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Lubricants, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Polymer brushes, assemblies of macromolecules end-grafted to a surface, show outstanding [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Cooled Pads for Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100092 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Tilting-pad journal bearings (TPJBs) are widely installed in rotating machines owing to their high stability, but some drawbacks can be noted, such as higher cost with respect to cylindrical journal bearings and thermal issues. High temperatures in the pads correspond to low oil-film [...] Read more.
Tilting-pad journal bearings (TPJBs) are widely installed in rotating machines owing to their high stability, but some drawbacks can be noted, such as higher cost with respect to cylindrical journal bearings and thermal issues. High temperatures in the pads correspond to low oil-film thicknesses and large thermal deformations in the pads. Therefore, the restriction of the maximum temperature of the bearing is a key aspect for oil-film bearings. The temperature reduction is generally obtained by adopting higher oil inlet flowrates or suitable oil nozzles. In this paper, the idea of using cooled pads with internal channels in which an external cooling fluid is circulated will be applied to a TPJB for the first time. The three-dimensional TEHD model of the TPJB, equipped with a cooled pad, will be introduced, and the results of the numerical simulations will be discussed. Several analyses have been performed in order to investigate the influence of cooling conditions, such as the type, flowrate, inlet temperature and number of cooled pads. Two types of pad geometry with different cross-sections of the cooling circuit, namely, circular and six-square multi-channel sections, have been compared to the reference bearing with solid pads. Simple experimental tests were performed by means of a test rig equipped with a cooled pad bearing obtained with the additive manufacturing process, thus showing the effectiveness of the solution and the agreement with the predictions. Full article
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Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Frictional Systems: The Interplay of Interfacial Friction and Bulk Elasticity
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100091 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Frictional interfaces are abundant in natural and engineering systems, and predicting their behavior still poses challenges of prime scientific and technological importance. At the heart of these challenges lies the inherent coupling between the interfacial constitutive relation—the macroscopic friction law—and the bulk elasticity [...] Read more.
Frictional interfaces are abundant in natural and engineering systems, and predicting their behavior still poses challenges of prime scientific and technological importance. At the heart of these challenges lies the inherent coupling between the interfacial constitutive relation—the macroscopic friction law—and the bulk elasticity of the bodies that form the frictional interface. In this feature paper, we discuss the generic properties of a minimal macroscopic friction law and the many ways in which its coupling to bulk elasticity gives rise to rich spatiotemporal frictional dynamics. We first present the widely used rate-and-state friction constitutive framework, discuss its power and limitations, and propose extensions that are supported by experimental data. We then discuss how bulk elasticity couples different parts of the interface, and how the range and nature of this interaction are affected by the system’s geometry. Finally, in light of the coupling between interfacial and bulk physics, we discuss basic phenomena in spatially extended frictional systems, including the stability of homogeneous sliding, the onset of sliding motion and a wide variety of propagating frictional modes (e.g., rupture fronts, healing fronts and slip pulses). Overall, the results presented and discussed in this feature paper highlight the inseparable roles played by interfacial and bulk physics in spatially extended frictional systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology and Contact Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Contact Mechanics for Solids with Randomly Rough Surfaces and Plasticity
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100090 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 150
Abstract
We present experimental results for the elastic and plastic deformation of sandblasted polymer balls resulting from contacts with flat smooth steel and silica glass surfaces. Nearly symmetric, Gaussian-like height probability distributions were observed experimentally before and remarkably, also after the polymer balls were [...] Read more.
We present experimental results for the elastic and plastic deformation of sandblasted polymer balls resulting from contacts with flat smooth steel and silica glass surfaces. Nearly symmetric, Gaussian-like height probability distributions were observed experimentally before and remarkably, also after the polymer balls were deformed plastically. For all the polymers studied we find that the surface roughness power spectra for large wavenumbers (short length scales) are nearly unchanged after squeezing the polymer balls against flat surfaces. We attribute this to non-uniform plastic flow processes at the micrometer length scale. The experimental data are analyzed using the Persson contact mechanics theory with plasticity and with finite-element method (FEM) calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Fatigue Wear of the Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines during the Break-In Period and Its Impact on Piston Ring Lubrication
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100089 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
In internal combustion engines, a significant portion of the total fuel energy is consumed to overcome the mechanical friction between the cylinder liner and the piston rings. The engine work loss through friction gradually reduces during the engine break-in period, as the result [...] Read more.
In internal combustion engines, a significant portion of the total fuel energy is consumed to overcome the mechanical friction between the cylinder liner and the piston rings. The engine work loss through friction gradually reduces during the engine break-in period, as the result of liner surface topography changes caused by wear. This work is the first step toward the development of a physics-based liner wear model to predict the evolution of liner roughness and ring pack lubrication during the break-in period. Two major mechanisms are involved in the wear model: plastic deformation and asperity fatigue. The two mechanisms are simulated through a set of submodels, including elastoplastic asperity contact, crack initiation, and crack propagation within the contact stress field. Compared to experimental measurements, the calculated friction evolution of different liner surface finishes during break-in exhibits the same trend and a comparable magnitude. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that the liner wear rate or duration of break-in depends greatly on the roughness, which may provide guidance for surface roughness design and manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Powertrain Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Viscosity and Speed on Oil Cavitation Development in a Single Piston-Ring Lubricant Assembly
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100088 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
A high-speed camera has been used to produce unique time-resolved images of high quality to describe the dynamics of the lubricant flow and cavitation characteristics in a sliding optical liner over a fixed single piston-ring lubricant assembly for three lubricants with different viscosities [...] Read more.
A high-speed camera has been used to produce unique time-resolved images of high quality to describe the dynamics of the lubricant flow and cavitation characteristics in a sliding optical liner over a fixed single piston-ring lubricant assembly for three lubricants with different viscosities to establish their impact on cavitation formation and development. The images were obtained at two cranking speeds (or liner sliding velocity) of 300 rpm (0–0.36 m/s) and 600 rpm (0–0.72 m/s), at a lubricant temperature of 70 °C and a supply lubricant rate of 0.05 L/min. A special MATLAB programme has been developed to analyse the cavitation characteristics quantitatively. The dynamic process of cavities initiation was demonstrated by time-resolved images from fern cavity formation to fissure cavities and then their development to the sheet and strings cavities at a liner sliding velocity of around 0.17 m/s. The results for both up- and down-stroke motions showed that the cavities reach their fully developed state downstream of the contact point when the liner velocity reaches its highest velocity and that they start to collapse around TDC and BDC when the liner comes to rest. Within the measured range, viscosity had a great influence on length of cavities so that a decrease in viscosity (from Lubricant A to C) caused a reduction in length of cavities of up to 35% for Lubricant C. On the other hand, an increase in speed, from 300 rpm to 600 rpm, have increased the number of string cavities and also increased the length of cavities due to thicker oil film thickness with the higher speed. Overall, the agreement between the processed data by MATLAB and visualisation measurements were good, but further thresholds refinement is required to improve the accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Powertrain Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Energy and Tribology of Electrodeposited Ni and Ni–Graphene Coatings on Steel
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100087 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Composite electrochemical coatings (CECs) are some of the most widely investigated coatings due to its versatility in tailoring physio-mechanical and tribological properties. The effectiveness of the CECs for tribological applications is dependent on the solid–liquid interfaces. The active and passive nature of the [...] Read more.
Composite electrochemical coatings (CECs) are some of the most widely investigated coatings due to its versatility in tailoring physio-mechanical and tribological properties. The effectiveness of the CECs for tribological applications is dependent on the solid–liquid interfaces. The active and passive nature of the contact boundaries for a CEC with a solid/liquid interface is defined by the surface energy of these boundaries. Unless the effect of surface energy on the tribological properties of the CEC are understood, it is not possible to get a holistic picture on properties, such as corrosion and tribocorrosion. The present study investigates the surface energy of optimized nickel (Ni) and Ni–graphene (Ni–Gr) coatings and their effect on the dynamic friction and wear behavior. It was found that the addition of Gr to the Ni coating in small quantities could decrease the polar component of surface energy significantly than the dispersive component. The presence of Gr in the coating was able to reduce the wear while providing low friction. The Ni–Gr coating exhibited low surface energy that includes weak adhesive forces, which can prevent embedding of the wear particles during sliding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wear and Corrosion Resistant Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Squeeze Flow of Bingham Fluids through Reticulated, Compressed Foams
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100086 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The paper presents experimental and theoretical results for the planar squeeze flow of a finite volume of viscoplastic material through a highly deformable porous layer. The central zone of an annular disc made of a reticulated polyurethane foam with high porosity (ε [...] Read more.
The paper presents experimental and theoretical results for the planar squeeze flow of a finite volume of viscoplastic material through a highly deformable porous layer. The central zone of an annular disc made of a reticulated polyurethane foam with high porosity (ε > 0.97) was fully filled with tooth paste. The porous disc placed between two flat, impermeable, parallel, and rigid discs was subjected to compression and the normal force was recorded. After compression, the radial extension of the squeezed fluid was measured. The visualisation of the compressed disc managed to provide evidence of a tortuous flow inside the porous structure. An original analytical model is proposed for the prediction of the front of the flow inside the porous layer and corresponding resistant normal force. The model combines the Covey and Stanmore (1981) model for squeeze flow of a Bingham fluid inside the central zone, with an original approach for flow through the reticulated foams, based on the concept of “equivalent flow tubes” with variable tortuosity. This explorative investigation is of interest for innovative shock absorbers. The model validity covers both low and high plasticity numbers and was experimentally validated for low speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Film Lubrication II)
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Open AccessArticle
A Discussion on Present Theories of Rubber Friction, with Particular Reference to Different Possible Choices of Arbitrary Roughness Cutoff Parameters
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100085 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Since the early study by Grosch in 1963 it has been known that rubber friction shows generally two maxima with respect to speed—the first one attributed to adhesion, and another at higher velocities attributed to viscoelastic losses. The theory of Klüppel and Heinrich [...] Read more.
Since the early study by Grosch in 1963 it has been known that rubber friction shows generally two maxima with respect to speed—the first one attributed to adhesion, and another at higher velocities attributed to viscoelastic losses. The theory of Klüppel and Heinrich and that of Persson suggests that viscoelastic losses crucially depend on the “multiscale” aspect of roughness and in particular on truncation at fine scales. In this study, we comment a little on both theories, giving some examples using Persson’s theory on the uncertainties involved in the truncation of the roughness spectrum. It is shown how different choices of Persson’s model parameters, for example the high-frequency cutoff, equally fit experimental data on viscoelastic friction, hence it is unclear how to rigorously separate the adhesive and the viscoelastic contributions from experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Viscoelastic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymer Brush Friction in Cylindrical Geometries
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100084 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Polymer brushes are outstanding lubricants that can strongly reduce wear and friction between surfaces in sliding motion. In recent decades, many researchers have put great effort in obtaining a clear understanding of the origin of the lubricating performance of these brushes. In particular, [...] Read more.
Polymer brushes are outstanding lubricants that can strongly reduce wear and friction between surfaces in sliding motion. In recent decades, many researchers have put great effort in obtaining a clear understanding of the origin of the lubricating performance of these brushes. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations have been a key technique in this scientific journey. They have given us a microscopic interpretation of the tribo-mechanical response of brushes and have led to the prediction of their shear-thinning behavior, which has been shown to agree with experimental observations. However, most studies so far have focused on parallel plate geometries, while the brush-covered surfaces might be highly curved in many applications. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations that are set up to study the friction for brushes grafted on the exterior of cylinders that are moving inside larger cylinders that bear brushes on their interior. Our simulations show that the density distributions for brushes on the interior or exterior of these cylinders are qualitatively different from the density profiles of brushes on flat surfaces. In agreement with theoretical predictions, we find that brushes on the exterior of cylinders display a more gradual decay, while brushes on the interior of cylinders becomes denser compared to flat substrates. When motion is imposed, the density profiles for cylinder-grafted brushes adapt qualitatively differently to the shear motion than observed for the parallel plate geometry: the zone where brushes overlap moves away from its equilibrium position. Surprisingly, and despite all these differences, we observe that the effective viscosity is independent of the radius of the brush-grafted cylinders. The reason for this is that the viscosity is determined by the overlap between the brushes, which turns out to be insensitive to the exact density profiles. Our results provide a microscopic interpretation of the friction mechanism for polymer brushes in cylindrical geometries and will aid the design of effective lubricants for these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of High-Speed Uniform Femtosecond Laser Patterning on Stainless Steel
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100083 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 216
Abstract
In this work, an analysis of the tribological performance of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) treated X5CrNi1810 stainless steel was conducted. The approach followed by authors was to generate LIPSS-patterned circular tracks, composed of radial straight grooves with uniform angular periodicity. This permitted [...] Read more.
In this work, an analysis of the tribological performance of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) treated X5CrNi1810 stainless steel was conducted. The approach followed by authors was to generate LIPSS-patterned circular tracks, composed of radial straight grooves with uniform angular periodicity. This permitted to measure the tribological properties in a pin-on-flat configuration, keeping fixed the orientation between the grooves and the sliding direction. A Stribeck curve was measured, as well as the consequent wear. A deep analysis of the sub-surface conditions after LIPSS generation was moreover performed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) cross-section. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Use of Entropy in Modeling the Mechanical Degradation of Grease
Lubricants 2019, 7(10), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants7100082 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Recent theoretical developments linking degradation to the thermodynamic concept of entropy have allowed a new approach to modeling all types of degradation. The theory has been successfully applied to wear, fatigue, and numerous other forms of degradation and experimentation has confirmed its applicability [...] Read more.
Recent theoretical developments linking degradation to the thermodynamic concept of entropy have allowed a new approach to modeling all types of degradation. The theory has been successfully applied to wear, fatigue, and numerous other forms of degradation and experimentation has confirmed its applicability to modeling the mechanical degradation of lubricating grease. This paper overviews the mechanical degradation of grease, discusses past and present modeling techniques, shows how new techniques can be used to predict grease life, and provides suggestions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Lubricating Greases )
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