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Minerals, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 94 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We present the first estimate for a contourite drift budget in the Gulf of Cadiz. This is based on [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Depressing Effect of Kaolinite on Molybdenite Flotation in Seawater
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060578 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Copper-molybdenum grades of important mining deposits have progressively decayed, which is associated with high levels of clay minerals which affect froth flotation. The depressing effect of clay minerals on copper sulfides was previously reported but there are no systematic studies on the effect [...] Read more.
Copper-molybdenum grades of important mining deposits have progressively decayed, which is associated with high levels of clay minerals which affect froth flotation. The depressing effect of clay minerals on copper sulfides was previously reported but there are no systematic studies on the effect on molybdenite flotation in seawater. The objective of this work was to study the effect of kaolinite on molybdenite flotation in seawater and to evaluate the use of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) as dispersant. The results of this work show that kaolinite depresses molybdenite flotation which is more significant in seawater at pH > 9. All the experimental data validate the hypothesis that kaolinite covers molybdenite, reducing its flotation recovery. The depressing effect of kaolinite on molybdenite flotation in seawater is enhanced by the magnesium and calcium hydroxo complexes at pH > 9, which induce heterocoagulation between kaolinite and molybdenite, thus reducing recovery. The attachment of the positively charged hydroxo complexes of magnesium and calcium to the molybdenite and kaolinite surfaces is diminished by SHMP. This reagent increases the repulsive forces between molybdenite and precipitates and as a result, molybdenite becomes more hydrophobic and recovery increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fine Particle Flotation: Experimental Study and Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Central Appalachian Coal Seam Underclays
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060577 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for advanced technological and energy applications. To support the emerging need, it is necessary to identify new domestic sources of REE and technologies to separate and recover saleable REE product in a safe and economical manner. Underclay [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for advanced technological and energy applications. To support the emerging need, it is necessary to identify new domestic sources of REE and technologies to separate and recover saleable REE product in a safe and economical manner. Underclay rock associated with Central Appalachian coal seams and prevalent in coal utilization waste products is an alternative source of REE to hard rock ores that are mainly composed of highly refractory REE-bearing minerals. This study utilizes a suite of analytical techniques and benchtop leaching tests to characterize the properties and leachability of the coal seam underclays sampled. Laboratory bench-top and flow-through reactor leaching experiments were conducted on underclay rock powders to produce a pregnant leach solution (PLS) that has relatively low concentrations of gangue elements Al, Si, Fe, and Th and is amenable to further processing steps to recover and produce purified REE product. The leaching method described here uses a chelating agent, the citrate anion, to solubilize elements that are adsorbed, or weakly bonded to the surface of clay minerals or other mineral solid phases in the rock. The citrate PLS produced from leaching specific underclay powders contains relatively higher concentrations of REE and lower concentrations of gangue elements compared to PLS produced from sequential digestion using ammonium sulfate and mineral acids. Citrate solution leaching of underclay produces a PLS with lower concentrations of gangue elements and higher concentrations of REE than achieved with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. The results provide a preliminary assessment of the types of REE-bearing minerals and potential leachability of coal seam underclays from the Central Appalachian basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Various Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Retention of Contaminants Elements from Tailings from Lead Mine Washing Plants in Ceramics for Bricks
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060576 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Mining activity is essential for the social welfare of the population. However, this activity produces a series of mining waste. These mining wastes, if not properly treated, can produce significant environmental pollution. This study develops the incorporation of tailings from washing plants in [...] Read more.
Mining activity is essential for the social welfare of the population. However, this activity produces a series of mining waste. These mining wastes, if not properly treated, can produce significant environmental pollution. This study develops the incorporation of tailings from washing plants in ceramic materials for bricks in order to retain the contaminating elements in the ceramic matrix. To this end, firstly, a physical and chemical characterisation of the mining waste is carried out and different groups of samples are conformed with clay and mining waste. These conformed samples with mining waste are evaluated through different physical and mechanical tests typical in the ceramic industry, studying the variation of properties by the incorporation of the waste. In turn, the leachates from the groups of conformed samples are analyzed, confirming the retention of the contaminating elements of the mining waste in the ceramic matrix. The results of these tests showed that ceramics can be made for bricks with up to 90% mining waste, obtaining physical and mechanical properties acceptable regarding the regulations and retaining the contaminating elements in the ceramic matrix, as confirmed by the leachate tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reutilization and Valorization of Mine Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemostratigraphic Correlations of Deep-Sea Sediments in the Western North Pacific Ocean: A New Constraint on the Distribution of Mud Highly Enriched in Rare-Earth Elements
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060575 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Deep-sea sediments with total rare-earth elements and yttrium (ΣREY) concentrations exceeding 400 ppm, which are termed REY-rich mud, are widely distributed in the world oceans. Specifically, deep-sea sediments within the Japanese exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Minamitorishima Island in the western North Pacific [...] Read more.
Deep-sea sediments with total rare-earth elements and yttrium (ΣREY) concentrations exceeding 400 ppm, which are termed REY-rich mud, are widely distributed in the world oceans. Specifically, deep-sea sediments within the Japanese exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Minamitorishima Island in the western North Pacific have attracted significant attention as a new REY resource, because they contain REY-enriched layers exceeding 2000 ppm of ΣREY. However, neither the sediments deeper than 15 m below the seafloor (mbsf) nor those outside the Minamitorishima EEZ have ever been studied. Recently, a number of distinct geochemical features which are aligned in stratigraphic order were recognized in these sediments, based on multi-elemental composition data. Chemostratigraphy enables us to laterally correlate three REY peaks among apparently featureless pelagic clays. Here, we apply chemostratigraphic correlation to 19 new cores collected from the northern Pigafetta Basin and several small basins within the Marcus-Wake Seamounts. This study revealed that the REY-enriched layers occur at greater depths than the piston core length in a wider area than previously investigated (e.g., ~20.5 mbsf at Ocean Drilling Program Site 801A). This finding suggests that the depositional environments in these areas were basically similar, although local geographic conditions could have affected the continuity of REY peaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Geology and Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dolomitization on Porosity during Various Sedimentation-Diagenesis Processes in Carbonate Reservoirs
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060574 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Carbonate reservoirs, especially dolomite reservoirs, contain large reserves of oil and gas. The complex diagenesis is quite challenging to document the dolomite reservoirs formation and evolution mechanism. Porosity development and evolution in dolomite reservoirs primarily reflect the comprehensive effect of mineral dissolution/precipitation during [...] Read more.
Carbonate reservoirs, especially dolomite reservoirs, contain large reserves of oil and gas. The complex diagenesis is quite challenging to document the dolomite reservoirs formation and evolution mechanism. Porosity development and evolution in dolomite reservoirs primarily reflect the comprehensive effect of mineral dissolution/precipitation during dolomitization. In this study, multicomponent multiphase flow and solute transport simulation was employed to investigate dolomitization in the deep carbonate strata of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, where active exploration is currently under way. One- and two-dimensional numerical models with various temperatures, fluid compositions and hydrodynamic characteristics were established to quantificationally study dolomitization and its effect on porosity. After determining the main control factors, detailed petrologic characteristics in the studied area were also analyzed to establish four corresponding diagenetic numerical models under different sedimentary environments. These models enabled a systematic analysis of mineral dissolution/precipitation and a quantitative recovery of porosity evolution during various sedimentation-diagenesis processes. The results allowed for a quantitative evaluation and prediction of reservoir porosity, which would provide a basis for further oil and gas exploration in deep carbonate reservoirs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Reconstitution Approach for Whole Rock Major and Trace Element Compositions of Granulites from the Kapuskasing Structural Zone
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060573 - 25 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Current estimates for the composition of the lower continental crust show significant variation for the concentrations of the highly incompatible elements, including large uncertainties for the heat-producing elements. This has consequences for models of the formation of lower crust. For example, is lower [...] Read more.
Current estimates for the composition of the lower continental crust show significant variation for the concentrations of the highly incompatible elements, including large uncertainties for the heat-producing elements. This has consequences for models of the formation of lower crust. For example, is lower continental crust inherently poor in incompatible elements or has it become so after extraction of partial melts caused by thermal incubation? Answering these questions will require better agreement between estimates for the chemistry of the lower crust. One issue is that granulite samples may have been altered during ascent. Xenoliths often experience contamination from the entraining alkaline magma, potentially resulting in elevated concentrations of incompatible trace elements when analysed by conventional bulk rock techniques. To avoid this, we assessed an in situ approach for reconstructing whole rock compositions with granulites from the Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Superior Province, Canada. As terrain samples, they have not been affected by host magma contamination, and as subrecent glacial exposures, they show minimal modern weathering. We used scanning electron microscope electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) phase mapping to establish the modal mineralogy. Major and trace element concentrations of mineral phases were determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), respectively. These concentrations were combined with the modal mineralogies to obtain reconstructed whole rock compositions, which were compared to conventional bulk rock analyses. The reconstructed data show good reproducibility relative to the conventional analyses for samples with massive textures. However, the conventional bulk rock chemistry systematically yields higher K concentrations, which are hosted in altered feldspars. Thus, even in terrain samples, minor alteration can lead to elevated incompatible element estimates that may not represent genuine lower continental crust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Nanosized Mica Particles from Natural Mica by Sonication/Organic Intercalation Method for Pearlescent Pigment
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060572 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
In this study, the possibility of reducing natural mica particles to nanosizes without damaging its surface properties and smooth flake shape for pearlescent pigment application was investigated by using the sonication delamination method. For this purpose, the layer charge density of the natural [...] Read more.
In this study, the possibility of reducing natural mica particles to nanosizes without damaging its surface properties and smooth flake shape for pearlescent pigment application was investigated by using the sonication delamination method. For this purpose, the layer charge density of the natural mica mineral was reduced using surfactant intercalation followed by maximum exfoliation of mica interlayers with the help of sonication. Therefore, the delamination was achieved in a simple and more energy-efficient way by the sonication process and, in turn, the dimensions of mica were reduced to nanoscale with smooth surface features. With this new delamination process, the lowest particle thickness values were obtained as 0.061 microns after only 1 h sonication period. The results were found to be much significant when compared to the literature. Furthermore, the unique pearlescent pigment properties of mica particles were attributed to the characteristic shape and nanosized mica, which are coated with TiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic Granite Magmatism on the Arctic Margin of the Siberian Craton during the Kara-Siberia Oblique Collision and Plume Events
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060571 - 25 Jun 2020
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Abstract
We present new structural, petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic granites and associated igneous rocks of the Taimyr Peninsula. It is demonstrated that large volumes of granites were formed due to the oblique collision of the Kara microcontinent and [...] Read more.
We present new structural, petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic granites and associated igneous rocks of the Taimyr Peninsula. It is demonstrated that large volumes of granites were formed due to the oblique collision of the Kara microcontinent and the Siberian paleocontinent. Based on U-Th-Pb isotope data for zircons, we identify syncollisional (315–282 Ma) and postcollisional (264–248 Ma) varieties, which differ not only in age but also in petrochemical and geochemical features. It is also shown that as the postcollisional magmatism was coming to an end, Siberian plume magmatism manifested in the Kara orogen and was represented by basalts and dolerites of the trap formation (251–249 Ma), but also by differentiated and individual intrusions of monzonites, quartz monzonites and syenites (Early–Middle Triassic) with a mixed crustal-mantle source. We present a geodynamic model for the formation of the Kara orogen and discuss the relationship between collisional and trap magmatism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magmatic PGE Sulphide Mineralization in Clinopyroxenite from the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060570 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The Platreef, at the base of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, hosts platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization in association with base-metal sulphides (BMS) and platinum-group minerals (PGM). However, whilst a magmatic origin of the stratiform mineralization of the upper [...] Read more.
The Platreef, at the base of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, hosts platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization in association with base-metal sulphides (BMS) and platinum-group minerals (PGM). However, whilst a magmatic origin of the stratiform mineralization of the upper Platreef has been widely confirmed, the processes responsible for the PGE and BMS mineralization and metasomatism of the host rocks in the Platreef are still under discussion. In order to contribute to the present discussion, we present an integrated petrographical, mineral-chemical, whole-rock trace- and major-element, sulphur- and neodymium-isotope, study of Platreef footwall clinopyroxenite drill core samples from Overysel, which is located in the northern sector of the northern Bushveld limb. A metasomatic transformation of magmatic pyroxenite units to non-magmatic clinopyroxenite is in accordance with the petrography and whole-rock chemical analysis. The whole-rock data display lower SiO2, FeO, Na2O and Cr (<1700 ppm), and higher CaO, concentrations in the here-studied footwall Platreef clinopyroxenite samples than primary magmatic Platreef pyroxenite and norite. The presence of capped globular sulphides in some samples, which display differentiation into pyrrhotite and pentlandite in the lower, and chalcopyrite in the upper part, is attributed to the fractional crystallization of a sulphide liquid, and a downward transport of the blebs. In situ sulphur (V-CDT) isotope BMS data show isotopic signatures (δ34S = 0.9 to 3.1 ‰; Δ33S = 0.09 to 0.32‰) close to or within the pristine magmatic range. Elevated (non-zero) Δ33S values are common for Bushveld magmas, indicating contamination by older, presumably crustal sulphur in an early stage chamber, whereas magmatic δ34S values suggest the absence of local crustal contamination during emplacement. This is in accordance with the εNd (2.06 Ga) (chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR)) values, of −6.16 to −6.94, which are similar to those of the magmatic pyroxenite and norite of the Main Zone and the Platreef in the northern sector of the northern Bushveld limb. Base-metal sulphide textures and S–Se-ratios give evidence for a secondary S-loss during late- to post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration. The textural evidence, as well as the bulk S/Se ratios and sulphide S isotopes studies, suggest that the mineralization in both the less and the pervasively hydrothermally altered clinopyroxenite samples of Overysel are of magmatic origin. This is further supported by the PPGE (Rh, Pt, Pd) concentrations in the BMS and mass-balance calculations, in both of which large proportions of the whole-rock Pd and Rh are hosted by pentlandite, whereas Pt and the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru) were interpreted to mainly occur in discrete PGM. However, the presence of pentlandite with variable PGE concentrations on the thin section scale may be related to variations in the S content, already at S-saturation during magmatic formation, and/or post-solidification mobilization and redistribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Prediction of Fractures in Shale Using the Lithology Combination Index
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060569 - 25 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Fractures, which are related to tectonic activity and lithology, have a significant impact on the storage and production of oil and gas in shales. To analyze the impact of lithological factors on fracture development in shales, we selected the shale formation from the [...] Read more.
Fractures, which are related to tectonic activity and lithology, have a significant impact on the storage and production of oil and gas in shales. To analyze the impact of lithological factors on fracture development in shales, we selected the shale formation from the Da’anzhai member of the lower Jurassic shales in a weak tectonic deformation zone in the Sichuan Basin. We defined a lithology combination index (LCI), that is, an attribute quantity value of some length artificially defined by exploring the lithology combination. LCI contains information on shale content at a certain depth, the number of layers in a fixed length (lithology window), and the shale content in the lithology window. Fracture porosity is the percentage of pore volume to the apparent volume of the rock. In the experiment, fracture porosity was obtained using 50 samples from six wells, by observing rock slices under a microscope. The relationship between LCI and fracture porosity was analyzed based on machine learning, regression analysis, and weighting methods. The results show that LCI is able to represent the impact of multiple lithological factors (i.e., shale content at a certain depth, the number of layers in the lithology window, and the shale content in the lithology window). The LCI within a thickness of 2 m for the lithology window demonstrates a good linear relationship with fracture porosity. We therefore suggest LCI be used for fracture predictions of shale formations from weak tectonic deformation zones. Our proposed LCI and fracture prediction methods also provide implications for sandstone, mudstone, or carbonate formations under similar processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Shale Gas and Other Low Permeability Reservoirs)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Asbestos-Containing Materials Using Various Test Methods
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060568 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The advantages of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis are its non-destructive nature, reliability, fast and easy sample preparation, and low costs. XRPD analysis has been used for mineral identification and the quantitative/qualitative determination of various types of fibrous minerals in asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). [...] Read more.
The advantages of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis are its non-destructive nature, reliability, fast and easy sample preparation, and low costs. XRPD analysis has been used for mineral identification and the quantitative/qualitative determination of various types of fibrous minerals in asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). In order to test the detection limit of ACMs by XRPDD, standard samples with various concentrations of ACMs (0.1%, 1%, and 3%) were fabricated using three matrix materials (talc, vermiculite, and sepiolite). Asbestiform tremolite and chrysotile were identified in the XRPD profiles of the samples with 1% and 3% ACMs. Their integral intensities were positively correlated with the concentrations. However, the XRPD peak of asbestos was not found in the samples with 0.1% ACMs. Therefore, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to investigate the samples with a very low concentration of ACMs. Although the ACM concentration (0.1%) was negligible and its direct observation was time-consuming, electron microscopy allowed for the detection of asbestos in several matrix materials. Thus, a combination of XRPD and electron microscopy improve analytical performance and data reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Open AccessArticle
Activation Mechanism of Lead(II) to Ilmenite Flotation Using Salicylhydroxamic Acid as Collector
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060567 - 24 Jun 2020
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Abstract
In this study, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), which exhibits superior flotation performance to conventional collector benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), was first introduced in ilmenite flotation. The addition of lead(II) can significantly increase the recovery of ilmenite using SHA as collector. Thus, the adsorption mechanism of [...] Read more.
In this study, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), which exhibits superior flotation performance to conventional collector benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), was first introduced in ilmenite flotation. The addition of lead(II) can significantly increase the recovery of ilmenite using SHA as collector. Thus, the adsorption mechanism of SHA on lead(II)-activated ilmenite surface was systematically studied using micro-flotation tests, adsorption analysis, zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Micro-flotation results revealed that SHA had stronger collecting ability than BHA, and ilmenite floatability could be activated by lead ions with either SHA or BHA as collector. Ilmenite showed good floatability at pH 6–8 (over 90% recovery) in the presence of Pb2+ and SHA. In such conditions, the main lead species of Pb(OH)+ and Pb2+ acted as active sites and caused positive surface potential shifts, thereby increasing the adsorbed amounts of negatively charged SHA on the surface of the mineral. FTIR and XPS analyses suggested that the lead species was chemically adsorbed on the surface of ilmenite to form active sites chelated by SHA. Moreover, the free lead ions in solution might form the Pb–SHA complexes to adsorb on the mineral surface, thereby increasing the floatability of ilmenite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
U-Pb, Ar-Ar, and Re-Os Geochronological Constraints on Multiple Magmatic–Hydrothermal Episodes at the Lake George Mine, Central New Brunswick
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060566 - 23 Jun 2020
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Abstract
The Lake George antimony mine was at one time North America’s largest producer of antimony. Despite being widely known for the antimony mineralization, the deposit also hosts a range of styles of mineralization such as multiple generations of W-Mo bearing quartz veins as [...] Read more.
The Lake George antimony mine was at one time North America’s largest producer of antimony. Despite being widely known for the antimony mineralization, the deposit also hosts a range of styles of mineralization such as multiple generations of W-Mo bearing quartz veins as well as a system of As-Au bearing quartz–carbonate veins. In situ U-Pb zircon geochronology, using LA ICP-MS, of the Lake George granodiorite yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 419.6 ± 3.0 Ma. Step heating of phlogopite separated from the lamprophyre dykes produced a 40Ar/39Ar plateau segment date of 419.4 ± 1.4 Ma. Single molybdenite crystal analysis for Re-Os geochronology was conducted on two W-Mo-bearing quartz veins, which cross-cut altered granodiorite and altered metasedimentary rocks and yielded two dates of 415.7 ± 1.7 Ma and 416.1 ± 1.7 Ma respectively. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of muscovite from alteration associated with Au-bearing quartz–carbonate veins yielded one representative plateau segment date of 414.1 ± 1.3 Ma. The dates produced in this study revealed that the different magmatic–hydrothermal events at the Lake George mine occurred over approximately a 10-million-year period at the end of the Silurian and the start of the Devonian following the termination of the Acadian orogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic–Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralizing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Ediacaran Magmatism in the Yenisei Ridge and Evolution of the Southwestern Margin of the Siberian Craton
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060565 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
We present the first comprehensive data for the early Ediacaran stage of evolution of the western active continental margin of the Siberian Craton (Yenisei Ridge). U-Pb (SHRIMP-II SIMS) data for zircons from dikes of picrodolerites, quartz diorites, and leucocratic granites show that they [...] Read more.
We present the first comprehensive data for the early Ediacaran stage of evolution of the western active continental margin of the Siberian Craton (Yenisei Ridge). U-Pb (SHRIMP-II SIMS) data for zircons from dikes of picrodolerites, quartz diorites, and leucocratic granites show that they were emplaced at 625 ± 5, 623 ± 8, and 626 ± 5 Ma, respectively, which indicates a narrow time window of Ediacaran magmatic events. The mafic tholeiitic rocks have OIB and E-MORB mantle components in their magmatic sources. Mineralogical and geochemical observations showed that the mantle-sourced mafic melts assimilated some crustal material, forming Th-enriched dikes of intermediate composition and K- and Rb-enriched felsic rocks. The possible geodynamic conditions for the formation of these early Ediacaran dikes are shown and a geodynamic model is presented for the development of the Yenisei Ridge orogen from the late Cryogenian to the late Ediacaran. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Development of a Novel Mine Backfill Material: Foam Mine Fill
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060564 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 242
Abstract
This study aims to develop a novel mine backfill material called foam mine fill (FMF). A cellular structure is achieved by incorporating a premade foam into the backfill mixture using an air-entraining agent. FMF samples were prepared with copper-nickel mine tailings and normal [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a novel mine backfill material called foam mine fill (FMF). A cellular structure is achieved by incorporating a premade foam into the backfill mixture using an air-entraining agent. FMF samples were prepared with copper-nickel mine tailings and normal Portland cement. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of binder dosage, volume of entrained air, and foam mixing time on FMF unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and dry density. Moreover, a qualitative microscopic assessment investigated the effect of foam mixing time on air bubble structure. The pore size distribution and porosity of selected samples were investigated through mercury intrusion porosimetry. Relative to reference samples without entrained air, the UCS of FMF samples was 20–50% lower. However, the concomitant lower dry density (by up to 360 kg/m3) could enhance the safety of the underground working environment, especially in underhand cut-and-fill mining where miners and machinery work beneath the backfilled stope, and lower-density fill material would minimize the adverse effects of potential backfill failure. Prolonged foam mixing time led to a significant loss in UCS and total collapse of the air bubble structure. Other potential applications for FMF are areas where there are tailings shortages and as an alternative to hydraulic fill. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Additive Material on Controlling Chromium (Cr) Leaching from Coal Fly Ash
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060563 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Coal fly ash contains a considerable number of toxic elements that can be leached into the environment, such as chromium (Cr), thereby quickly leading to severe contaminations. In this research, the leaching behaviors of Cr were analyzed from 14 kinds of coal fly [...] Read more.
Coal fly ash contains a considerable number of toxic elements that can be leached into the environment, such as chromium (Cr), thereby quickly leading to severe contaminations. In this research, the leaching behaviors of Cr were analyzed from 14 kinds of coal fly ash samples collected from the electrostatic precipitators of coal-fired thermal power plants in Japan. The level of Cr concentration found in the samples varied from 0.00 to 82.93 μg/L. However, Cr toxicity depends on its valence state; Cr6+ is more toxic than Cr3+. Additive materials containing high calcium content were used to control the leaching concentration of Cr, such as Ca(OH)2, paper sludge ash, and blast furnace cement. This research used several instruments. An X-ray fluorescence was adopted to measure the major chemical composition of the fly ash samples and the additive materials. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to examine the calcium compounds in the additive materials. Inductively coupled plasma was used to determine the Cr leaching concentrations from the fly ash samples. Findings showed that the three-additive mixture had a promising effect on controlling the Cr leaching concentrations. These results were also supported by FactSage 7.2 simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Production in Mineral Processing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Panasqueira Rare Metal Granite Suites and Their Involvement in the Genesis of the World-Class Panasqueira W–Sn–Cu Vein Deposit: A Petrographic, Mineralogical, and Geochemical Study
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060562 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Elucidation of time-space relationships between a given wolframite deposit and the associated granites, the nature of the latter, and their alterations, is a prerequisite to establishing a genetic model. In the case of the world-class Panasqueira deposit, the problem is complicated because the [...] Read more.
Elucidation of time-space relationships between a given wolframite deposit and the associated granites, the nature of the latter, and their alterations, is a prerequisite to establishing a genetic model. In the case of the world-class Panasqueira deposit, the problem is complicated because the associated granites are concealed and until now poorly known. The study of samples from a recent drill hole and a new gallery allowed a new approach of the Panasqueira granite system. Detailed petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical studies were conducted, involving bulk major and trace analyses, BSE and CL imaging, EPMA, and SEM-EDS analyses of minerals. The apical part of the Pansqueira pluton consisted of a layered sequence of separate granite pulses, strongly affected by polyphase alteration. The use of pertinent geochemical diagrams (major and trace elements) facilitated the discrimination of magmatic and alteration trends. The studied samples were representative of a magmatic suite of the high-phosphorus peraluminous rare-metal granite type. The less fractionated members were porphyritic protolithionite granites (G1), the more evolved member was an albite-Li-muscovite rare metal granite (G4). Granites showed three types of alteration processes. Early muscovitisation (Ms0) affected the protolithionite in G1. Intense silicification affected the upper G4 cupola. Late muscovitisation (Fe–Li–Ms1) was pervasive in all facies, more intense in the G4 cupola, where quartz replacement yielded quartz-muscovite (pseudo-greisen) and muscovite only (episyenite) rocks. These alterations were prone to yield rare metals to the coeval quartz-wolframite veins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Highly Selective Reagent Scheme for Scheelite Flotation: Polyaspartic Acid and Pb–BHA Complexes
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060561 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Previous studies have proved that the lead complexes of benzohydroxamic acid (Pb–BHA) are effective collectors of scheelite flotations; however, the separation of scheelite from calcite needs depressants with high selectivity. In this study, we reported a novel depressant for calcite minerals, and Pb–BHA [...] Read more.
Previous studies have proved that the lead complexes of benzohydroxamic acid (Pb–BHA) are effective collectors of scheelite flotations; however, the separation of scheelite from calcite needs depressants with high selectivity. In this study, we reported a novel depressant for calcite minerals, and Pb–BHA served as the collector of scheelite. The flotation behavior of polyaspartic acid (PASP) in a scheelite and calcite flotation that uses Pb–BHA was determined via flotation experiments. Furthermore, the selective adsorption of PASP on the mineral surfaces and the effect of PASP on the adsorption of Pb–BHA on the mineral surfaces were investigated through zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), crystal chemistry calculations, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. Thus, PASP demonstrated high selectivity in both scheelite and calcite and contributed to the successful separation of scheelite from calcite. PASP exhibited a higher adsorption capacity and stronger chemisorption with the active sites of calcium atoms on the calcite surface. The crystal chemistry calculations indicated that the distance of the PASP functional groups matched with the calcium distance of a calcite mineral surface, which can be attributed to the selectivity of PASP. Furthermore, the adsorption of PASP impeded the adsorption of Pb–BHA on the calcite surfaces, whereas the opposite was the case for scheelite. The mutually reinforcing selectivity of PASP and Pb–BHA considerably contributes to the efficient flotation separation of scheelite from calcite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Metallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Hydrogen in Natural Mayenite
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060560 - 22 Jun 2020
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Abstract
In the last 15 years, zeolite-like mayenite, Ca12Al14O33, has attracted significant attention in material science for its variety of potential applications and for its simple composition. Hydrogen plays a key role in processes of electride material synthesis [...] Read more.
In the last 15 years, zeolite-like mayenite, Ca12Al14O33, has attracted significant attention in material science for its variety of potential applications and for its simple composition. Hydrogen plays a key role in processes of electride material synthesis from pristine mayenite: {Ca12Al14O32}2+(O2) → {Ca12Al14O32}2+(e)2. A presence of molecular hydrogen in synthetic mayenite was not confirmed by the direct methods. Spectroscopy investigations of mayenite group mineral fluorkyuygenite, with empirical formula (Ca12.09Na0.03)∑12.12(Al13.67Si0.12Fe3+0.07Ti4+0.01)∑12.87O31.96 [F2.02Cl0.02(H2O)3.22(H2S)0.150.59]∑6.00, show the presence of an unusual band at 4038 cm−1, registered for the first time and related to molecular hydrogen, apart from usual bands responding to vibrations of mayenite framework. The band at 4038 cm−1 corresponding to stretching vibrations of H2 is at lower frequencies in comparison with positions of analogous bands of gaseous H2 (4156 cm−1) and H2 adsorbed at active cation sites of zeolites (4050–4100 cm−1). This points out relatively strong linking of molecular hydrogen with the fluorkyuygenite framework. An appearance of H2 in the fluorkyuyginite with ideal formula Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], which formed after fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], is connected with its genesis. Fluorkyuygenite was detected in gehlenite fragments within brecciaed pyrometamorphic rock (Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel), which contains reduced mineral assemblage of the Fe-P-C system (native iron, schreibersite, barringerite, murashkoite, and cohenite). The origin of phosphide-bearing associations is connected with the effect of highly reduced gases on earlier formed pyrometamorphic rocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibrational (Infrared and Raman) Spectroscopy of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Resistivity Tomography as a Support Tool for Physicochemical Properties Assessment of Near-Surface Waste Materials in a Mining Tailing Pond (El Gorguel, SE Spain)
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060559 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The legacy of the mining industry has left a large number of tailing ponds in the Cartagena–La Unión mining district exposed to water and wind erosion, which causes serious environmental and health problems and requires remediation. Before applying any remediation technique, an intensive [...] Read more.
The legacy of the mining industry has left a large number of tailing ponds in the Cartagena–La Unión mining district exposed to water and wind erosion, which causes serious environmental and health problems and requires remediation. Before applying any remediation technique, an intensive sampling of the materials infilling the pond is required to determine the geochemistry of the pond, which will condition the remediation process. However, sampling the large number of tailing ponds that compose the district could be expensive. Thus, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as a non-invasive tool to provide an image of spatial subsurface resistivity distribution and its relation to the physicochemical composition of near-surface mine wastes. To achieve this objective, three short ERT profiles were conducted, and 12 samples in each profile were collected at different depths for its geochemical characterization. Several non-linear regression models were fitted to predict physicochemical properties and metal concentrations from electrical resistivity measures. As a result, a high resistivity area was depicted in the ERT profiles G2 and G3, while the low resistivity ERT profile G1 was also obtained in accordance with the site’s surficial characteristics. Relationships among low resistivity values and high salinity, clay content, high metal concentrations, and mobility were established. Specifically, calibrated models were obtained for electrical conductivity, particle sizes of 0.02–50 µm and 50–2000 µm, total Zn and Cd concentration, and bioavailable Ni, Cd, and Fe. The ERT technique was shown to be a useful tool for the approximation of the location and distribution of the highest ranges of fine particle sizes, moisture, and, to a lesser extent, metal accumulation in the near-surface waste materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Abandoned Mines)
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Open AccessReview
Platinum Group Elements in Geosphere and Anthroposphere: Interplay among the Global Reserves, Urban Ores, Markets and Circular Economy
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060558 - 21 Jun 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Industrial and strategic significance of platinum group elements (PGEs)—Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt—makes them irreplaceable; furthermore, some PGEs are used by investors as “safe heaven” assets traded in the commodity markets. This review analyzes PGEs from various aspects: their place in the [...] Read more.
Industrial and strategic significance of platinum group elements (PGEs)—Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt—makes them irreplaceable; furthermore, some PGEs are used by investors as “safe heaven” assets traded in the commodity markets. This review analyzes PGEs from various aspects: their place in the geosphere, destiny in the anthroposphere, and opportunity in the economy considering interactions among the exploration, recycling of urban ores, trade markets, speculative rhetoric, and changes required for successful technological progress towards the implementation of sustainability. The global market of PGEs is driven by several concerns: costs for extraction/recycling; logistics; the demand of industries; policies of waste management. Diversity of application and specific chemical properties, as well as improper waste management, make the recycling of PGEs complicated. The processing approach depends on composition and the amount of available waste material, and so therefore urban ores are a significant source of PGEs, especially when the supply of elements is limited by geopolitical or market tensions. Recycling potential of urban ores is particularly important in a long-term view disregarding short-term economic fluctuations, and it should influence investment flows in the advancement of innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Processing of Alternative and Urban Ores)
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemical Signature and Magnetic Fabric of Capinha Massif (Fundão, Central Portugal): Genesis, Emplacement and Relation with W–Sn Mineralizations
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060557 - 20 Jun 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The Fundão–Serra da Estrela–Capinha (FSEC) region is characterized by peraluminous to metaluminous Variscan granites intrusive in a complex and thick metasedimentary sequence. This work seeks to characterize the Capinha granite (CG), understand its spatial and genetic relationship with the host Peroviseu–Seia (PS), Belmonte–Covilhã [...] Read more.
The Fundão–Serra da Estrela–Capinha (FSEC) region is characterized by peraluminous to metaluminous Variscan granites intrusive in a complex and thick metasedimentary sequence. This work seeks to characterize the Capinha granite (CG), understand its spatial and genetic relationship with the host Peroviseu–Seia (PS), Belmonte–Covilhã (BC) and Fáguas granites, and evaluate its metallogenic potential. To achieve these goals, a multidisciplinary approach was undertaken, including field work and identification of the petrography and microstructures, whole rock geochemistry and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Four distinct and independent differentiation trends were identified in the granites, namely, PS, BC, Fráguas and CG. The PS and BC played a role as host rocks for the W and Sn mineralizations. The Fráguas granite is anomalous in Sn and spatially related to the Sn–Li mineralizations, while the CG is anomalous in W and spatially related to W–Sn mineralizations. The post-tectonic CG is a peraluminous ilmenite-type whose ascent and emplacement were tectonically controlled. The Capinha magma used the intersection between the 25° N and 155° N strike–slip crustal scale faults for passive ascent and emplacement during the late-Variscan extensional phases. The magnetic fabric was drawn using an asymmetric tongue-shaped laccolith for CG. CG experienced two brittle deformation stages that marked the maximum compressive rotation from NE–SW to NNW–SSE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granite-Related Mineralization Systems )
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Open AccessArticle
Separation of Aluminum and Iron from Lanthanum—A Comparative Study of Solvent Extraction and Hydrolysis-Precipitation
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060556 - 20 Jun 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
This study investigates the removal of aluminum and iron from rare earth element (REE) containing solutions by solvent extraction with saponified naphthenic acid and by hydrolysis-precipitation. The results emphasize both, the preferential application as well as limitations of every method. We find that [...] Read more.
This study investigates the removal of aluminum and iron from rare earth element (REE) containing solutions by solvent extraction with saponified naphthenic acid and by hydrolysis-precipitation. The results emphasize both, the preferential application as well as limitations of every method. We find that emulsification occurring during the solvent extraction of aluminum is caused by its slow extraction rate in comparison to the neutralization reaction and by the proximity of the pH value required for aluminum extraction and the pH value at which hydrolysis of aluminum occurs. However, by choosing a long shaking time of at least 4 h, the emulsion recedes. The formation of emulsion can be avoided by strict control of pH value during the extraction. Moreover, the loading capacity of the organic phase with aluminum is limited due to the strong increase in viscosity of the organic phase with increasing aluminum concentration and due to the gel formation. Regarding the extraction of iron, the amount of extracted ions is limited due to the overlap of the pH range required for the extraction with pH range in which sparingly soluble iron oxides/hydroxides are formed. In summary, aluminum and iron can be simultaneously removed from REE-sulfate solution by solvent extraction with saponified naphthenic acid in one extraction stage only from diluted solutions. However, in comparison to the hydrolysis-precipitation method, a higher purity of the solution is achieved. A complete removal of aluminum and iron from concentrated solutions can be achieved in two stages. First, the content of aluminum and iron should be reduced by hydrolysis-precipitation. After that, a high-purity solution can be obtained by subsequent solvent extraction by saponified naphthenic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Metals Extraction and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery of Co, Li, and Ni from Spent Li-Ion Batteries by the Inorganic and/or Organic Reducer Assisted Leaching Method
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060555 - 20 Jun 2020
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The battery powder (anodic and cathodic mass) manually separated from spent Li-ion batteries used in laptops was subjected to acidic reductive leaching to recover the Co, Li, and Ni contained in it. In the laboratory experiments, 1.5 M sulfuric acid was used as [...] Read more.
The battery powder (anodic and cathodic mass) manually separated from spent Li-ion batteries used in laptops was subjected to acidic reductive leaching to recover the Co, Li, and Ni contained in it. In the laboratory experiments, 1.5 M sulfuric acid was used as the leaching agent and the reducing agents were 30% H2O2 solution or/and glutaric acid. Glutaric acid is a potential new reducing agent in the leaching process of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The influence of the type of the used reducer on obtained recovery degrees of Co, Li, and Ni as well as the synergism of the two tested reducing compounds were analyzed. As a result, it was determined that it is possible to efficiently hydrometallurgically separate Co, Li, and Ni from battery powder into solutions. The highest recovery degrees of the investigated metals (Co: 87.85%; Li: 99.91%; Ni: 91.46%) were obtained for samples where two reducers, perhydrol and glutaric acid, were added, thus confirming the assumed synergic action of H2O2 and C5H8O4 in a given reaction environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rare Metals Extraction and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Some Complementary Data about the Spectroscopic Properties of Manganese Ions in Spodumene Crystals
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060554 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The color change of the pink and colorless LiAlSi2O6 spodumene crystal due to irradiation and heating is explained. The hypothesis about the change of Mn3+ to Mn4+ after irradiation was rejected. For the studied crystals, it was shown [...] Read more.
The color change of the pink and colorless LiAlSi2O6 spodumene crystal due to irradiation and heating is explained. The hypothesis about the change of Mn3+ to Mn4+ after irradiation was rejected. For the studied crystals, it was shown that both Mn2+ and Mn3+ occupy the M2 (not the M1) crystal site. Spodumene crystals which are primary pink (kunzite) contain Mn3+ (and Mn2+) at the M1 site. By contrast, those that become pink due to irradiation and heating contain Mn3+ and Mn2+ at the M2 site. The emission band of the former is 625 nm, and for the latter, it is 591 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Electrochemical Interaction of a Thiol Collector with Chalcopyrite and Galena in the Presence of a Mixed Microbial Community
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060553 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
High microbial cell counts have been recorded in sewage waters employed as process water in mineral beneficiation plants across the world. The presence of these microbes can negatively impact flotation performance through mineral passivation, although some microbes improve flotation performance as investigated in [...] Read more.
High microbial cell counts have been recorded in sewage waters employed as process water in mineral beneficiation plants across the world. The presence of these microbes can negatively impact flotation performance through mineral passivation, although some microbes improve flotation performance as investigated in various bio-flotation studies. The current study aims to understand the electrochemical behaviour of minerals in the presence of a sodium ethyl xanthate (SEX) collector and microbes originating from a sulphide ore processing plant in South Africa. The electrochemical response was correlated to observe flotation performance. Mixed potential measurements were conducted in parallel to microflotation tests, to assess the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity induced on sulphide minerals adapted to microbe-laden synthetic plant water. Sulphide minerals’ mixed potentials and interactions of SEX with sulphide minerals were dramatically reduced in the presence of the mixed microbial community (MMC). The observations were correlated with poor flotation efficacy noted in microflotation tests. These fundamental results shed light on how the adsorption of thiol collectors on sulphide minerals is adversely affected by microbes, prompting a discussion on flotation process monitoring when mineral beneficiation is conducted using microbe-laden water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water within Minerals Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Authigenic Carbonates in the Water–Biota–Bottom Sediments’ System of Small Lakes (South of Western Siberia)
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060552 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
We studied 46 small, drainless lakes in various landscape types: The sub-taiga (Vasyugan plain), forest–steppe (Baraba lowland), and steppe and subzone of ribbon forests (Kulunda plain). Sampling of lake components (sediments, water, and biota) was performed. The materials were analyzed via a combination [...] Read more.
We studied 46 small, drainless lakes in various landscape types: The sub-taiga (Vasyugan plain), forest–steppe (Baraba lowland), and steppe and subzone of ribbon forests (Kulunda plain). Sampling of lake components (sediments, water, and biota) was performed. The materials were analyzed via a combination of modern analytical methods (atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry). It was found that in the south of Western Siberia, lakes with a bicarbonate-sodium water composition are widespread against the background of general landscape zoning. This composition contributes to the abundant growth of biota in the lakes, which leads to the processes of authigenic carbonate formation from calcite–dolomite series and aragonite on geochemical barriers, i.e., drifting biota–water, submerged biota–water, and water–bottom sediments against a background of terrigenous demolition and organic matter accumulation. The article shows the differences in the composition and structure of low-temperature carbonate minerals formed on various geochemical barriers. It was found that low-magnesium calcite and aragonite are the most common authigenic carbonates in small lakes in the south of Western Siberia and are formed on all three geochemical barriers in lakes. High-magnesium calcites and Ca-excess dolomites are formed only at the water–bottom sediment barrier in lakes with HCO3–Na and Cl–HCO3–Na water composition at pH > 9 and with a total dissolved solids > 3 g·L−1 (in some lakes of HCO3-Na composition with a TDS < 3 g·L−1 and pH > 9). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral and Geochemical Composition of Lake Sediments)
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Abundance and Compositional Variation of Silicates, Oxides and Phosphates in the W-Sn-Rich Lodes of the Panasqueira Mine (Portugal): Implications for the Ore-Forming Process
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060551 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Panasqueira is a world-class W-Sn-Cu lode-type deposit located in Portugal. It consists of a dense swarm of subhorizontal quartz lodes criss-crossed by several ENE–WSW and N–S fault zones, bordering Late Variscan granite and hosted in Late Ediacaran—Early Cambrian metasediments. The relative abundance and [...] Read more.
Panasqueira is a world-class W-Sn-Cu lode-type deposit located in Portugal. It consists of a dense swarm of subhorizontal quartz lodes criss-crossed by several ENE–WSW and N–S fault zones, bordering Late Variscan granite and hosted in Late Ediacaran—Early Cambrian metasediments. The relative abundance and compositional variation (assessed with EPMA) of the main silicates, oxides and phosphates forming the quartz lodes and their margins were examined, aiming to explore: (i) mineral and geochemical zonation at the mine scale; and (ii) some conclusions on the chemical nature of prevalent fluid inflows and T-conditions of mineral deposition. Quartz lodes nearby or far from the known greisen-granite cupola display significant differences, reflecting multiple fluid influxes of somewhat distinct composition related to various opening and closing events extending for several My, ranging from an early “oxide–silicate stage” (OSS) to a “main sulfide stage” (MSS), and further on to a post-ore carbonate stage (POCS); however, a rejuvenation event occurred after MSS. The onset of OSS was placed at ca. 299 ± 5 Ma and the rejuvenation event at ca. 292 Ma. The OSS was confined to ≈500 ≤ T ≤ 320 °C, following rutile and tourmaline growth under ≈640 ≤ T ≤ 540 °C (depending on aSiO2). The rejuvenation event (≈440–450 °C) preceded a late chlorite growth (≈250–270 °C) and the progression towards POCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granite-Related Mineralization Systems )
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Open AccessArticle
The Secret ‘After Life’ of Foraminifera: Big Things Out of Small
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060550 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Calcareous and siliceous microorganisms are common components of mudrocks, and can be important in terms of stratigraphy and environmental interpretation. In addition, such microorganisms can have a significant ‘after life’, through post-mortem alteration, and represent a potential source of additional information about the [...] Read more.
Calcareous and siliceous microorganisms are common components of mudrocks, and can be important in terms of stratigraphy and environmental interpretation. In addition, such microorganisms can have a significant ‘after life’, through post-mortem alteration, and represent a potential source of additional information about the diagenetic and deformation history of the rock unit. Some examples of the latter are illustrated in this study from foraminifera within a Cretaceous black shale of Colombia. This includes foraminifera tests acting as understudied repositories of authigenic calcite cement, and of elements such as Ba, Zn, Fe and S through the formation of baryte, sphalerite and iron sulphides (pyrite, marcasite). Such repositories, within the body chambers of foraminiferal tests, can provide important windows into the diagenetic processes within mudstones. If calcite cement is not recognised or separated from biogenic calcite, the depositional calcite budget can be easily overestimated, skewing the application of mudrock classification schemes, and affecting environmental interpretation including that of productivity. The elements Ba, Zn and Fe (often in ratio with Al) are commonly utilised as geochemical proxies of environmental parameters (productivity, bottom water redox conditions, etc.). Therefore, the presence of significant amounts of baryte, sphalerite and pyrite-marcasite (within foraminifera) should be noted and their origins (source and timing) investigated based on their spatial relationships before making environmental deductions based on geochemical analysis alone. Additionally, commonly observed marginal shell damage of many of the observed foraminifera is reported. We interpret this damage, for the first time, as an indicator of lateral dissolution, brought about by horizontal foreshortening during orogenesis. This is also supported by the occurrence of microscale anastomosing horizontal to inclined baryte-filled fractures within the mudstone matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterisation of Mudrocks: Textures and Mineralogy)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal State, Thickness, and Composition of the Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Upper Muna Kimberlite Field (Siberian Craton) Constrained by Clinopyroxene Xenocrysts and Comparison with Daldyn and Mirny Fields
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060549 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
To gain better insight into the thermal state and composition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Upper Muna kimberlite field (Siberian craton), a suite of 323 clinopyroxene xenocrysts and 10 mantle xenoliths from the Komsomolskaya-Magnitnaya (KM) pipe have been studied. We selected 188 [...] Read more.
To gain better insight into the thermal state and composition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Upper Muna kimberlite field (Siberian craton), a suite of 323 clinopyroxene xenocrysts and 10 mantle xenoliths from the Komsomolskaya-Magnitnaya (KM) pipe have been studied. We selected 188 clinopyroxene grains suitable for precise pressure (P)-temperature (T) estimation using single-clinopyroxene thermobarometry. The majority of P-T points lie along a narrow, elongated field in P-T space with a cluster of high-T and high-P points above 1300 °C, which deviates from the main P-T trend. The latter points may record a thermal event associated with kimberlite magmatism (a “stepped” or “kinked” geotherm). In order to eliminate these factors, the steady-state mantle paleogeotherm for the KM pipe at the time of initiation of kimberlite magmatism (Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous) was constrained by numerical fitting of P-T points below T = 1200 °C. The obtained mantle paleogeotherm is similar to the one from the nearby Novinka pipe, corresponding to a ~34–35 mW/m2 surface heat flux, 225–230 km lithospheric thickness, and 110–120 thick “diamond window” for the Upper Muna field. Coarse peridotite xenoliths are consistent in their P-T estimates with the steady-state mantle paleogeotherm derived from clinopyroxene xenocrysts, whereas porphyroclastic ones plot within the cluster of high-T and high-P clinopyroxene xenocrysts. Discrimination using Cr2O3 demonstrates that peridotitic clinopyroxene xenocrysts are prevalent (89%) among all studied 323 xenocrysts, suggesting that the Upper Muna mantle is predominantly composed of peridotites. Clinopyroxene-poor or -free peridotitic rocks such as harzburgites and dunites may be evident at depths of 140–180 km in the Upper Muna mantle. Judging solely from the thermal considerations and the thickness of the lithosphere, the KM and Novinka pipes should have excellent diamond potential. However, all pipes in the Upper Muna field have low diamond grades (<0.9, in carats/ton), although the lithosphere thickness is almost similar to the values obtained for the high-grade Udachnaya and Mir pipes from the Daldyn and Mirny fields, respectively. Therefore, other factors have affected the diamond grade of the Upper Muna kimberlite field. Full article
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