Special Issue "Application of Mineral-Based Amendments"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Maja Radziemska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: environmental chemistry; environmental pollution; soil amendments; soil reclamation; risk minimization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I have the pleasure of inviting you to participate in a Special Issue of Minerals devoted to the Application of Mineral-based Amendments.

This Special Issue will focus on recent progress in mineral-based amendments with various applications in many branches of industrial, agricultural, and environmental engineering. In addition, the mineralogical aspects of these amendments will also be considered.

As a result of ongoing urbanization, excessive exploitation of the environment, and constantly increasing human populations, the level of contamination of individual components of the natural environment (water, soil, air) has been increasing. Pressure on the environment connected with different contaminations exerts a real and constantly increasing influence on the quality of life. Along with an increased ecological awareness of society, we observe an increasing role of the reclamation of degraded areas. Thus, it is very important to seek out new solutions for contaminated areas, where the application of mineral-based amendments is gaining increasing importance. In addition, properties of all mineral-based amendments can be improved with advanced modifications to extend their applications. The rate of innovation and dissemination of new solutions plays a major role in this case.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together researchers from various disciplines to increase the number of possible applications of mineral-based amendments. I especially encourage papers on the development of novel applications of mineral-based amendments with an interdisciplinary perspective.

Dr. Maja Radziemska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Applied amendments
  • Mineral-based materials
  • New technologies
  • Agriculture and pharmaceutical uses
  • Environmental implications
  • Laboratory and field studies

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Mechanical Performance of Concrete Exposed to Sewage—The Influence of Time and pH
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050544 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Contact of concrete with aggressive factors, technological structures, reduces their durability through microstructural changes. This work presents the results of research on determining the influence of post grit chamber sewage and sewage from the active sludge chamber in three different environments, i.e., acidic, [...] Read more.
Contact of concrete with aggressive factors, technological structures, reduces their durability through microstructural changes. This work presents the results of research on determining the influence of post grit chamber sewage and sewage from the active sludge chamber in three different environments, i.e., acidic, neutral, and alkaline, on the structure and compressive strength of concrete. Compressive strength tests were carried out after 11.5 months of concrete cubes being submerged in the solutions and compared. To complete the studies, the photos of the microstructure were done. This made it possible to accentuate the relationship between the microstructure and performance characteristics of concrete. The time of storing the cubes in both acidic environments (sewage from post grit chamber and active sludge chamber) has a negative influence on their compressive strength. The compressive strength of cubes decreases along with the time. Compressive strength of cubes increases with increasing pH of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
A Mineral By-Product from Gasification of Poultry Feathers for Removing Cd from Highly Contaminated Synthetic Wastewater
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121048 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 549
Abstract
Ash from poultry feather gasification was investigated as an adsorbent for Cd removal from synthetic wastewater under a range of operational conditions: initial pH (2–8) and salinity (8–38 mS/cm) of wastewater, ash dosage (2.5–50 g/L), Cd concentration (25–800 mg/L) and contact time (5–720 [...] Read more.
Ash from poultry feather gasification was investigated as an adsorbent for Cd removal from synthetic wastewater under a range of operational conditions: initial pH (2–8) and salinity (8–38 mS/cm) of wastewater, ash dosage (2.5–50 g/L), Cd concentration (25–800 mg/L) and contact time (5–720 min). The ash was highly alkaline and had low surface area and micropores averaging 1.12 nm in diameter. Chemical/mineralogical analysis revealed a high content of P2O5 (39.9 wt %) and CaO (35.5 wt %), and the presence of calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium. It contained only trace amounts of heavy metals, BTEX, PAHs and PCBs, making it a safe mineral by-product. Cd adsorption was described best with Langmuir and pseudo-second order models. At pH 5, an ash dosage of 5 g/L, 40 min contact time and 100 mg Cd/L, 99% of Cd was removed from wastewater. The salinity did not affect Cd sorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was very high (126.6 mg/g). Surface precipitation was the main mechanism of Cd removal, possibly accompanied by ion exchange between Cd and Ca, coprecipitation of Cd with Ca-mineral components and Cd complexation with phosphate surface sites. Poultry ash effectively removes high concentrations of toxic Cd from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Quantitative Analysis of Asbestos-Containing Materials Using Various Test Methods
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060568 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
The advantages of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis are its non-destructive nature, reliability, fast and easy sample preparation, and low costs. XRPD analysis has been used for mineral identification and the quantitative/qualitative determination of various types of fibrous minerals in asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). [...] Read more.
The advantages of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis are its non-destructive nature, reliability, fast and easy sample preparation, and low costs. XRPD analysis has been used for mineral identification and the quantitative/qualitative determination of various types of fibrous minerals in asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). In order to test the detection limit of ACMs by XRPDD, standard samples with various concentrations of ACMs (0.1%, 1%, and 3%) were fabricated using three matrix materials (talc, vermiculite, and sepiolite). Asbestiform tremolite and chrysotile were identified in the XRPD profiles of the samples with 1% and 3% ACMs. Their integral intensities were positively correlated with the concentrations. However, the XRPD peak of asbestos was not found in the samples with 0.1% ACMs. Therefore, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to investigate the samples with a very low concentration of ACMs. Although the ACM concentration (0.1%) was negligible and its direct observation was time-consuming, electron microscopy allowed for the detection of asbestos in several matrix materials. Thus, a combination of XRPD and electron microscopy improve analytical performance and data reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
The Simultaneous Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Multicomponent Aqueous Solutions by Their Sorption onto Selected Natural and Synthetic Zeolites
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040343 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Natural and synthetic aluminosilicate minerals, in particular zeolites, are considered to be very useful in remediation processes, such as purification of waters polluted with heavy metals. That is due to their unique and outstanding physico-chemical properties, rendering them highly efficient, low-cost, and environmentally [...] Read more.
Natural and synthetic aluminosilicate minerals, in particular zeolites, are considered to be very useful in remediation processes, such as purification of waters polluted with heavy metals. That is due to their unique and outstanding physico-chemical properties, rendering them highly efficient, low-cost, and environmentally friendly sorbents of various environmental pollutants. The aim of this study was to examine the sorption capacity of four selected zeolites: A natural zeolite and three synthetic zeolites (3A, 10A, and 13X), towards zinc and cadmium present in multicomponent aqueous solutions, in relation to identified sorption mechanisms. It was stated that synthetic zeolites 3A and 10A were the most efficient in simultaneous removal of zinc and cadmium from aqueous solutions. Additionally, zeolite 10A was demonstrated to be the mineral best coping with prolonged pollution of water with those elements. The mechanism of sorption identified for tested minerals was physisorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Phosphorus Inactivation in Lake Sediments Using Calcite Materials and Controlled Resuspension—Mechanism and Efficiency
Minerals 2020, 10(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030223 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The efficiency and mechanism of orthophosphate—soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)—inactivation in eutrophic lakes using controlled resuspension and calcite application into the sediment were investigated in this study. Two calcite materials, industrially produced precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and natural ground limestone (GCC), were tested in [...] Read more.
The efficiency and mechanism of orthophosphate—soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)—inactivation in eutrophic lakes using controlled resuspension and calcite application into the sediment were investigated in this study. Two calcite materials, industrially produced precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and natural ground limestone (GCC), were tested in short-term batch experiments and long-term sediment incubations under oxic and anoxic conditions. Maximum SRP adsorption capacity calculated using Langmuir model for PCC (3.11 mg PO43− g−1) was 6 times higher than of GCC (0.43 mg PO43− g−1), reflecting substantial difference in the surface area of calcite materials (12.36 and 1.72 m2 g−1, respectively). PCC applied into the sediment during controlled resuspension reduced SRP release by 95% (oxic) and 78% (anoxic incubation) at medium dose (0.75 kg m−2) and suppressed it completely at high dose (1.5 kg m−2) for at least 3 months, irrespectively of incubation conditions. The maximum achieved reduction of SRP release using GCC was also meaningful: 78% under oxic and 56% under anoxic conditions, but this required very high doses of this material (6 kg m−2). Mechanisms of SRP inactivation by calcites were: (1) adsorption of SRP during application into the resuspended sediment and (2) precipitation of calcium-phosphate compounds (Ca-PO4) during subsequent incubation, which was reflected in a substantial increase in the HCl-P fraction (phosphorus extractable in 0.5 M HCl) in sediments enriched with calcite, irrespectively of oxygen presence. However, anoxia strongly promoted the formation of this fraction: the rise of HCl-P was 2–6 times higher in anoxic than in oxic conditions, depending on the dose and form of calcite applied. The results showed that SRP inactivation using the controlled resuspension method is only successful if highly efficient reactive materials are used, due to large amount of SRP being released from sediment during resuspension. Thus, calcite materials exhibiting high adsorption capacity should be used in this lakes’ restoration technology to ensure fast and sufficient SRP inactivation. The rise in the HCl-P fraction in sediment suggests SRP inactivation through precipitation of relatively stable Ca-PO4 minerals, which makes calcite a suitable agent for sustainable, long term SRP inactivation. As anoxic conditions promoted formation of these compounds, calcite seems to be a promising SRP inactivation agent in highly reductive sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Phosphorus and Metals Leaching from Green Roof Substrates and Aggregates Used in Their Composition
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020112 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Green roofs are constructions made of different layers, each serving a dedicated function. Substrates and materials used in their composition are essential from the point of view of rainwater retention and plant development, but they may have an adverse effect on runoff quality. [...] Read more.
Green roofs are constructions made of different layers, each serving a dedicated function. Substrates and materials used in their composition are essential from the point of view of rainwater retention and plant development, but they may have an adverse effect on runoff quality. Literature studies show that phosphorus and heavy metals are of main importance. The total roofs area covered with green increased in the last years in cities as they are efficient in retention of rainwater and delaying of the runoff, therefore, protecting the cities against floods. As green roofs filtrate a significant amount of rainwater, materials used in substrates composition should be carefully selected to protect urban receivers against pollution. The aim of this study was to assess phosphorus and heavy metals leaching from different green roof substrates and their components with the focus on green roof runoff quality. Both commercially made green roof substrates and often used compounds (construction aggregates) were tested in laboratory batch tests for P, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Zn content in extracts. Based on the results of this study, it could be emphasized that a large part of commonly used construction aggregates can be a source of phosphorus, some also can release elevated values of nickel. Therefore, the materials should be carefully tested before use in the green roof substrate composition, not only for their physical properties reflecting water retention capacity, but also for chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) by Mineral-Based Amendments: Remediation of Contaminated Soils in Post-Industrial Sites
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020087 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
In many post-industrial sites, the high contents and high mobility of different potentially toxic elements (PTEs) make the soils unsuitable for effective management and use. Therefore, immobilization of PTE seems to be the best remediation option for such areas. In the present study, [...] Read more.
In many post-industrial sites, the high contents and high mobility of different potentially toxic elements (PTEs) make the soils unsuitable for effective management and use. Therefore, immobilization of PTE seems to be the best remediation option for such areas. In the present study, soil samples were collected in post-industrial areas in Northeastern Poland. The analyzed soil was characterized by especially high contents of Cd (22 mg·kg−1), Pb (13 540 mg·kg−1), and Zn (8433 mg·kg−1). Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and two types of mineral-based amendments were used to determine their combined remediation effect on PTE immobilization. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of chalcedonite and halloysite on plant growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence, the leaf greenness index (SPAD), PTE uptake, and the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil. The application of chalcedonite resulted in the greatest increase in soil pH, whereas halloysite contributed to the greatest reduction in the contents of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr in soil, compared with the control treatment. The addition of halloysite significantly increased plant biomass. The application of mineral-based amendments increased the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in yellow lupine leaves. The leaf greenness index was highest in plants growing in soil amended with chalcedonite. The results of this study suggest that mineral-based amendments combined with yellow lupine could potentially be used for aided phytostabilization of multi-PTE contaminated soil in a post-industrial area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Novel Application of Mineral By-Products Obtained from the Combustion of Bituminous Coal–Fly Ash in Chemical Engineering
Minerals 2020, 10(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10010066 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
The aim of this work was the chemical modification of mineral by-products obtained from the combustion of bituminous coal (FA) treated with hydrogen peroxide (30%), used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(III) and Cd(II) ions and crystal violet (CV) from a [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was the chemical modification of mineral by-products obtained from the combustion of bituminous coal (FA) treated with hydrogen peroxide (30%), used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(III) and Cd(II) ions and crystal violet (CV) from a mixture of heavy metal and organic dye in a solution containing either Cr(III)–CV or Cd(II)–CV. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that the mechanism of Cr(III)–CV or Cd(II)–CV sorption onto FA–H2O2 includes ion-exchange and surface adsorption processes. The effect of pH on the adsorption equilibrium was studied. The maximum adsorption was found for pH values of 9. The values of the reduced chi-square test (χ2/degree of freedom (DoF)) and the determination coefficient R2 obtained for the sorbate of the considered isotherms were compared. Studies of equilibrium in a bi-component system by means of the extended Langmuir (EL), extended Langmuir–Freundlich (ELF), and Jain–Snoeyink (JS) models were conducted. The estimation of parameters of sorption isotherms in a bi-component system, either Cr(III)–CV or Cd(II)–CV, showed that the best-fitting calculated values of experimental data for both sorbates were obtained with the JS model (Cr(III) or CV) and the EL model (Cd(II) or CV). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of FA–H2O2 were found to be 775, 570 and 433 mg·g−1 for Cr, Cd and CV, respectively. Purification water containing direct Cr(III) or Cd(II) ions and CV was made with 90%, 98% and 80% efficiency, respectively, after 1.5 h. It was found that the chemical enhancement of FA from coal combustion by H2O2 treatment yields an effective and economically feasible material in chemical engineering for the treatment of effluents containing basic dyes and Cr(III) and Cd(II) ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Reuse of Dunite Mining Waste and Subproducts for the Stabilization of Metal(oid)s in Polluted Soils
Minerals 2019, 9(8), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9080481 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
The circular economy seeks to minimize the use of raw materials and waste generation. In this context, here we addressed the use of dunite mining tailings and subproducts to stabilize metal(oid)s in polluted soils. We first characterized the dunite mining tailings and subproducts, [...] Read more.
The circular economy seeks to minimize the use of raw materials and waste generation. In this context, here we addressed the use of dunite mining tailings and subproducts to stabilize metal(oid)s in polluted soils. We first characterized the dunite mining tailings and subproducts, and a paradigmatic polluted soil in depth to determine their chemical and mineralogical properties. Experimental trials using Brassica juncea L. were performed to evaluate the impact of the two materials on vegetation growth, edaphic properties and pollutant stabilization yields. To this end, the plants were grown over 75 days in 1 kg pots containing the polluted soil amended with the dunite materials. Notably, both amendments caused a dramatic decrease in the available Zn and a moderate reduction in available Cu, Cd and Pb. In contrast, the concentration of available As was not modified. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was improved by treatment with the amendments, allowing an increase in the biomass harvested. The immobilization mechanism achieved was probably due to an increase in pH and CEC. In conclusion, the dunite tailings and subproducts could be effective amendments for stabilizing polluted soil. This work paves the way for additional studies with distinct types of soils and conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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Article
Using an Environment-Friendly Fertiliser from Sewage Sludge Ash with the Addition of Bacillus megaterium
Minerals 2019, 9(7), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9070423 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is considered to be a valuable secondary raw material for the production of phosphorous fertilisers. This method of recycling may also be a solution to the problem posed by the growing amount of this waste. An innovative suspension fertiliser [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is considered to be a valuable secondary raw material for the production of phosphorous fertilisers. This method of recycling may also be a solution to the problem posed by the growing amount of this waste. An innovative suspension fertiliser (SSAB) was produced from SSA and the phosphorus-solubilising bacteria Bacillus megaterium and was tested in a field experiment in the presence of spring wheat as the test plant in comparison to conventional fertilisers (superphosphate, phosphorite). Two variants of plant protection were also adopted: full chemical plant protection (+PP) and no plant protection (−PP). Besides affecting yield, it was expected that SSAB would not worsen the state of the soil environment. This paper presents SSAB effect on soil moisture and temperature, soil pH, content of toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) in the soil, abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi and the occurrence of earthworms. SSAB did not affect the tested soil characteristics when applied in reasonable doses. Plant protection had an individual effect on soil properties but did not modify the fertiliser action. SSAB may be a potential substitute for P fertilisers produced from non-renewable raw materials in times of shortage. Further long-term research is recommended to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
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