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Monitoring and Multi-Messenger Astronomy with IceCube

III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
Galaxies 2019, 7(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies7010040
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring the Non-Thermal Universe)
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Abstract

IceCube currently is the largest neutrino observatory with an instrumented detection volume of 1 km3 buried in the ice-sheet close to the antarctic South Pole station. With a 4 π field of view and an up-time of >99%, it is continuously monitoring the full sky to detect astrophysical neutrinos. With the detection of an astrophysical neutrino flux in 2013, IceCube opened a new observation window to the non-thermal Universe. The IceCube collaboration has a large program to search for astrophysical neutrinos, including measurements of the energy spectrum of the diffuse astrophysical flux, auto- and cross-correlation studies with other multi-messenger particles, and a real-time alert and follow-up system. On 22 September 2017, the IceCube online system sent out an alert reporting a high-energy neutrino event. This alert triggered a series of multi-wavelength follow-up observations that revealed a spatially-coincident blazar TXS 0506+056, which was also in an active flaring state. This correlation was estimated at a 3 σ level. Further observations confirmed the flaring emission in the very-high-energy gamma-ray band. In addition, IceCube found an independent 3.5 σ excess of a time-variable neutrino flux in the direction of TXS 0506+056 two years prior to the alert by examining 9.5 years of archival neutrino data. These are the first multi-messenger observations of an extra-galactic astrophysical source including neutrinos since the observation of the supernova SN1987A. This review summarizes the different detection and analysis channels for astrophysical neutrinos in IceCube, focusing on the multi-messenger program of IceCube and its major scientific results. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrino; monitoring; multi-messenger neutrino; monitoring; multi-messenger
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Reimann, R. Monitoring and Multi-Messenger Astronomy with IceCube. Galaxies 2019, 7, 40.

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