 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this contribution we report on the possibilities of dry and lubricated friction modification introduced by different laser surface texturing methods. We compare the potential of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures and Laser Beam Interference Ablation on 100Cr6 steel in a linear reciprocating ball-on-disc [...] Read more.
In this contribution we report on the possibilities of dry and lubricated friction modification introduced by different laser surface texturing methods. We compare the potential of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures and Laser Beam Interference Ablation on 100Cr6 steel in a linear reciprocating ball-on-disc configuration using 100Cr6 steel and tungsten carbide balls with load forces between 50 mN and 1000 mN. For dry friction, we find a possibility to reduce the coefficient of friction and we observe a pronounced direction dependency for surfaces fabricated by Laser Beam Interference Ablation. Furthermore, Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures result in a load-dependent friction reduction for lubricated linear reciprocating movements. This work helps to identify the modification behaviour of laser generated micro structures with feature sizes of approximately 1 µm and reveals new possibilities for surface engineering. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Multi-Scale Surface Texturing in Tribology—Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Lubricants 2019, 7(11), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7110095 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
Surface texturing has been frequently used for tribological purposes in the last three decades due to its great potential to reduce friction and wear. Although biological systems advocate the use of hierarchical, multi-scale surface textures, most of the published experimental and numerical works [...] Read more.
Surface texturing has been frequently used for tribological purposes in the last three decades due to its great potential to reduce friction and wear. Although biological systems advocate the use of hierarchical, multi-scale surface textures, most of the published experimental and numerical works have mainly addressed effects induced by single-scale surface textures. Therefore, it can be assumed that the potential of multi-scale surface texturing to further optimize friction and wear is underexplored. The aim of this review article is to shed some light on the current knowledge in the field of multi-scale surface textures applied to tribological systems from an experimental and numerical point of view. Initially, fabrication techniques with their respective advantages and disadvantages regarding the ability to create multi-scale surface textures are summarized. Afterwards, the existing state-of-the-art regarding experimental work performed to explore the potential, as well as the underlying effects of multi-scale textures under dry and lubricated conditions, is presented. Subsequently, numerical approaches to predict the behavior of multi-scale surface texturing under lubricated conditions are elucidated. Finally, the existing knowledge and hypotheses about the underlying driven mechanisms responsible for the improved tribological performance of multi-scale textures are summarized, and future trends in this research direction are emphasized. Full article
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