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Galaxies 2019, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies7010014

Two-Temperature Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Propagation of Semi-Relativistic Jets

1
Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
2
Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503, Japan
3
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
4
Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
5
Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Faraday Tomography)
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Abstract

In astrophysical jets observed in active galactic nuclei and in microquasars, the energy exchange rate by Coulomb collision is insufficient for thermal equilibrium between ions and electrons. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the difference between the ion temperature and the electron temperature. We present the results of two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) simulations to demonstrate the effects of Coulomb coupling. It is assumed that the thermal dissipation heats only ions. We find that the ion and electron temperatures are separated through shocks. Since the ion entropy is increased by energy dissipation at shocks and the Coulomb collisions are inefficient, electron temperature becomes about 10 times lower than the ion temperature in the hotspot ahead of the jet terminal shock. In the cocoon, electron temperature decreases by gas mixing between high temperature cocoon gas and low temperature shocked-ambient gas even when we neglect radiative cooling, but electrons can be heated through collisions with ions. Radiation intensity maps are produced by post processing numerical results. Distributions of the thermal bremsstrahlung radiation computed from electron temperature have bright filament and cavity around the jet terminal shock. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrophysical jets; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); numerical simulation astrophysical jets; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); numerical simulation
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Ohmura, T.; Machida, M.; Nakamura, K.; Kudoh, Y.; Asahina, Y.; Matsumoto, R. Two-Temperature Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Propagation of Semi-Relativistic Jets. Galaxies 2019, 7, 14.

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