Special Issue "Development of W-Sn and Rare-Metal Metallogenic Systems in an Orogenic Belt"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michel Cuney
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
GeoRessources, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy, France
Interests: ore deposits; tungsten–tin; rare metals; uranium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tungsten, tin, and rare metals are regarded as “strategic resources” or “critical material” by the European Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy. They are essential to modern technologies involved in the development of economy, defense, medicine, renewable energy, or infrastructure, and drivers of our lives in the 21st century. This Special Issue represents a cross-disciplinary appeal covering all the processes involved in the formation of W–Sn and rare metal deposits spatially related to granites or pegmatites, from analytical innovations to metallogenic system models, through to metallogenic provinces, granite and enclosing rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, trace element geochemistry, geochronology of ore and gangue minerals, stable isotopes, fluid inclusions, experimental investigations, and thermodynamical modeling. This issue intends to cover all aspects contributing to the advancement of the understanding of fundamental problems of ore-forming processes: Tracing the sources of ore components and fluids, determination of physicochemical parameters controlling the transport of metals, and mechanisms of accumulation of metals during the formation of ore deposits.

We invite researchers to contribute to the Special Issue: “Development of W-Sn and Rare-Metal Metallogenic Systems in the an Orogenic Belt”.

Prof. Dr. Michel Cuney

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tungsten–tin
  • Rare metal
  • Granites
  • Pegmatites
  • Magmatic processes
  • Hydrothermal processes
  • Metal source

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
New Insight into the Genetic Mechanism of Shear Zone Type Gold Deposits from Muping-Rushan Metallogenic Belt (Jiaodong Peninsula of Eastern China)
Minerals 2019, 9(12), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9120775 (registering DOI) - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Most gold deposits are genetically controlled by shear zones, which are called shear zone type gold deposits (SZTGD). A better understanding of kinematics of shear zones and its constraint on the ore-forming process is critical to reveal the genetic mechanism of the SZTGD [...] Read more.
Most gold deposits are genetically controlled by shear zones, which are called shear zone type gold deposits (SZTGD). A better understanding of kinematics of shear zones and its constraint on the ore-forming process is critical to reveal the genetic mechanism of the SZTGD and favorable to mineral exploration. By conducting detailed structural analysis including field and microscopic observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and fractal dimension analysis in the Muping-Rushan shear zone (MR) as well as several gold deposits, the kinematic characteristics of the MR are well recognized and the metallogenic process of the SZTGD are discussed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) petrology, geometry, kinematics, macro- and micro-structures imply that the MR has experienced a progressive shearing history exhumed via middle crust to subsurface level under the NW-SE extensional regime from late Jurassic to early Cretaceous; (2) in the MR, gold may precipitate both in the brittle fractures at middle crust level and brittle deformation part at shallow crust level during the stress-chemical process and (3) comparison of gold deposits between the MR and other areas show that the SZTGD has a uniform metallogenic mechanism, which is from (multi-stage) pluton emplacement, hydrothermal fluid action, shearing action, brittle fracturing, sudden reduction of fluid pressure, flash vaporization to (gold) mineralization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Barren and Li–Sn–Ta Mineralized Pegmatites from NW Spain (Central Galicia): A Comparative Study of Their Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Wallrock Metasomatism
Minerals 2019, 9(12), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9120739 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
In Central Galicia, there are occurrences of barren and Li–Sn–Ta-bearing pegmatites hosted by metasedimentary rocks. A number of common and contrasting features between Panceiros pegmatites (barren) and Li–Sn–Ta mineralized Presqueira pegmatite are established in this study. K-feldspar and muscovite have the same trace [...] Read more.
In Central Galicia, there are occurrences of barren and Li–Sn–Ta-bearing pegmatites hosted by metasedimentary rocks. A number of common and contrasting features between Panceiros pegmatites (barren) and Li–Sn–Ta mineralized Presqueira pegmatite are established in this study. K-feldspar and muscovite have the same trace elements (Rb, Cs, P, Zn, and Ba), but the mineralized one has the highest Rb and Cs and the lowest P contents. The barren bodies show fluorapatite and eosphorite–childrenite replacing early silicates. The mineralized body has primary phosphates (fluorapatite and montebrasite), a metasomatic paragenesis (fluorapatite and goyazite) replacing early silicates, and a late hydrothermal assemblage (vivianite and messelite). Ta–Nb oxides from the Presqueira body show a trend from columbite-(Fe) to tantalite-(Fe) and tapiolite-(Fe). In this body, the Li-aluminosilicate textures support primary crystallization of petalite that was partially transformed into Spodumene + Quartz (SQI) during cooling, and into myrmekite during a Na-metasomatism stage. As a result of both processes, spodumene formed. The geochemical study supports magmatic differentiation increasing from the neighboring granites to the Li–Sn–Ta mineralized pegmatite. In both barren and mineralized bodies, the pegmatite-derived fluids that migrated into the wallrock were enriched in B, F, Li, Rb, and Cs and, moreover, in Sn, Zn, and As. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Origin of the Shangfang Tungsten Deposit in the Fujian Province of Southeast China: Evidence from Scheelite Sm–Nd Geochronology, H–O Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions Studies
Minerals 2019, 9(11), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9110713 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Shangfang deposit is a recently discovered large-scale tungsten deposit (66,500 t at 0.23% WO3), which is located near the western boundary of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (i.e., Zhenghe–Dafu fault), and adjacent to the northeast of the Nanling Range Metallogenic [...] Read more.
The Shangfang deposit is a recently discovered large-scale tungsten deposit (66,500 t at 0.23% WO3), which is located near the western boundary of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (i.e., Zhenghe–Dafu fault), and adjacent to the northeast of the Nanling Range Metallogenic Belt. Unlike many other W–Sn deposits in this region that occur within or near the granites, the orebodies in the Sangfang deposit all occur within the amphibolite of Palaeoproterozoic Dajinshan Formation and have no direct contact to the granite. In this study, we carry out a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) Sm-Nd isotope analysis for the scheelites from the orebody, which yields a Sm–Nd isochron age of 157.9 ± 6.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.96). This age is in good agreement with the previously published zircon U–Pb age (158.8 ± 1.6 Ma) for the granite and the molybdenite Re–Os age (158.1 ± 5.4 Ma) in the deposit. Previous studies demonstrated that the W–Sn deposits occurring between Southeastern Nanling Range and Coastal Metallogenic Belt mainly formed in the two periods of 160–150 Ma and 140–135 Ma, respectively. The microthermometry results of fluid inclusions in scheelite and quartz are suggestive of a near-isothermal (possibly poly-baric) mixing between two fluids of differing salinities. The H–O isotope results illustrate that the ore-forming fluids are derived from magma and might be equilibrated with metamorphic rocks at high temperature. The Jurassic granite pluton should play a critical role for the large hydrothermal system producing the Shangfang W deposit. Furthermore, the negative εNd(t) of −14.6 obtained in the Shanfang scheelite suggests for the involvement of the deep crustal materials. In general, subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate caused an extensional tectonic setting with formation of the Shangfang granites and related W mineralization, the geological background of which is similar to other W deposits in the Nanling Range Metallogenic Belt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Generations of Wolframite Mineralization in the Echassieres District (Massif Central, France)
Minerals 2019, 9(10), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9100637 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
The Echassières district in central France contains complex rare-element ore deposits, whose formation is related to exotic igneous events and several hydrothermal episodes that are not entirely understood to date. Tungsten mineralization consists of three generations of wolframite, characterized by distinct Fe/Mn ratios [...] Read more.
The Echassières district in central France contains complex rare-element ore deposits, whose formation is related to exotic igneous events and several hydrothermal episodes that are not entirely understood to date. Tungsten mineralization consists of three generations of wolframite, characterized by distinct Fe/Mn ratios (8.4; 3.5 and 0.3, for wolframite a, b and c, respectively), formed during three separate hydrothermal episodes related to the Variscan orogeny. Wolframite a occurs in quartz veins of the La Bosse stockwork where it crystallized before the Barrovian metamorphism that affected these veins and the host rock. After metamorphism, before intrusion of the Beauvoir and Colettes granites, wolframite b crystallized in the stockwork during massive topazification. High concentrations of wolframite c occur in the proximal quartz veins in the Mazet area, while only scant amounts are found in the La Bosse stockwork. In both settings, wolframite c precipitated from the fluid responsible for greisen alteration that massively affected the Beauvoir granite. In the La Bosse stockwork, greisen alteration is characterized by hydrothermal topaz that is texturally and chemically distinct from that precipitated during topazification. Supergene alteration responsible for kaolinization of Beauvoir and Colettes granites caused remobilization of a non-negligible amount of tungsten (W) during replacement of wolframite by W-rich goethite in all units of the Echassières district. This model for multiple W mineralizing events is novel and can prove essential in distinguishing potential economic deposits worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Metallogenic Mechanism of Skarn Sn-Polymetallic Deposits in the Southern Great Khingan Range, China: Constraints on the Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Damogutu Sn–Fe and Dashishan Sn–Pb–Zn Deposits
Minerals 2019, 9(7), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9070418 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
Skarn Sn-polymetallic deposits, located in the southern Great Khingan Range, can be divided into Sn–Fe and Sn–Pb–Zn deposits. By systematically studying the geochemical characteristics of source granitoid and deposits, the ore-forming mechanisms were established, and the differences in ore-forming processes between Sn–Fe and [...] Read more.
Skarn Sn-polymetallic deposits, located in the southern Great Khingan Range, can be divided into Sn–Fe and Sn–Pb–Zn deposits. By systematically studying the geochemical characteristics of source granitoid and deposits, the ore-forming mechanisms were established, and the differences in ore-forming processes between Sn–Fe and Sn–Pb–Zn deposits are discussed. The main findings are as follows: (1) these two deposits were formed in the Late-Yanshanian period; (2) the source granitoid evolved at an early stage in a reducing environment, while the oxygen fugacity increased at a late stage through the influence of a deep-seated fault; (3) fine-grained syenogranite from Dashishan showed a higher degree of evolution than the syenogranite from Damogutu; (4) the Damogutu Sn–Fe and Dashishan Sn–Pb–Zn deposits shared a source of ore-forming fluid, and Fe, Sn, Pb, and Zn all derived from Late-Yanshanian granitoids; and (5) the ore-forming fluid experienced a continuous evolution process from the magmatic to hydrothermal stage, and the magmatic–hydrothermal transitional fluid played a very important role in skarnization and mineralization. Full article
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