Special Issue "Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 April 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Theodore J. Bornhorst
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Guest Editor
Emeritus Professor, Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Interests: economic geology; geochemistry, petrology, Precambrian geology and environmental geochemistry of mine wastes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Voudouris
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Guest Editor
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Geology & Geoenvironment, Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University Campus-Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: ore minerals; critical metals; magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits; mineralogy of hydrothermal alteration in porphyry-epithermal systems; mineralogy and genesis of gemstones
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue "Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020" will cover topics related to mineral deposits of broader interest to the geoscience community. It will contain review and original research articles that cover recent advances in our understanding of mineral deposits as demonstrated by studies of various scales from a single component of an individual deposit to many deposits in a mineral district to an entire type of deposit worldwide using a wide spectrum of data from field to microscopic to analytical to experimental and more. The articles will be from members of the Mineral Deposits Section Editorial Board and by researchers that they invite. Researchers are welcome to contact a member of the Mineral Deposits Section Editorial Board to be invited. 

Prof. Dr. Theodore J. Bornhorst
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Voudouris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Arsenian Pyrite and Cinnabar from Active Submarine Nearshore Vents, Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece
Minerals 2021, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11010014 - 25 Dec 2020
Abstract
Active, shallow-water (2–10 m below sea level) and low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting at Paleochori Bay, nearshore Milos Island, Greece, discharges CO2 and H2S rich vapors (e.g., low-Cl fluid) and high-salinity liquids, which leads to a diverse [...] Read more.
Active, shallow-water (2–10 m below sea level) and low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting at Paleochori Bay, nearshore Milos Island, Greece, discharges CO2 and H2S rich vapors (e.g., low-Cl fluid) and high-salinity liquids, which leads to a diverse assemblage of sulfide and alteration phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Volcaniclastic detritus recovered from the seafloor is cemented by hydrothermal pyrite and marcasite, while semi-massive to massive pyrite-marcasite constitute mounds and chimney-like edifices. Paragenetic relationships indicate deposition of two distinct mineralogical assemblages related to the venting of high-Cl and low-Cl fluids, respectively: (1) colloform As- and Hg-bearing pyrite (Py I), associated with marcasite, calcite, and apatite, as well as (2) porous and/or massive As-rich pyrite (Py II), associated with barite, alunite/jarosite, and late-stage hydrous ferric oxides. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs within the As-rich pyrite (Py I) layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Arsenic in colloform pyrite I shows a negative correlation with S indicating that As1− dominates in the pyrite structure suggesting formation from a relatively reducing As-rich fluid at conditions similar to low-sulfidation epithermal systems. On the contrary, As3+ dominates in the structure of porous to massive pyrite II suggesting deposition from a sulfate-dominated fluid with lower pH and higher fO2. Bulk sulfide data of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal precipitates also show elevated As (up to 2587 ppm) together with various epithermal-type elements, such as Sb (up to 274 ppm), Tl (up to 513 ppm), and Hg (up to 34 ppm) suggesting an epithermal nature for the hydrothermal activity at Paleochori Bay. Textural relationships indicate a contemporaneous deposition of As and Hg, which is suggested to be the result of venting from both high-salinity, liquid-dominated, as well as CO2- and H2S-rich vapor-dominated fluids that formed during fluid boiling. The CO2- and H2S-rich vapor that physically separated during fluid boiling from the high-salinity liquid led to calcite formation upon condensation in seawater together with the precipitation of As- and Hg-bearing pyrite I. This also led to the formation of sulfuric acid, thereby causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron-rich minerals in the volcaniclastic sediments, finally resulting in pyrite II precipitation in association with alunite/jarosite. The Paleochori vents contain the first documented occurrence of cinnabar on the seafloor in the Mediterranean area and provide an important link between offshore hydrothermal activity and the onshore mercury and arsenic mineralizing system on Milos Island. The results of this study therefore demonstrate that metal and metalloid precipitation in shallow-water continental arc environments is controlled by epithermal processes known from their subaerial analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Tourmaline Composition of the Kışladağ Porphyry Au Deposit, Western Turkey: Implication of Epithermal Overprint
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090789 - 07 Sep 2020
Abstract
The Kışladağ porphyry Au deposit occurs in a middle Miocene magmatic complex comprising three different intrusions and magmatic-hydrothermal brecciation related to the multiphase effects of the different intrusions. Tourmaline occurrences are common throughout the deposit, mostly as an outer alteration rim around the [...] Read more.
The Kışladağ porphyry Au deposit occurs in a middle Miocene magmatic complex comprising three different intrusions and magmatic-hydrothermal brecciation related to the multiphase effects of the different intrusions. Tourmaline occurrences are common throughout the deposit, mostly as an outer alteration rim around the veins with lesser amounts disseminated in the intrusions, and are associated with every phase of mineralization. Tourmaline mineralization has developed as a tourmaline-rich matrix in brecciated zones and tourmaline-quartz and/or tourmaline-sulfide veinlets within the different intrusive rocks. Tourmaline was identified in the tourmaline-bearing breccia zone (TBZ) and intrusive rocks that had undergone potassic, phyllic, and advanced argillic alteration. The tourmaline is present as two morphological varieties, aggregates of fine crystals (rosettes, fan-shaped) and larger isolated crystals and their aggregates. Four tourmaline generations (tourmaline I to IV) have different compositions and substitutions. Tourmaline I in TBZ and INT#1 is distinguished by the highest Fetot and enriched in Fe3+. Tourmalines II and III occur as fine aggregates, accompanied by the formation of isolated crystals and are characterized by lower Fetot and Fe3+. Tourmaline IV is characterized by the lowest Fetot, enriched in Cl, and has the highest proportion of X-site vacancy among all the tourmalines. Tourmaline I may be attributed to the potassic stage in INT#1 and early tourmaline in TBZ. Tourmalines II and III from INT#1 and the TBZ could be referred to the phyllic stage. The low Fe content in tourmaline is caused by the simultaneous deposition of sulfide minerals. Tourmaline IV from the TBZ and tourmaline II from INT#3 are distinguished by the high X-site vacancy proportion up to the formation of X-site vacant species as well as enriched in Cl; they can be attributed to the argillic stage of the hydrothermal process. The textural and especially chemical data of the tourmaline from the Kışladağ Au deposit provide information on the physico-chemical conditions during the porphyry to epithermal transition and subsequent epithermal overprinting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multi-Stage Introduction of Precious and Critical Metals in Pyrite: A Case Study from the Konos Hill and Pagoni Rachi Porphyry/Epithermal Prospects, NE Greece
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090784 - 05 Sep 2020
Abstract
The Konos Hill and Pagoni Rachi porphyry-epithermal prospects in northeastern Greece are characterized by abundant pyrite that displays important textural and geochemical variations between the various ore stages. It is commonly fine-grained and anhedral in the porphyry-related mineralization (M- and D-type veins), while [...] Read more.
The Konos Hill and Pagoni Rachi porphyry-epithermal prospects in northeastern Greece are characterized by abundant pyrite that displays important textural and geochemical variations between the various ore stages. It is commonly fine-grained and anhedral in the porphyry-related mineralization (M- and D-type veins), while it forms idiomorphic, medium- to coarse-grained crystals in the late, epithermal style veins (E-type). Porphyry-style pyrite from both prospects is characterized by an enrichment in Co, Se, Cu, and minor Zn, and a depletion in other trace elements, like Bi, Mo, Ag, etc. Pyrite in epithermal-style mineralization is mostly characterized by the presence of As, Bi, Pb, Ni, and Se. Gold in pyrite from all mineralization stages occurs as a non-stoichiometric substituting element, and its abundance correlates with As content. Arsenic in pyrite from Konos Hill records an increase from the porphyry stage to the epithermal stage (along with gold); however, at Pagoni Rachi, the highest Au and As contents are recorded in D-type pyrite and in the epithermal stage. The composition of the studied pyrite marks changes in the physico-chemical conditions of the ore-forming fluids and generally follows the geochemical trends from other porphyry-epithermal systems elsewhere. However, a notable enrichment of Se in the porphyry-style pyrite here is a prominent feature compared to other deposits and can be considered as an exploration tool towards Au-enriched mineralized areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Ni-Co Mineralization in the Intex Laterite Deposit, Mindoro, Philippines
Minerals 2020, 10(7), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070579 - 27 Jun 2020
Abstract
The Intex laterite deposit in Mindoro, Philippines is derived from the weathering of the ultramafic rocks under a tropical climate. This study investigates the several types of serpentines and the effect of the degree of chemical weathering of ultramafic rocks and laterites on [...] Read more.
The Intex laterite deposit in Mindoro, Philippines is derived from the weathering of the ultramafic rocks under a tropical climate. This study investigates the several types of serpentines and the effect of the degree of chemical weathering of ultramafic rocks and laterites on the enrichment of Ni in the deposit. The five types of serpentines are differentiated based on their textural features and Raman spectral data. Type I, type II, type III, and type IV serpentines contain a low amount of NiO (average 0.15 wt%), and their formation is linked to the previous exhumation of the ultramafic body. Conversely, type V serpentines show the highest NiO contents (average 1.42 wt%) and have the composition of serpentine-like garnierites, indicating a supergene origin. In the limonite horizon, goethite is the main ore mineral and shows high NiO contents of up to 1.68 wt%, whereas the Mn-oxyhydroxides (i.e., asbolane and lithiophorite–asbolane intermediate) display substantial amounts of CoO (up to 11.3 wt%) and NiO (up to 15.6 wt%). The Ultramafic Index of Alteration (UMIA) and Index of Lateritization (IOL) are used to characterize the different stages of weathering of rocks and laterites. The calculated index values correspond to a less advanced stage of weathering of the Intex laterites compared with the Berong laterites. The Berong deposit is a Ni-Co laterite deposit in the Philippines, which is formed from the weathering of the serpentinized peridotite. The less extreme degree of weathering of the Intex laterites indicates less advanced leaching, and thereby the re-distribution of Ni, Si, and Mg from the limonite towards the saprolite horizon may have resulted in the poor precipitation of talc-like (kerolite-pimelite) and sepiolite-like (sepiolite-falcondoite) phases in the studied saprolite horizon. Nickel in the Intex deposit has undergone supergene enrichment similar to other humid tropical laterite deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Magmatic PGE Sulphide Mineralization in Clinopyroxenite from the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa
Minerals 2020, 10(6), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10060570 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
The Platreef, at the base of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, hosts platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization in association with base-metal sulphides (BMS) and platinum-group minerals (PGM). However, whilst a magmatic origin of the stratiform mineralization of the upper [...] Read more.
The Platreef, at the base of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, hosts platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization in association with base-metal sulphides (BMS) and platinum-group minerals (PGM). However, whilst a magmatic origin of the stratiform mineralization of the upper Platreef has been widely confirmed, the processes responsible for the PGE and BMS mineralization and metasomatism of the host rocks in the Platreef are still under discussion. In order to contribute to the present discussion, we present an integrated petrographical, mineral-chemical, whole-rock trace- and major-element, sulphur- and neodymium-isotope, study of Platreef footwall clinopyroxenite drill core samples from Overysel, which is located in the northern sector of the northern Bushveld limb. A metasomatic transformation of magmatic pyroxenite units to non-magmatic clinopyroxenite is in accordance with the petrography and whole-rock chemical analysis. The whole-rock data display lower SiO2, FeO, Na2O and Cr (<1700 ppm), and higher CaO, concentrations in the here-studied footwall Platreef clinopyroxenite samples than primary magmatic Platreef pyroxenite and norite. The presence of capped globular sulphides in some samples, which display differentiation into pyrrhotite and pentlandite in the lower, and chalcopyrite in the upper part, is attributed to the fractional crystallization of a sulphide liquid, and a downward transport of the blebs. In situ sulphur (V-CDT) isotope BMS data show isotopic signatures (δ34S = 0.9 to 3.1 ‰; Δ33S = 0.09 to 0.32‰) close to or within the pristine magmatic range. Elevated (non-zero) Δ33S values are common for Bushveld magmas, indicating contamination by older, presumably crustal sulphur in an early stage chamber, whereas magmatic δ34S values suggest the absence of local crustal contamination during emplacement. This is in accordance with the εNd (2.06 Ga) (chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR)) values, of −6.16 to −6.94, which are similar to those of the magmatic pyroxenite and norite of the Main Zone and the Platreef in the northern sector of the northern Bushveld limb. Base-metal sulphide textures and S–Se-ratios give evidence for a secondary S-loss during late- to post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration. The textural evidence, as well as the bulk S/Se ratios and sulphide S isotopes studies, suggest that the mineralization in both the less and the pervasively hydrothermally altered clinopyroxenite samples of Overysel are of magmatic origin. This is further supported by the PPGE (Rh, Pt, Pd) concentrations in the BMS and mass-balance calculations, in both of which large proportions of the whole-rock Pd and Rh are hosted by pentlandite, whereas Pt and the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru) were interpreted to mainly occur in discrete PGM. However, the presence of pentlandite with variable PGE concentrations on the thin section scale may be related to variations in the S content, already at S-saturation during magmatic formation, and/or post-solidification mobilization and redistribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
REEs in the North Africa P-Bearing Deposits, Paleoenvironments, and Economic Perspectives: A Review
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020214 - 19 Feb 2021
Abstract
A review of the compositional features of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco phosphorites is proposed in order to assess and compare the paleoenvironmental conditions that promoted the deposit formation as well as provide information about their economic perspective in light of growing worldwide demand. [...] Read more.
A review of the compositional features of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco phosphorites is proposed in order to assess and compare the paleoenvironmental conditions that promoted the deposit formation as well as provide information about their economic perspective in light of growing worldwide demand. Since these deposits share a very similar chemical and mineralogical composition, the attention was focused on the geochemistry of rare earth elements (REEs) and mostly on ΣREEs, Ce and Eu anomalies, and (La/Yb) and (La/Gd) normalized ratios. The REEs distributions reveal several differences between deposits from different locations, suggesting mostly that the Tunisian and Algerian phosphorites probably were part of the same depositional system. There, sub-reducing to sub-oxic conditions and a major REEs adsorption by early diagenesis were recorded. Conversely, in the Moroccan basins, sub-oxic to oxic environments and a minor diagenetic alteration occurred, which was likely due to a different seawater supply. Moreover, the drastic environmental changes associated to the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum event probably influenced the composition of Northern African phosphorites that accumulated the highest REEs amounts during that span of time. Based on the REEs concentrations, and considering the outlook coefficient of REE composition (Koutl) and the percentage of critical elements in ΣREEs (REEdef), the studied deposits can be considered as promising to highly promising REE ores and could represent a profitable alternative source for critical REEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Deposits 2020)
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