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Galaxies, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The particle-in-cell (PIC) method was developed to investigate microscopic phenomena, and with the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle CHANG-ES: XVIII—The CHANG-ES Survey and Selected Results
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The CHANG-ES (Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies) survey of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies is revealing new and sometimes unexpected and startling results in their radio continuum emission. The observations were in wide bandwidths centred at 1.6 and 6.0 GHz. Unique to this survey [...] Read more.
The CHANG-ES (Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies) survey of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies is revealing new and sometimes unexpected and startling results in their radio continuum emission. The observations were in wide bandwidths centred at 1.6 and 6.0 GHz. Unique to this survey is full polarization data showing magnetic field structures in unprecedented detail, resolution and sensitivity for such a large sample. A wide range of new results are reported here, some never before seen in any galaxy. We see circular polarization and variability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in-disk discrete features, disk-halo structures sometimes only seen in polarization, and broad-scale halos with reversing magnetic fields, among others. This paper summarizes some of the CHANG-ES results seen thus far. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The VHE γ-Ray View of the FSRQ PKS 1510-089
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
The flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 is a monitored target in many wavelength bands due to its high variability. It was detected as a very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray emitter with H.E.S.S. in 2009, and has since been a regular target of VHE [...] Read more.
The flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 is a monitored target in many wavelength bands due to its high variability. It was detected as a very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray emitter with H.E.S.S. in 2009, and has since been a regular target of VHE observations by the imaging Cherenkov observatories H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. In this paper, we summarize the current state of results focusing on the monitoring effort with H.E.S.S. and the discovery of a particularly strong VHE flare in 2016 with H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. While the source has now been established as a weak, but regular emitter at VHE, no correlation with other energy bands has been established. This is underlined by the 2016 VHE flare, where the detected optical and high-energy γ-ray counterparts evolve differently than the VHE flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessReview Monitoring and Multi-Messenger Astronomy with IceCube
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
IceCube currently is the largest neutrino observatory with an instrumented detection volume of 1 km3 buried in the ice-sheet close to the antarctic South Pole station. With a 4π field of view and an up-time of >99%, it is continuously monitoring [...] Read more.
IceCube currently is the largest neutrino observatory with an instrumented detection volume of 1 km3 buried in the ice-sheet close to the antarctic South Pole station. With a 4 π field of view and an up-time of >99%, it is continuously monitoring the full sky to detect astrophysical neutrinos. With the detection of an astrophysical neutrino flux in 2013, IceCube opened a new observation window to the non-thermal Universe. The IceCube collaboration has a large program to search for astrophysical neutrinos, including measurements of the energy spectrum of the diffuse astrophysical flux, auto- and cross-correlation studies with other multi-messenger particles, and a real-time alert and follow-up system. On 22 September 2017, the IceCube online system sent out an alert reporting a high-energy neutrino event. This alert triggered a series of multi-wavelength follow-up observations that revealed a spatially-coincident blazar TXS 0506+056, which was also in an active flaring state. This correlation was estimated at a 3 σ level. Further observations confirmed the flaring emission in the very-high-energy gamma-ray band. In addition, IceCube found an independent 3.5 σ excess of a time-variable neutrino flux in the direction of TXS 0506+056 two years prior to the alert by examining 9.5 years of archival neutrino data. These are the first multi-messenger observations of an extra-galactic astrophysical source including neutrinos since the observation of the supernova SN1987A. This review summarizes the different detection and analysis channels for astrophysical neutrinos in IceCube, focusing on the multi-messenger program of IceCube and its major scientific results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity with Extra Dimensions
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
We consider a theory of modified gravity possessing d extra spatial dimensions with a maximally symmetric metric and a scale factor, whose (4+d)-dimensional gravitational action contains terms proportional to quadratic curvature scalars. Constructing the 4D effective field theory [...] Read more.
We consider a theory of modified gravity possessing d extra spatial dimensions with a maximally symmetric metric and a scale factor, whose ( 4 + d ) -dimensional gravitational action contains terms proportional to quadratic curvature scalars. Constructing the 4D effective field theory by dimensional reduction, we find that a special case of our action where the additional terms appear in the well-known Gauss-Bonnet combination is of special interest as it uniquely produces a Horndeski scalar-tensor theory in the 4D effective action. We further consider the possibility of achieving stabilised extra dimensions in this scenario, as a function of the number and curvature of extra dimensions, as well as the strength of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. Further questions that remain to be answered such as the influence of matter-coupling are briefly discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What if Newton’s Gravitational Constant Was Negative?
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we seek a cosmological mechanism that may define the sign of the effective gravitational coupling constant, G. To this end, we consider general scalar-tensor gravity theories as they provide the field theory natural framework for the variation of the [...] Read more.
In this work, we seek a cosmological mechanism that may define the sign of the effective gravitational coupling constant, G. To this end, we consider general scalar-tensor gravity theories as they provide the field theory natural framework for the variation of the gravitational coupling. We find that models with a quadratic potential naturally stabilize the value of G into the positive branch of the evolution and further, that de Sitter inflation and a relaxation to General Relativity is easily attained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tracing Primordial Magnetic Fields with 21 cm Line Observations
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic fields are observed on a large range of scales in the universe. Up until recently, the evidence always pointed to magnetic fields associated with some kind of structure, from planets to clusters of galaxies. Blazar observations have been used to posit the [...] Read more.
Magnetic fields are observed on a large range of scales in the universe. Up until recently, the evidence always pointed to magnetic fields associated with some kind of structure, from planets to clusters of galaxies. Blazar observations have been used to posit the first evidence of truly cosmological magnetic fields or void magnetic fields. A cosmological magnetic field generated in the very early universe before recombination has implications for the cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure as well as the 21 cm line signal. In particular, the Lorentz term causes a change in the linear matter power spectrum. Its implication on the 21 cm line signal was the focus of our recent simulations which will be summarised here. Modelling the cosmological magnetic field as a gaussian random field numerical solutions were found for magnetic fields with present day amplitudes of 5 nG and negative spectral indices which are within the range of observational constraints imposed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Fields Around Galactic Discs
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic fields in the discs of spiral galaxies are quite well understood, although, of course, many details still require investigation and future observations with new generations of radio telescopes will be valuable here. Magnetic configurations around galactic discs and, in particular, the magnetic [...] Read more.
Magnetic fields in the discs of spiral galaxies are quite well understood, although, of course, many details still require investigation and future observations with new generations of radio telescopes will be valuable here. Magnetic configurations around galactic discs and, in particular, the magnetic field components perpendicular to galactic discs seem to be much more poorly understood and deserve further investigation both observationally and by modelling. Another problem to be addressed in future investigations is the magnetic configuration in galactic halos and, in particular, interactions with the intergalactic medium and various winds. Finally, the importance of the observational determination of such drivers of galactic dynamo action as mirror asymmetry of the turbulent galactic flows are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle Characterising the Long-Term Variability of Blazars in Leptonic Models
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Most research on blazar variability focuses on individual flares to explain acceleration and radiation mechanisms and improve on current models. These short-time events (being minutes, hours, or days) might not be representative of the underlying mechanisms causing small-amplitude variability and/or continuous emission which [...] Read more.
Most research on blazar variability focuses on individual flares to explain acceleration and radiation mechanisms and improve on current models. These short-time events (being minutes, hours, or days) might not be representative of the underlying mechanisms causing small-amplitude variability and/or continuous emission which is present most of the time. We will therefore investigate long-term (months to years) variability of blazar emission in the framework of current leptonic blazar models. For this purpose, we introduce generated time-dependent parameter variations which are based on typical Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) associated with the variability of accretion flows. The PSDs from the resulting light curves are analyzed and compared to one another, as well as the PSD of the input variation. Correlations between light curves are also investigated to aid identification of characteristic variation patterns associated with leptonic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle The Long-Lasting Activity in the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar (FSRQ) CTA 102
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
The flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (z=1.032) went through a tremendous phase of variability. Since early 2016 the gamma-ray flux level has been significantly higher than in previous years. It was topped by a four month long giant [...] Read more.
The flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 ( z = 1.032 ) went through a tremendous phase of variability. Since early 2016 the gamma-ray flux level has been significantly higher than in previous years. It was topped by a four month long giant outburst, where peak fluxes were more than 100 times higher than the quiescence level. Similar trends are observable in optical and X-ray energies. We have explained the giant outburst as the ablation of a gas cloud by the relativistic jet that injects additional matter into the jet and can self-consistently explain the long-term light curve. Here, we argue that the cloud responsible for the giant outburst is part of a larger system that collides with the jet and is responsible for the years-long activity in CTA 102. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle Plasmas in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Fields, Radiative Processes and Environments
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Being the most extreme explosions in the universe, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide a unique laboratory to study various plasma physics phenomena. The complex light curve and broad-band, non-thermal spectra indicate a very complicated system on the one hand, but, on the other hand, [...] Read more.
Being the most extreme explosions in the universe, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide a unique laboratory to study various plasma physics phenomena. The complex light curve and broad-band, non-thermal spectra indicate a very complicated system on the one hand, but, on the other hand, provide a wealth of information to study it. In this chapter, I focus on recent progress in some of the key unsolved physical problems. These include: (1) particle acceleration and magnetic field generation in shock waves; (2) possible role of strong magnetic fields in accelerating the plasmas, and accelerating particles via the magnetic reconnection process; (3) various radiative processes that shape the observed light curve and spectra, both during the prompt and the afterglow phases, and finally (4) GRB environments and their possible observational signature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic-Field Vector Maps of Nearby Spiral Galaxies
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
We present a method for determining the directions of magnetic-field vectors in a spiral galaxy using two synchrotron polarization maps, an optical image, and a velocity field. The orientation of the transverse magnetic field is determined with a synchrotron polarization map of a [...] Read more.
We present a method for determining the directions of magnetic-field vectors in a spiral galaxy using two synchrotron polarization maps, an optical image, and a velocity field. The orientation of the transverse magnetic field is determined with a synchrotron polarization map of a higher-frequency band, and the 180°-ambiguity is solved by using a sign of Rotation Measure (RM) after determining the geometrical orientation of a disk based on an assumption of trailing spiral arms. The advantage of this method is that the direction of a magnetic vector for each line of sight throughout the galaxy can inexpensively be determined, with easily available data and simple assumptions. We applied this method to three nearby spiral galaxies using archival data obtained with a Very Large Array (VLA) to demonstrate how it works. The three galaxies have both clockwise and counterclockwise magnetic fields, which implies that none of the three galaxies is classified in a simple Axis-Symmetric type, but types of higher modes, and that magnetic reversals commonly exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessArticle Searching for Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars: Selection of Candidates Revisited
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
We are starting a project to find γ-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) among the unidentified sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi), by radio observations. The selection of good candidates from analysis of the LAT [...] Read more.
We are starting a project to find γ -ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) among the unidentified sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi), by radio observations. The selection of good candidates from analysis of the LAT data is an important part of the project. Given that there is more than 10 years worth of LAT data and the advent of the newly released LAT 8-year point source list (FL8Y), we have conducted a selection analysis, on the basis of our previous analysis, and report the results here. Setting the requirements for the unidentified sources in FL8Y of Galactic latitudes | b | > 5 and curvature significances >3 σ , there are 202 sources with detection signficances >6 σ . We select 57 relatively bright ones (detection significances >15 σ ) and analyze their 10.2 years of LAT data. Their variability is checked to exclude variable sources (likely blazars), test statistic maps are constructed to avoid contaminated sources, and curvature significances are re-obtained and compared to their γ -ray spectra to exclude non-significant sources. In the end, 48 candidates are found. Based on the available information, mostly from multi-wavelength studies, we discuss the possible nature of several of the candidates. Most of these candidates are currently being observed with the 65-meter Shanghai Tian Ma Radio Telescope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observations of Gamma-Ray Pulsars)
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Open AccessArticle The Host Galaxies of Short GRBs as Probes of Their Progenitor Properties
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
We present and discuss the properties of host galaxies of short Gamma-ray Burst (SGRBs). In particular, we examine those observations that contribute to the understanding of the progenitor systems of these explosions. Most SGRB hosts are found to be star forming objects, but [...] Read more.
We present and discuss the properties of host galaxies of short Gamma-ray Burst (SGRBs). In particular, we examine those observations that contribute to the understanding of the progenitor systems of these explosions. Most SGRB hosts are found to be star forming objects, but an important fraction, ∼1/5, of all hosts are elliptical with negligible star formation. Short bursts often occur at very large off-sets from their hosts, in regions where there is little or no underlying host light. Such results have enabled the community to test and improve the models for the production of short GRBs. In particular, the data are in favour of the merger of compact object binaries, provided that the kick velocities from the birth site are a few tens of km/s, and merger times of ∼1 Gyr. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relativistic Jet Simulations of the Weibel Instability in the Slab Model to Cylindrical Jets with Helical Magnetic Fields
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
The particle-in-cell (PIC) method was developed to investigate microscopic phenomena, and with the advances in computing power, newly developed codes have been used for several fields, such as astrophysical, magnetospheric, and solar plasmas. PIC applications have grown extensively, with large computing powers available [...] Read more.
The particle-in-cell (PIC) method was developed to investigate microscopic phenomena, and with the advances in computing power, newly developed codes have been used for several fields, such as astrophysical, magnetospheric, and solar plasmas. PIC applications have grown extensively, with large computing powers available on supercomputers such as Pleiades and Blue Waters in the US. For astrophysical plasma research, PIC methods have been utilized for several topics, such as reconnection, pulsar dynamics, non-relativistic shocks, relativistic shocks, and relativistic jets. PIC simulations of relativistic jets have been reviewed with emphasis placed on the physics involved in the simulations. This review summarizes PIC simulations, starting with the Weibel instability in slab models of jets, and then focuses on global jet evolution in helical magnetic field geometry. In particular, we address kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and mushroom instabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessReview Gamma-Ray Astrophysics in the Time Domain
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
The last few years have seen gamma-ray astronomy maturing and advancing in the field of time-domain astronomy, utilizing source variability on timescales over many orders of magnitudes, from a decade down to a few minutes and shorter, depending on the source. This review [...] Read more.
The last few years have seen gamma-ray astronomy maturing and advancing in the field of time-domain astronomy, utilizing source variability on timescales over many orders of magnitudes, from a decade down to a few minutes and shorter, depending on the source. This review focuses on some of the key science issues and conceptual developments concerning the timing characteristics of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at gamma-ray energies. It highlights the relevance of adequate statistical tools and illustrates that the developments in the gamma-ray domain bear the potential to fundamentally deepen our understanding of the nature of the emitting source and the link between accretion dynamics, black hole physics, and jet ejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling the Rising Tails of Galaxy Rotation Curves
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
It is well known, but under-appreciated in astrophysical applications, that it is possible for gravity to take on a life of its own in the form of Weyl-curvature-only metrics (note that we are referring to the Weyl-only solutions of ordinary General Relativity; we [...] Read more.
It is well known, but under-appreciated in astrophysical applications, that it is possible for gravity to take on a life of its own in the form of Weyl-curvature-only metrics (note that we are referring to the Weyl-only solutions of ordinary General Relativity; we are not considering Weyl conformal gravity or any other modified gravity theories), as numerous examples demonstrate the existence of gravitational fields not being sourced by any matter. In the weak field limit, such autonomous gravitational contents of our universe manifest as solutions to the homogeneous Poisson’s equation. In this note, we tentatively explore the possibility that they may perhaps account for some phenomenologies commonly attributed to dark matter. Specifically, we show that a very simple solution of this kind exists that can be utilized to describe the rising tails seen in many galaxy rotation curves, which had been difficult to reconcile within the cold dark matter or modified Newtonian dynamics frameworks. This solution may also help explain the universal ∼1 Gyr rotation periods of galaxies in the local universe. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Workshop Summary “The Power of Faraday Tomography”
Received: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
This article summarizes the work presented at the workshop “The Power of Faraday Tomography: towards 3D mapping of cosmic magnetic fields”, held in Miyazaki, Japan, in Spring 2018. We place the various oral and poster presentations given at the workshop in a broader [...] Read more.
This article summarizes the work presented at the workshop “The Power of Faraday Tomography: towards 3D mapping of cosmic magnetic fields”, held in Miyazaki, Japan, in Spring 2018. We place the various oral and poster presentations given at the workshop in a broader perspective and present some highlight results from every presenter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Galaxies in 2018
Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the cornerstone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview Numerical Simulations of Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Numerical simulations have been playing a crucial role in the understanding of jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) since the advent of the first theoretical models for the inflation of giant double radio galaxies by continuous injection in the late 1970s. In the [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations have been playing a crucial role in the understanding of jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) since the advent of the first theoretical models for the inflation of giant double radio galaxies by continuous injection in the late 1970s. In the almost four decades of numerical jet research, the complexity and physical detail of simulations, based mainly on a hydrodynamical/magneto-hydrodynamical description of the jet plasma, have been increasing with the pace of the advance in theoretical models, computational tools and numerical methods. The present review summarizes the status of the numerical simulations of jets from AGNs, from the formation region in the neighborhood of the supermassive central black hole up to the impact point well beyond the galactic scales. Special attention is paid to discuss the achievements of present simulations in interpreting the phenomenology of jets as well as their current limitations and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessReview Radio Galaxies—The TeV Challenge
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Over the past decade, our knowledge of the γ-ray sky has been revolutionized by ground- and space-based observatories by detecting photons up to several hundreds of tera-electron volt (TeV) energies. A major population of the γ-ray bright objects are active galactic [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, our knowledge of the γ -ray sky has been revolutionized by ground- and space-based observatories by detecting photons up to several hundreds of tera-electron volt (TeV) energies. A major population of the γ -ray bright objects are active galactic nuclei (AGN) with their relativistic jets pointed along our line-of-sight. Gamma-ray emission is also detected from nearby misaligned AGN such as radio galaxies. While the TeV-detected radio galaxies ( T e V R a d ) only form a small fraction of the γ -ray detected AGN, their multi-wavelength study offers a unique opportunity to probe and pinpoint the high-energy emission processes and sites. Even in the absence of substantial Doppler beaming T e V R a d are extremely bright objects in the TeV sky (luminosities detected up to 10 45 erg s 1 ), and exhibit flux variations on timescales shorter than the event-horizon scales (flux doubling timescale less than 5 min). Thanks to the recent advancement in the imaging capabilities of high-resolution radio interferometry (millimeter very long baseline interferometry, mm-VLBI), one can probe the scales down to less than 10 gravitational radii in T e V R a d , making it possible not only to test jet launching models but also to pinpoint the high-energy emission sites and to unravel the emission mechanisms. This review provides an overview of the high-energy observations of T e V R a d with a focus on the emitting sites and radiation processes. Some recent approaches in simulations are also sketched. Observations by the near-future facilities like Cherenkov Telescope Array, short millimeter-VLBI, and high-energy polarimetry instruments will be crucial for discriminating the competing high-energy emission models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies)
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Open AccessArticle 2D MHD Simulations of the State Transitions of X-Ray Binaries Taking into Account Thermal Conduction
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Thermal conduction plays an important role in bimodal accretion flows consisting of high-temperature flow and cool flow, especially when the temperature is high and/or has a steep gradient. For example, in hard-to-soft transitions of black hole accretion flows, thermal conduction between the high-temperature [...] Read more.
Thermal conduction plays an important role in bimodal accretion flows consisting of high-temperature flow and cool flow, especially when the temperature is high and/or has a steep gradient. For example, in hard-to-soft transitions of black hole accretion flows, thermal conduction between the high-temperature region and the low-temperature region is appropriately considered. We conducted two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations considering anisotropic heat conduction to study condensation of geometrically thick hot accretion flows driven by radiative cooling during state transitions. Numerical results show that the intermediate region appears between the hot corona and the cool accretion disk when we consider heat conduction. The typical temperature and number density of the intermediate region of the 10 M black hole at 10 R g ( R g = 3.0 × 10 6 cm is the Schwarzschild radius) are 4 × 10 10 < T [ K ] < 4 × 10 12 and 5 × 10 15 < n [ cm 3 ] < 5 × 10 17 , respectively. The thickness of intermediate region is about half of the radius. By comparing two models with or without thermal conduction, we demonstrate the effects of thermal conduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessArticle H.E.S.S. Monitoring of PKS 2155-304 in 2015 and 2016
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest blazar located in Southern Hemisphere, monitored with H.E.S.S. since the first light of the experiment. Here we report multiwavelength monitoring observations collected during the period of 2015–2016 with H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, and ATOM. Two [...] Read more.
PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest blazar located in Southern Hemisphere, monitored with H.E.S.S. since the first light of the experiment. Here we report multiwavelength monitoring observations collected during the period of 2015–2016 with H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, and ATOM. Two years of multiwavelength data with very good temporal coverage allowed to characterize broadband emission observed from the region of PKS 2155-304 and study potential multifrequency correlations. During the period of monitoring, PKS 2155-304 revealed complex multiwavelength variability with two outbursts characterized by completely different multiband properties. The 2015 activity of the blazar is characterized by a flare observed at all wavelengths studied. The broadband emission observed during the outburst is well correlated without any time lags. Contrary to 2015, in 2016, only orphan outburst in the optical and ultraviolet wavelengths was observed. Such an orphan activity is reported for the first time for the blazar PKS 2155-304. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle Progress in Multi-Wavelength and Multi-Messenger Observations of Blazars and Theoretical Challenges
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
This review provides an overview of recent advances in multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observations of blazars, the current status of theoretical models for blazar emission, and prospects for future facilities. The discussion of observational results will focus on advances made possible through the Fermi [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of recent advances in multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observations of blazars, the current status of theoretical models for blazar emission, and prospects for future facilities. The discussion of observational results will focus on advances made possible through the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and ground-based gamma-ray observatories (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS), as well as the recent first evidence for a blazar being a source of IceCube neutrinos. The main focus of this review will be the discussion of our current theoretical understanding of blazar multi-wavelength and multi-messenger emission, in the spectral, time, and polarization domains. Future progress will be expected in particular through the development of the first X-ray polarimeter, IXPE, and the installation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), both expected to become operational in the early to mid 2020s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle AMON Multimessenger Alerts: Past and Future
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) was founded to tie the world’s high-energy and multimessenger observatories into a single network, with the purpose to enable the discovering of multimessenger sources, to exploit these sources for purposes of astrophysics, fundamental physics, and cosmology, and [...] Read more.
The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) was founded to tie the world’s high-energy and multimessenger observatories into a single network, with the purpose to enable the discovering of multimessenger sources, to exploit these sources for purposes of astrophysics, fundamental physics, and cosmology, and to explore archival datasets for evidence of multimessenger source populations. Contributions of AMON to date include the GCN prompt alerts for likely-cosmic neutrinos, multiple follow-up campaigns for likely-cosmic neutrinos including the IceCube-170922A event, and several archival searches for transient and flaring γ + ν and ν + CR multimessenger sources. Given the new dawn of multimessenger astronomy recently realized with the detection of the neutron binary star merger and the possible γ + ν coincidence detection from the blazar TXS0506+056, in 2019, we are planning to commission several multimessenger alert streams, including GW + γ and high-energy γ + ν coincidence alerts. We will briefly summarize the current status of AMON and review our monitoring plans for high-energy and multimessenger AMON alerts during what promises to be a very exciting year for multimessenger astrophysics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle Physics of “Cold” Disk Accretion onto Black Holes Driven by Magnetized Winds
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Disk accretion onto black holes is accompanied by collimated outflows (jets). In active galactic nuclei (AGN), the kinetic energy flux of the jet (jet power or kinetic luminosity) may exceed the bolometric luminosity of the disk by a few orders of magnitude. This [...] Read more.
Disk accretion onto black holes is accompanied by collimated outflows (jets). In active galactic nuclei (AGN), the kinetic energy flux of the jet (jet power or kinetic luminosity) may exceed the bolometric luminosity of the disk by a few orders of magnitude. This may be explained in the framework of the so called “cold” disk accretion. In this regime of accretion, the disk is radiatively inefficient because practically all the energy released at the accretion is carried out by the magnetized wind. This wind also provides efficient loss of the angular momentum by the matter in the disk. In this review, the physics of the accretion driven by the wind is considered from first principles. It is shown that the magnetized wind can efficiently carry out angular momentum and energy of the matter of the disk. The conditions when this process dominates conventional loss of the angular momentum due to turbulent viscosity are discussed. The “cold” accretion occurs when the viscous stresses in the disk can be neglected in comparison with impact of the wind on the accretion. Two problems crucial for survival of the model of “cold” accretion are considered. The first one is existence of the magnetohydrodynamical solutions for disk accretion purely due to the angular momentum loss by the wind. Another problem is the ability of the model to reproduce observations which demonstrate existence of the sources with kinetic power of jets 2–3 orders of magnitude exceeding the bolometric luminosity of disks. The solutions of the problem in similar prescriptions and numerical solutions without such an assumption are discussed. Calculations of the “unavoidable” radiation from the “cold” disk and the ratio of the jet power of the SMBH to the bolometric luminosity of the accretion disk around a super massive black hole are given in the framework of the Shakura and Sunyaev paradigm of an optically thick α -disk. The exploration of the Fundamental Plane of Black Holes allows us to obtain semi empirical equations that determine the bolometric luminosity and the ratio of the luminosities as functions of the black hole mass and accretion rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle IMAGINE: Modeling the Galactic Magnetic Field
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
The IMAGINE Consortium aims to bring modeling of the magnetic field of the Milky Way to the next level by using Bayesian inference. IMAGINE includes an open-source modular software pipeline that optimizes parameters in a user-defined galactic magnetic field model against various selected [...] Read more.
The IMAGINE Consortium aims to bring modeling of the magnetic field of the Milky Way to the next level by using Bayesian inference. IMAGINE includes an open-source modular software pipeline that optimizes parameters in a user-defined galactic magnetic field model against various selected observational datasets. Bayesian priors can be added as external probabilistic constraints of the model parameters. These conference proceedings describe the science goals of the IMAGINE consortium, the software pipeline and its inputs, namely observational data sets, galactic magnetic field models, and Bayesian priors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessReview Radio-Frequency Searches for Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have long been discussed as optimal targets for indirect dark matter searches. However, the majority of such studies have been conducted with gamma-ray instruments. In this review, we discuss the very recent progress that has been made in radio-based indirect [...] Read more.
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies have long been discussed as optimal targets for indirect dark matter searches. However, the majority of such studies have been conducted with gamma-ray instruments. In this review, we discuss the very recent progress that has been made in radio-based indirect dark matter searches. We look at existing work on this topic and discuss the future prospects that motivate continued work in this newly developing field that promises to become, in the light of the up-coming Square Kilometre Array, a prominent component of the hunt for dark matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches)
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Open AccessArticle Faraday Depolarization Effects in Spiral Galaxies
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic fields in the universe play an essential role in observations of the radio synchrotron continuum; however, we do not know enough about them, either observationally or theoretically. We are interested in galactic magnetic fields because they affect the structural formation of galaxies [...] Read more.
Magnetic fields in the universe play an essential role in observations of the radio synchrotron continuum; however, we do not know enough about them, either observationally or theoretically. We are interested in galactic magnetic fields because they affect the structural formation of galaxies in terms of star-forming regions, spiral arms, and threads at the galactic center. To clarify the importance of magnetic fields, we carried out numerical simulations of the galactic gaseous disk with magnetic fields. We also calculated observables, such as the rotation measure and Stokes parameters, from the results of numerical simulation. FD maps and intensity maps have been reported, and the relation between azimuthal angle and FD has been shown to depend on the inclination of the observer. Furthermore, it has been shown that a polarized intensity below 800 MHz reflects field structure in the halo region, although the intensity is weak. The present paper summarizes the effects of Faraday depolarization and the relation between magnetic-field structure and Stokes parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessArticle Two-Temperature Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Propagation of Semi-Relativistic Jets
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
In astrophysical jets observed in active galactic nuclei and in microquasars, the energy exchange rate by Coulomb collision is insufficient for thermal equilibrium between ions and electrons. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the difference between the ion temperature and the electron temperature. [...] Read more.
In astrophysical jets observed in active galactic nuclei and in microquasars, the energy exchange rate by Coulomb collision is insufficient for thermal equilibrium between ions and electrons. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the difference between the ion temperature and the electron temperature. We present the results of two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) simulations to demonstrate the effects of Coulomb coupling. It is assumed that the thermal dissipation heats only ions. We find that the ion and electron temperatures are separated through shocks. Since the ion entropy is increased by energy dissipation at shocks and the Coulomb collisions are inefficient, electron temperature becomes about 10 times lower than the ion temperature in the hotspot ahead of the jet terminal shock. In the cocoon, electron temperature decreases by gas mixing between high temperature cocoon gas and low temperature shocked-ambient gas even when we neglect radiative cooling, but electrons can be heated through collisions with ions. Radiation intensity maps are produced by post processing numerical results. Distributions of the thermal bremsstrahlung radiation computed from electron temperature have bright filament and cavity around the jet terminal shock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessReview MHD Accretion Disk Winds: The Key to AGN Phenomenology?
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Accretion disks are the structures which mediate the conversion of the kinetic energy of plasma accreting onto a compact object (assumed here to be a black hole) into the observed radiation, in the process of removing the plasma’s angular momentum so that it [...] Read more.
Accretion disks are the structures which mediate the conversion of the kinetic energy of plasma accreting onto a compact object (assumed here to be a black hole) into the observed radiation, in the process of removing the plasma’s angular momentum so that it can accrete onto the black hole. There has been mounting evidence that these structures are accompanied by winds whose extent spans a large number of decades in radius. Most importantly, it was found that in order to satisfy the winds’ observational constraints, their mass flux must increase with the distance from the accreting object; therefore, the mass accretion rate on the disk must decrease with the distance from the gravitating object, with most mass available for accretion expelled before reaching the gravitating object’s vicinity. This reduction in mass flux with radius leads to accretion disk properties that can account naturally for the AGN relative luminosities of their Optical-UV and X-ray components in terms of a single parameter, the dimensionless mass accretion rate. Because this critical parameter is the dimensionless mass accretion rate, it is argued that these models are applicable to accreting black holes across the mass scale, from galactic to extragalactic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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