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Galaxies, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Radio continuum and polarization observations are best for revealing the magnetic field structure [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Millimeter-Wave Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei with the Africa Millimetre Telescope
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
Active galactic nuclei are the dominant sources of gamma rays outside our galaxy and are also candidates for the source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In addition to being emitters of broad-band non-thermal radiation throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, their emission is highly variable [...] Read more.
Active galactic nuclei are the dominant sources of gamma rays outside our galaxy and are also candidates for the source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In addition to being emitters of broad-band non-thermal radiation throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, their emission is highly variable on timescales from years to minutes. Hence, high-cadence monitoring observations are needed to understand their emission mechanisms. The Africa Millimetre Telescope is planned to be the first mm-wave radio telescope on the African continent and one of few in the southern hemisphere. Further to contributing to the global mm-VLBI observations with the Event Horizon Telescope, substantial amounts of observation time will be available for monitoring observations of active galactic nuclei. Here we review the scientific scope of the Africa Millimetre Telescope for monitoring of active galactic nuclei at mm-wavelengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
Open AccessArticle
Remnants of Galactic Subhalos and Their Impact on Indirect Dark-Matter Searches
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
Dark-matter subhalos, predicted in large numbers in the cold-dark-matter scenario, should have an impact on dark-matter-particle searches. Recent results show that tidal disruption of these objects in computer simulations is overefficient due to numerical artifacts and resolution effects. Accounting for these results, we [...] Read more.
Dark-matter subhalos, predicted in large numbers in the cold-dark-matter scenario, should have an impact on dark-matter-particle searches. Recent results show that tidal disruption of these objects in computer simulations is overefficient due to numerical artifacts and resolution effects. Accounting for these results, we re-estimated the subhalo abundance in the Milky Way using semianalytical techniques. In particular, we showed that the boost factor for gamma rays and cosmic-ray antiprotons is increased by roughly a factor of two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches)
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Open AccessReview
The Self-Control of Cosmic Rays
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 26 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
Several independent pieces of information have recently hinted at a prominent role of cosmic rays in controlling their own transport, within and around the sources as well as throughout their propagation on Galactic scales and even possibly during their escape from the Galaxy. [...] Read more.
Several independent pieces of information have recently hinted at a prominent role of cosmic rays in controlling their own transport, within and around the sources as well as throughout their propagation on Galactic scales and even possibly during their escape from the Galaxy. I will discuss this topic with special attention to the theoretical implications and possible additional observational evidence that we may seek with upcoming experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Rays around Supernova Remnants)
Open AccessArticle
Relativistic Aspects of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Their Natural Habitat: A Review
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
In this review a summary is given on recent theoretical work, on understanding accreting supermassive black hole binaries in the gravitational wave (GW)-driven regime. A particular focus is given to theoretical predictions of properties of disks and jets in these systems during the [...] Read more.
In this review a summary is given on recent theoretical work, on understanding accreting supermassive black hole binaries in the gravitational wave (GW)-driven regime. A particular focus is given to theoretical predictions of properties of disks and jets in these systems during the gravitational wave driven phase. Since a previous review by Schnittman 2013, which focussed on Newtonian aspects of the problem, various relativistic aspects have been studied. In this review we provide an update on these relativistic aspects. Further, a perspective is given on recent observational developments that have seen a surge in the number of proposed supermassive black hole binary candidates. The prospect of bringing theoretical and observational efforts closer together makes this an exciting field of research for years to come. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle
Fractional Variability—A Tool to Study Blazar Variability
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Active Galactic Nuclei emit radiation over the whole electromagnetic spectrum up to TeV energies. Blazars are one subtype with their jets pointing towards the observer. One of their typical features is extreme variability on timescales, from minutes to years. The fractional variability is [...] Read more.
Active Galactic Nuclei emit radiation over the whole electromagnetic spectrum up to TeV energies. Blazars are one subtype with their jets pointing towards the observer. One of their typical features is extreme variability on timescales, from minutes to years. The fractional variability is an often used parameter for investigating the degree of variability of a light curve. Different detection methods and sensitivities of the instruments result in differently binned data and light curves with gaps. As they can influence the physics interpretation of the broadband variability, the effects of these differences on the fractional variability need to be studied. In this paper, we study the systematic effects of completeness in time coverage and the sampling rate. Using public data from instruments monitoring blazars in various energy ranges, we study the variability of the bright TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 over the electromagnetic spectrum, taking into account the systematic effects, and compare our findings with previous results. Especially in the TeV range, the fractional variability is higher than in previous studies, which can be explained by the much longer (seven years compared to few weeks) and more complete data sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle
The Truncated Lindley Distribution with Applications in Astrophysics
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper reviews the Lindley distribution and then introduces the scale and the double truncation. The unknown parameters of the truncated Lindley distribution are evaluated with the maximum likelihood estimators. An application of the Lindley distribution with scale is done to the initial [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the Lindley distribution and then introduces the scale and the double truncation. The unknown parameters of the truncated Lindley distribution are evaluated with the maximum likelihood estimators. An application of the Lindley distribution with scale is done to the initial mass function for stars. The magnitude version of the Lindley distribution with scale is applied to the luminosity function for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies and to the photometric maximum of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) galaxies. The truncated Lindley luminosity function allows to model the Malquist bias of the 2MRS galaxies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
γ-ray and ν Searches for Dark-Matter Subhalos in the Milky Way with a Baryonic Potential
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
The distribution of dark-matter (DM) subhalos in our galaxy remains disputed, leading to varying γ-ray and ν flux predictions from their annihilation or decay. In this work, we study how, in the inner galaxy, subhalo tidal disruption from the galactic baryonic potential [...] Read more.
The distribution of dark-matter (DM) subhalos in our galaxy remains disputed, leading to varying γ -ray and ν flux predictions from their annihilation or decay. In this work, we study how, in the inner galaxy, subhalo tidal disruption from the galactic baryonic potential impacts these signals. Based on state-of-the art modeling of this effect from numerical simulations and semi-analytical results, updated subhalo spatial distributions are derived and included in the CLUMPY code. The latter is used to produce a thousand realizations of the γ -ray and ν sky. Compared to predictions based on DM only, we conclude a decrease of the flux of the brightest subhalo by a factor of 2 to 7 for annihilating DM and no impact on decaying DM: the discovery prospects or limits subhalos can set on DM candidates are affected by the same factor. This study also provides probability density functions for the distance, mass, and angular distribution of the brightest subhalo, among which the mass may hint at its nature: it is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the case of strong tidal effects from the baryonic potential, whereas it is lighter and possibly a dark halo for DM only or less pronounced tidal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Field Vector Structure of NGC6946
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
We studied large-scale magnetic field reversals of a galaxy based on a magnetic vector map of NGC6946. The magnetic vector map was constructed based on the polarization maps in the C and X bands after the determination of the geometrical orientation of a [...] Read more.
We studied large-scale magnetic field reversals of a galaxy based on a magnetic vector map of NGC6946. The magnetic vector map was constructed based on the polarization maps in the C and X bands after the determination of the geometrical orientation of a disk with the use of an infrared image and the velocity field, according to the trailing spiral arm assumption. We examined the azimuthal variation of the magnetic vector and found that the magnetic pitch angle changes continually as a function of the azimuthal angle in the inter-arm region. However, the direction of the magnetic field had 180 jumps at the azimuthal angles of 20 , 110 , 140 , 220 , 280 , and 330 . These reversals seem to be related to the spiral arms since the locations of the jumps are coincident with those of the spiral arms. These six reversals of the magnetic field were seen only in the inner region of NGC6946 whereas four reversals can be identified in the outer region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Open AccessReview
Long-Term Optical Monitoring of Blazars
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Systematic monitoring of specific targets in the optical regime was historically applied on a very narrow sample of known variable stars. The discovery of blazars in the 20th century brought to the foreground the need for new global sky surveys, covering the entire [...] Read more.
Systematic monitoring of specific targets in the optical regime was historically applied on a very narrow sample of known variable stars. The discovery of blazars in the 20th century brought to the foreground the need for new global sky surveys, covering the entire sky and fainter sources. Full-sky surveys are conducted more easily from space observatories, while radio telescopes perform follow up observations from the ground. Blazars are detected in a wide range of energies, while they exhibit strong variability in various wavelengths from γ-rays and X-rays to the optical and radio domain. This results in a detailed classification, according to their emission properties in each region. The rapid variability in optical domain makes blazars interesting targets for optical sky surveys, offering a new opportunity to study their variability in the time domain. Digital sky surveys in optical and near-IR found a fertile ground with the aid of sensitive sensors. Only a few dedicated programs are focusing on blazar variability, a trend which evolved rapidly in the last decade. Modern techniques, in combination with dedicated sky survey programs lead towards a new era of long-term monitoring of blazars, aiming towards the search or variability on various time scales. In this work, an overview of blazar optical surveys and monitoring projects is given, addressing the major points of each one, and highlighting the constraints that the long-term study of blazars will bring through future international campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessArticle
Flux States of Active Galactic Nuclei
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Blazars are known to show variability on time scales from minutes to years covering a wide range of flux states. Studying the flux distribution of a source allows for various insights. The shape of the flux distribution can provide information on the nature [...] Read more.
Blazars are known to show variability on time scales from minutes to years covering a wide range of flux states. Studying the flux distribution of a source allows for various insights. The shape of the flux distribution can provide information on the nature of the underlying variability processes. The level of a possible quiescent state can be derived from the main part of the distribution that can be described by a Gaussian distribution. Dividing the flux states into quiescent and active, the duty cycle of a source can be calculated. Finally, this allows alerting the multi-wavelength and multi-messenger community in case a source is in an active state. To get consistent and conclusive results from flux distributions, unbiased long-term observations are crucial. Only like this is a complete picture of the variability and flux states, e.g., an all-time quiescent state, possible. In seven years of monitoring of bright TeV blazars, the first G-APD Cherenkov telescope (FACT) has collected a total of more than 11,700 hours of physics data with 1500 hours to 3000 hours per source for Mrk 421, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2344+51. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessReview
Lighting Up Dark Matter Haloes
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Previous chapters of this issue have focused on the formation and evolution of cosmic structures under the influence of gravity alone. In order to make a close link between theoretical models of structure formation and observational data, it is necessary to consider the [...] Read more.
Previous chapters of this issue have focused on the formation and evolution of cosmic structures under the influence of gravity alone. In order to make a close link between theoretical models of structure formation and observational data, it is necessary to consider the gas-dynamical and radiative processes that drive the evolution of the baryonic components of dark matter halos. These processes cover many orders of magnitude in physical sizes and time-scales and are entangled in a complex network of actions, back-reactions, and self-regulations. In addition, our understanding of them is far from being complete, even when viewed in isolation. This chapter provides a brief review of the techniques that are commonly used to link the physical properties of galaxies with the dark matter halos in which they reside. I discuss the main features of these methods, as well as their aims, limits, and complementarities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Dark Haloes to Visible Galaxies)
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Open AccessArticle
Varying Physical Constants, Astrometric Anomalies, Redshift and Hubble Units
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
We have developed a cosmological model by allowing the speed of light c, gravitational constant G and cosmological constant Λ in the Einstein filed equation to vary in time, and solved them for Robertson-Walker metric. Assuming the universe is flat and matter [...] Read more.
We have developed a cosmological model by allowing the speed of light c, gravitational constant G and cosmological constant Λ in the Einstein filed equation to vary in time, and solved them for Robertson-Walker metric. Assuming the universe is flat and matter dominant at present, we obtain a simple model that can fit the supernovae 1a data with a single parameter almost as well as the standard ΛCDM model with two parameters, and which has the predictive capability superior to the latter. The model, together with the null results for the variation of G from the analysis of lunar laser ranging data determines that at the current time G and c both increase as dG/dt = 5.4GH0 and dc/dt = 1.8cH0 with H0 as the Hubble constant, and Λ decreases as dΛ/dt = −1.2ΛH0. This variation of G and c is all what is needed to account for the Pioneer anomaly, the anomalous secular increase of the moon eccentricity, and the anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit. We also show that the Planck’s constant ħ increases as dħ/dt = 1.8ħH0 and the ratio D of any Hubble unit to the corresponding Planck unit increases as dD/dt = 1.5DH0. We have shown that it is essential to consider the variation of all the physical constants that may be involved directly or indirectly in a measurement rather than only the one whose variation is of interest. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Fields and Halos in Spiral Galaxies
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
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Abstract
Radio continuum and polarization observations reveal best the magnetic field structure and strength in nearby spiral galaxies. They show a similar magnetic field pattern, which is of spiral shape along the disk plane and X-shaped in the halo, sometimes accompanied by strong vertical [...] Read more.
Radio continuum and polarization observations reveal best the magnetic field structure and strength in nearby spiral galaxies. They show a similar magnetic field pattern, which is of spiral shape along the disk plane and X-shaped in the halo, sometimes accompanied by strong vertical fields above and below the central region of the disk. The strength of the total halo field is comparable to that of the disk. The small- and large-scale dynamo action is discussed to explain the observations with special emphasis on the rôle of star formation on the α Ω dynamo and the magnetic field strength and structure in the disk and halo. Recently, with RM-synthesis of the CHANG-ES observations, we obtained the first observational evidence for the existence of regular magnetic fields in the halo. The analysis of the radio scale heights indicate escape-dominated radio halos with convective cosmic ray propagation for many galaxies. These galactic winds may be essential for an effective dynamo action and may transport large-scale magnetic field from the disk into the halo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle
Solar and Galactic Magnetic Halo Structure: Force-Free Dynamos?
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic fields may relax dissipatively to the minimum energy force-free condition whenever they are not constantly created or distorted. We review the axially symmetric solutions for force-free magnetic fields, especially for the non-linear field. A new formulation for the scale invariant state is [...] Read more.
Magnetic fields may relax dissipatively to the minimum energy force-free condition whenever they are not constantly created or distorted. We review the axially symmetric solutions for force-free magnetic fields, especially for the non-linear field. A new formulation for the scale invariant state is given. Illustrative examples are shown. Applications to both stellar coronas and galactic halos are possible. Subsequently we study whether such force-free fields may be sustained by classical magnetic dynamo action. Although the answer is `not indefinitely’, there may be an evolutionary cycle wherein the magnetic field repeatedly relaxes to the minimum energy condition after a period of substantial growth and distortion. Different force-free dynamos may coexist at different locations. Helicity transfer between scales is studied briefly. A dynamo solution is given for the temporal evolution away from an initial linear force-free magnetic field due to both α 2 and ω terms. This can be used at the sub scale level to create a `delayed’ α effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessReview
Practical Modeling of Large-Scale Galactic Magnetic Fields: Status and Prospects
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
This is a review of the status of efforts to model the large-scale Galactic magnetic field (GMF). Though important for a variety of astrophysical processes, the GMF remains poorly understood despite some interesting new tracers being used in the field. Though we still [...] Read more.
This is a review of the status of efforts to model the large-scale Galactic magnetic field (GMF). Though important for a variety of astrophysical processes, the GMF remains poorly understood despite some interesting new tracers being used in the field. Though we still have too many models that might fit the data, this is not to say that the field has not developed in the last few years. In particular, surveys of polarized dust have given us a new observable that is complementary to the more traditional radio tracers, and a variety of other new tracers and related measurements are becoming available to improve current modeling. This paper reviews: the tracers available; the models that have been studied; what has been learned so far; what the caveats and outstanding issues are; and one opinion of where the most promising future avenues of exploration lie. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle
Unbiased Long-Term Monitoring at TeV Energies
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
For the understanding of the variable, transient and non-thermal universe, unbiased long-term monitoring is crucial. To constrain the emission mechanisms at the highest energies, it is important to characterize the very high energy emission and its correlation with observations at other wavelengths. At [...] Read more.
For the understanding of the variable, transient and non-thermal universe, unbiased long-term monitoring is crucial. To constrain the emission mechanisms at the highest energies, it is important to characterize the very high energy emission and its correlation with observations at other wavelengths. At very high energies, only a limited number of instruments is available. This article reviews the current status of monitoring of the extra-galactic sky at TeV energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
Open AccessReview
Quantum Cosmology in the Light of Quantum Mechanics
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
There is a formal analogy between the evolution of the universe, when it is seen as a trajectory in the minisuperspace, and the worldline followed by a test particle in a curved spacetime. The analogy can be extended to the quantum realm, where [...] Read more.
There is a formal analogy between the evolution of the universe, when it is seen as a trajectory in the minisuperspace, and the worldline followed by a test particle in a curved spacetime. The analogy can be extended to the quantum realm, where the trajectories are transformed into wave packets that give us the probability of finding the universe or the particle in a given point of their respective spaces: the spacetime in the case of the particle and the minisuperspace in the case of the universe. The wave function of the spacetime and the matter fields, all together, can then be seen as a super-field that propagates in the minisuperspace and the so-called third quantisation procedure can be applied in a parallel way as the second quantisation procedure is performed with a matter field that propagates in the spacetime. The super-field can thus be interpreted as made up of universes propagating, i.e., evolving, in the minisuperspace. The analogy can also be used in the opposite direction. The way in which the semiclassical state of the universe is obtained in quantum cosmology allows us to obtain, from the quantum state of a field that propagates in the spacetime, the geodesics of the underlying spacetime as well as their quantum uncertainties or dispersions. This might settle a new starting point for a different quantisation of the spacetime. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Important Role of Cosmic-Ray Re-Acceleration
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
In the last decades, the improvement of high energy instruments has enabled a deeper understanding of the Cosmic Ray origin issue. In particular, the γ-ray satellites AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero) and Fermi-LAT (Fermi-Large Area Telescope) have strongly contributed to the [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the improvement of high energy instruments has enabled a deeper understanding of the Cosmic Ray origin issue. In particular, the γ -ray satellites AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero) and Fermi-LAT (Fermi-Large Area Telescope) have strongly contributed to the confirmation of direct involvement of Supernova Remnants in Cosmic Ray energization. Despite several attempts to fit experimental data assuming the presence of freshly accelerated particles, the scientific community is now aware that the role of pre-existing Cosmic Ray re-acceleration cannot be neglected. In this work, we highlight the importance of pre-existing Cosmic Ray re-acceleration in the Galaxy showing its fundamental contribution in middle aged Supernova Remnant shocks and in the forward shock of stellar winds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Rays around Supernova Remnants)
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Open AccessReview
The Origin of the Most Energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays: Supernova Explosions into Massive Star Plasma Winds
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
We propose that the high energy Cosmic Ray particles up to the upturn commonly called the ankle, from around the spectral turn-down commonly called the knee, mostly come from Blue Supergiant star explosions. At the upturn, i.e., the ankle, Cosmic [...] Read more.
We propose that the high energy Cosmic Ray particles up to the upturn commonly called the ankle, from around the spectral turn-down commonly called the knee, mostly come from Blue Supergiant star explosions. At the upturn, i.e., the ankle, Cosmic Rays probably switch to another source class, most likely extragalactic sources. To show this we recently compiled a set of Radio Supernova data where we compute the magnetic field, shock speed and shock radius. This list included both Blue and Red Supergiant star explosions; both data show the same magnetic field strength for these two classes of stars despite very different wind densities and velocities. Using particle acceleration theory at shocks, those numbers can be transformed into characteristic ankle and knee energies. Without adjusting any free parameters both of these observed energies are directly indicated by the supernova data. In the next step in the argument, we use the Supernova Remnant data of the starburst galaxy M82. We apply this analysis to Blue Supergiant star explosions: The shock will race to their outer edge with a magnetic field that is observed to follow over several orders of magnitude B ( r ) × r c o n s t . , with in fact the same magnetic field strength for such stellar explosions in our Galaxy, and other galaxies including M82. The speed is observed to be ∼0.1 c out to about 10 16 cm radius in the plasma wind. The Supernova shock can run through the entire magnetic plasma wind region at full speed all the way out to the wind-shell, which is of order parsec scale in M82. We compare and identify the Cosmic Ray spectrum in other galaxies, in the starburst galaxy M82 and in our Galaxy with each other; we suggest how Blue Supergiant star explosions can provide the Cosmic Ray particles across the knee and up to the ankle energy range. The data from the ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Experiment at the International Space Station) mission will test this cosmic ray concept which is reasonably well grounded in two independent radio supernova data sets. The next step in developing our understanding will be to obtain future more accurate Cosmic Ray data near to the knee, and to use unstable isotopes of Cosmic Ray nuclei at high energy to probe the “piston” driving the explosion. We plan to incorporate these data with the physics of the budding black hole which is probably forming in each of these stars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmic Plasmas and Electromagnetic Phenomena)
Open AccessReview
From Primordial Seed Magnetic Fields to the Galactic Dynamo
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
The origin and maintenance of coherent magnetic fields in the Universe is reviewed with an emphasis on the possible challenges that arise in their theoretical understanding. We begin with the interesting possibility that magnetic fields originated at some level from the early universe. [...] Read more.
The origin and maintenance of coherent magnetic fields in the Universe is reviewed with an emphasis on the possible challenges that arise in their theoretical understanding. We begin with the interesting possibility that magnetic fields originated at some level from the early universe. This could be during inflation, the electroweak, or the quark-hadron phase transitions. These mechanisms can give rise to fields which could be strong, but often with much smaller coherence scales than galactic scales. Their subsequent turbulent decay decreases their strength but increases their coherence. We then turn to astrophysical batteries which can generate seed magnetic fields. Here the coherence scale can be large, but the field strength is generally very small. These seed fields need to be further amplified and maintained by a dynamo to explain observed magnetic fields in galaxies. Basic ideas behind both small and large-scale turbulent dynamos are outlined. The small-scale dynamo may help to understand the first magnetization of young galaxies, while the large-scale dynamo is important for the generation of fields with scales larger than the stirring scale, as observed in nearby disk galaxies. The current theoretical challenges that turbulent dynamos encounter and their possible resolution are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
Open AccessReview
The RoboPol Program: Optical Polarimetric Monitoring of Blazars
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
After three years of polarimetric monitoring of blazars, the RoboPol project has uncovered several key characteristics of polarimetric rotations in the optical for these most variable sources. The most important of these is that polarization properties of the synchrotron emission in the optical [...] Read more.
After three years of polarimetric monitoring of blazars, the RoboPol project has uncovered several key characteristics of polarimetric rotations in the optical for these most variable sources. The most important of these is that polarization properties of the synchrotron emission in the optical appear to be directly linked with gamma-ray activity. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for this connection, as well as the broader features of polarimetric behavior in blazars that are key in making progress with theoretical modeling of blazar emission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Open AccessReview
Revisiting the Equipartition Assumption in Star-Forming Galaxies
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Energy equipartition between cosmic rays and magnetic fields is often assumed to infer magnetic field properties from the synchrotron observations of star-forming galaxies. However, there is no compelling physical reason to expect the same. We aim to explore the validity of the energy [...] Read more.
Energy equipartition between cosmic rays and magnetic fields is often assumed to infer magnetic field properties from the synchrotron observations of star-forming galaxies. However, there is no compelling physical reason to expect the same. We aim to explore the validity of the energy equipartition assumption. After describing popular arguments in favour of the assumption, we first discuss observational results that support it at large scales and how certain observations show significant deviations from equipartition at scales smaller than ≈ 1 kpc , probably related to the propagation length of the cosmic rays. Then, we test the energy equipartition assumption using test-particle and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. From the results of the simulations, we find that the energy equipartition assumption is not valid at scales smaller than the driving scale of the ISM turbulence (≈ 100 pc in spiral galaxies), which can be regarded as the lower limit for the scale beyond which equipartition is valid. We suggest that one must be aware of the dynamical scales in the system before assuming energy equipartition to extract magnetic field information from synchrotron observations. Finally, we present ideas for future observations and simulations to investigate in more detail under which conditions the equipartition assumption is valid or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle
Centaurus A: Hard X-ray and High-Energy Gamma-Ray Light Curve Correlation
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Centaurus A, powered by a 55 million solar mass supermassive black hole, has been intensively monitored in all accessible wavelength ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, its very-high energy gamma (γ) ray flux (TeV photons), obtained from H.E.S.S. is relatively faint, [...] Read more.
Centaurus A, powered by a 55 million solar mass supermassive black hole, has been intensively monitored in all accessible wavelength ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, its very-high energy gamma ( γ ) ray flux (TeV photons), obtained from H.E.S.S. is relatively faint, hampering detailed light curve analyses in the most energetic energy band. Yet, the extensive long-term light curve data from Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT (hard X-rays) allows for cross-correlation studies. We find a hint that X-ray emission from Centaurus A precedes the γ rays by 25 ± 125 days. If this lag is real and related to a γ γ absorption effect in the broad-line region (BLR) around the central source, we can constrain the size of the BLR using light-travel time arguments. These are first results of extended light curve correlation studies between high-energy γ rays and X-rays from Centaurus A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio Galaxies at TeV Energies)
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Open AccessArticle
Faraday Rotation of Extended Emission as a Probe of the Large-Scale Galactic Magnetic Field
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
The Galactic magnetic field is an integral constituent of the interstellar medium (ISM), and knowledge of its structure is crucial to understanding Galactic dynamics. The Rotation Measures (RM) of extragalactic (EG) sources have been the basis of comprehensive Galactic magnetic field models. Polarised [...] Read more.
The Galactic magnetic field is an integral constituent of the interstellar medium (ISM), and knowledge of its structure is crucial to understanding Galactic dynamics. The Rotation Measures (RM) of extragalactic (EG) sources have been the basis of comprehensive Galactic magnetic field models. Polarised extended emission (XE) is also seen along lines of sight through the Galactic disk, and also displays the effects of Faraday rotation. Our aim is to investigate and understand the relationship between EG and XE RMs near the Galactic plane, and to determine how the XE RMs, a hitherto unused resource, can be used as a probe of the large-scale Galactic magnetic field. We used polarisation data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), observed near 1420 MHz with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) Synthesis Telescope. We calculated RMs from a linear fit to the polarisation angles as a function of wavelength squared in four frequency channels, for both the EG sources and the XE. Across the CGPS area, 55 < < 193 , 3 < b < 5 , the RMs of the XE closely track the RMs of the EG sources, with XE RMs about half the value of EG-source RMs. The exceptions are places where large local HII complexes heavily depolarise more distant emission. We conclude that there is valuable information in the XE RM dataset. The factor of 2 between the two types of RM values is close to that expected from a Burn slab model of the ISM. This result indicates that, at least in the outer Galaxy, the EG and XE sources are likely probing similar depths, and that the Faraday rotating medium and the synchrotron emitting medium have similar variation with galactocentric distance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Galactic Magnetism)
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