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Genes, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Global Prader–Willi Syndrome Registry: Development, Launch, and Early Demographics
Genes 2019, 10(9), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090713 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Advances in technologies offer new opportunities to collect and integrate data from a broad range of sources to advance the understanding of rare diseases and support the development of new treatments. Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, complex neurodevelopmental disorder, which has a [...] Read more.
Advances in technologies offer new opportunities to collect and integrate data from a broad range of sources to advance the understanding of rare diseases and support the development of new treatments. Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, complex neurodevelopmental disorder, which has a variable and incompletely understood natural history. PWS is characterized by early failure to thrive, followed by the onset of excessive appetite (hyperphagia). Additional characteristics include multiple endocrine abnormalities, hypotonia, hypogonadism, sleep disturbances, a challenging neurobehavioral phenotype, and cognitive disability. The Foundation for Prader–Willi Research’s Global PWS Registry is one of more than twenty-five registries developed to date through the National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD) IAMRARE Registry Program. The Registry consists of surveys covering general medical history, system-specific clinical complications, diet, medication and supplement use, as well as behavior, mental health, and social information. Information is primarily parent/caregiver entered. The platform is flexible and allows addition of new surveys, including updatable and longitudinal surveys. Launched in 2015, the PWS Registry has enrolled 1696 participants from 37 countries, with 23,550 surveys completed. This resource can improve the understanding of PWS natural history and support medical product development for PWS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome)
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Open AccessArticle
The Pituitary Transcriptional Response Related to Feed Conversion in Pigs
Genes 2019, 10(9), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090712 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Over the decades, pig breeding objectives have focused on improving the meat content in the carcass without taking into consideration the more effective fattening indicators that affect feed conversion. At present, pig growth traits associated particularly with animal feeding have become crucial due [...] Read more.
Over the decades, pig breeding objectives have focused on improving the meat content in the carcass without taking into consideration the more effective fattening indicators that affect feed conversion. At present, pig growth traits associated particularly with animal feeding have become crucial due to their economic significance. This is especially evident in countries where pigs are maintained on large farms. The present study indicates that pituitary differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are activated in response to variable feed conversion (FC) in pigs. The experiment included two native Polish breeds: Puławska and Złotnicka White (ZW). The whole pituitary transcriptome was sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The RNA-seq method identified over 500 and 300 DEGs in the pituitaries of the ZW and the Puławska pig populations, respectively, that were associated with hormonal regulation, notch signaling, and Wnt pathways. Lower FC in the ZW pigs favoured increased fat content in the body and significantly higher prolactin expression. The obtained results indicate that low FC values in pigs are related to slower growth or increased fat content, which suggests various pituitary responses. Therefore, the identified candidate genes were not directly associated with feed conversion values but with other factors. However, the present study delivers new insights into pituitary regulation in pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Metallothioneins in Failure of Dental Implants and Periodontitis Down Syndrome Patients
Genes 2019, 10(9), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090711 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 98
Abstract
Background: Sometimes dental implants seem to be the only therapeutic alternative for the oral rehabilitation of patients with Down syndrome, given that they usually lose all their teeth early due to suffering aggressive periodontitis and they do not usually have the skills required [...] Read more.
Background: Sometimes dental implants seem to be the only therapeutic alternative for the oral rehabilitation of patients with Down syndrome, given that they usually lose all their teeth early due to suffering aggressive periodontitis and they do not usually have the skills required to wear removable prostheses. However, the evolution of dental implants in these patients shows very adverse results. It is possible that basal genetic alterations, or at least some characteristics of these, may underlie these clinical results. The metabolic pathway of metallothioneins, molecules with an important influence on bone metabolism, could be one of the said alterations. Aims: To determine whether the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and their metabolic pathway may be identified and related to the periodontitis and lack of osseointegration of dental implants in Down syndrome patients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of cases and controls by comparing patients with Down syndrome, periodontal disease, and implant failure (four patients, test group) with patients with Down syndrome, without periodontal disease, and without implant failure after two years of following (seven patients, control group), by extracting peripheral blood at the time of the dental examination to extract RNA and its subsequent processing in relation to gene expression of the metabolic pathway of metallothioneins. Results: The results identified low expression in the group of patients with periodontal disease and implant failure of genes MT1E, MT1H, MT1X, MT1A, MT1B, MT1C, MT1L, MT2A, MT1M, and MT1G. Conclusions: The low MT1 and MT2 gene expression seems to be related to the onset of periodontal disease and implant rejection in Down syndrome patients, although more data are required to confirm whether this relationship is due to one of the two conditions, to both independently, or to the two jointly—this last option being indicated by our current study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 Variants Confer Susceptibility to Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: Relative Predispositional Effects among Allele Groups
Genes 2019, 10(9), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090710 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) was recently demonstrated to be the most frequent form of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Case–control studies have investigated the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms and LADA risk, but their conclusions are inconsistent. This [...] Read more.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) was recently demonstrated to be the most frequent form of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Case–control studies have investigated the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms and LADA risk, but their conclusions are inconsistent. This study aimed to more precisely explore the correlation between these HLA gene variants and LADA development. Eight databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Medline, were systematically searched for relevant studies up to September 15, 2018. We performed this retrospective study using meta-analysis and relative predispositional effect (RPE) methods. The meta-analysis results indicated that DQB1*02 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.685, pc < 0.005) and DQB1*06 (OR = 0.604, pc = 0.010) have opposite effects on susceptibility to LADA, while a significant decrease in LADA risk caused by DQB1*05 (OR = 0.764, pc = 0.100) disappeared upon Bonferroni correction. The RPE method confirmed the roles of DQB1*02 (χ² = 46.475, p < 0.001) and DQB1*06 (χ² = 17.883, p < 0.001) and further suggested protective effects of DQB1*05 (χ² = 16.496, p < 0.001). Additionally, the meta-analysis results showed that DRB1*03 (OR = 2.685, pc < 0.013), DRB1*04 (OR = 1.954, pc < 0.013), and DRB1*09 (OR = 1.346, pc < 0.013) are associated with increased LADA risk, while DRB1*12 (OR = 0.600, pc < 0.013) and DRB1*13 (OR = 0.583, pc < 0.013) carriers have a decreased risk of developing LADA. Furthermore, the RPE method revealed that DRB1*03 (χ² = 98.754, p < 0.001), DRB1*04 (χ² = 94.685, p < 0.001), DRB1*09 (χ² = 40.489, p < 0.001), DRB1*01 (χ² = 12.181, p < 0.001), DRB1*07 (χ² = 10.882, p = 0.001), and DRB1*08 (χ² = 5.000, p = 0.025) play protective roles against LADA. LADA showed a close relationship with genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1 and WHLA-DRB1, which could contribute to a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and the identification of predisposing loci in the diagnosis and treatment of LADA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
Open AccessReview
Molecular Alterations in Thyroid Cancer: From Bench to Clinical Practice
Genes 2019, 10(9), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090709 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Thyroid cancer comprises different clinical and histological entities. Whereas differentiated (DTCs) malignancies are sensitive to radioiodine therapy, anaplastic (ATCs) and medullary (MTCs) tumors do not uptake radioactive iodine and display aggressive features associated with a poor prognosis. Moreover, in a majority of DTCs, [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer comprises different clinical and histological entities. Whereas differentiated (DTCs) malignancies are sensitive to radioiodine therapy, anaplastic (ATCs) and medullary (MTCs) tumors do not uptake radioactive iodine and display aggressive features associated with a poor prognosis. Moreover, in a majority of DTCs, disease evolution leads to the progressive loss of iodine sensitivity. Hence, iodine-refractory DTCs, along with ATCs and MTCs, require alternative treatments reflective of their different tumor biology. In the last decade, the molecular mechanisms promoting thyroid cancer development and progression have been extensively studied. This has led to a better understanding of the genomic landscape, displayed by thyroid malignancies, and to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Indeed, several pharmacological compounds have been developed for iodine-refractory tumors, with four multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors already available for DTCs (sorafenib and lenvatinib) and MTCs (cabozantib and vandetanib), and a plethora of drugs currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we will describe the genomic alterations and biological processes intertwined with thyroid cancer development, also providing a thorough overview of targeted drugs already tested or under investigation for these tumors. Furthermore, given the existing preclinical evidence, we will briefly discuss the potential role of immunotherapy as an additional therapeutic strategy for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer: Genetics and Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
The First Highly Contiguous Genome Assembly of Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), an Emerging Aquaculture Species in Europe
Genes 2019, 10(9), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090708 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a fresh and brackish water Percid fish natively inhabiting the northern hemisphere. This species is emerging as a promising candidate for intensive aquaculture production in Europe. Specific traits like cannibalism, growth rate and meat quality require [...] Read more.
The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a fresh and brackish water Percid fish natively inhabiting the northern hemisphere. This species is emerging as a promising candidate for intensive aquaculture production in Europe. Specific traits like cannibalism, growth rate and meat quality require genomics based understanding, for an optimal husbandry and domestication process. Still, the aquaculture community is lacking an annotated genome sequence to facilitate genome-wide studies on pikeperch. Here, we report the first highly contiguous draft genome assembly of Sander lucioperca. In total, 413 and 66 giga base pairs of DNA sequencing raw data were generated with the Illumina platform and PacBio Sequel System, respectively. The PacBio data were assembled into a final assembly size of ~900 Mb covering 89% of the 1,014 Mb estimated genome size. The draft genome consisted of 1966 contigs ordered into 1,313 scaffolds. The contig and scaffold N50 lengths are 3.0 Mb and 4.9 Mb, respectively. The identified repetitive structures accounted for 39% of the genome. We utilized homologies to other ray-finned fishes, and ab initio gene prediction methods to predict 21,249 protein-coding genes in the Sander lucioperca genome, of which 88% were functionally annotated by either sequence homology or protein domains and signatures search. The assembled genome spans 97.6% and 96.3% of Vertebrate and Actinopterygii single-copy orthologs, respectively. The outstanding mapping rate (99.9%) of genomic PE-reads on the assembly suggests an accurate and nearly complete genome reconstruction. This draft genome sequence is the first genomic resource for this promising aquaculture species. It will provide an impetus for genomic-based breeding studies targeting phenotypic and performance traits of captive pikeperch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Activity of Mobile Genetic Element Defences in Streptococcus pneumoniae
Genes 2019, 10(9), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090707 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 127
Abstract
A diverse set of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) transmit between Streptococcus pneumoniae cells, but many isolates remain uninfected. The best-characterised defences against horizontal transmission of MGEs are restriction-modification systems (RMSs), of which there are two phase-variable examples in S. pneumoniae. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
A diverse set of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) transmit between Streptococcus pneumoniae cells, but many isolates remain uninfected. The best-characterised defences against horizontal transmission of MGEs are restriction-modification systems (RMSs), of which there are two phase-variable examples in S. pneumoniae. Additionally, the transformation machinery has been proposed to limit vertical transmission of chromosomally integrated MGEs. This work describes how these mechanisms can act in concert. Experimental data demonstrate RMS phase variation occurs at a sub-maximal rate. Simulations suggest this may be optimal if MGEs are sometimes vertically inherited, as it reduces the probability that an infected cell will switch between RMS variants while the MGE is invading the population, and thereby undermine the restriction barrier. Such vertically inherited MGEs can be deleted by transformation. The lack of between-strain transformation hotspots at known prophage att sites suggests transformation cannot remove an MGE from a strain in which it is fixed. However, simulations confirmed that transformation was nevertheless effective at preventing the spread of MGEs into a previously uninfected cell population, if a recombination barrier existed between co-colonising strains. Further simulations combining these effects of phase variable RMSs and transformation found they synergistically inhibited MGEs spreading, through limiting both vertical and horizontal transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Streptococcus pneumoniae)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptional Analysis of FOXO1, C/EBP- and PPAR-2 Genes and Their association with Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance
Genes 2019, 10(9), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090706 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbid disorders, ranging from cardiovascular diseases to insulin resistance. In this context, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) seems to have a close connection with insulin resistance. In our study, we hypothesized that the expression profile of key adipogenic [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbid disorders, ranging from cardiovascular diseases to insulin resistance. In this context, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) seems to have a close connection with insulin resistance. In our study, we hypothesized that the expression profile of key adipogenic genes, such as proliferator-activated receptor γ type 2 (PPAR-γ2), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein type α (C/EBP-α), and forkhead box protein class O type 1 (FOXO1) in VAT should shed light on their association with obesity-related insulin resistance. Methods: To test this idea, we studied the expression profile of C/EBP-α, FOXO1 and PPAR-γ2 in VAT from non-obese individuals, and low insulin (LIR-MO) and high insulin morbidly obese (HIR-MO) subjects, through a combination of RT-qPCR, co-immunoprecipitation, ELISA, Western blot analysis and EMSA assays. Results: Our results show that C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ2 were down-expressed in HIR-MO individuals, while FOXO1 was overexpressed. In addition, the PPAR-γ2–RXR-α heterodimer showed weak activity and bound weakly to the putative IGFBP-2–PPRE promoter sequence in VAT from HIR-MO subjects when compared with LIR-MO individuals. Conclusions: These results show that PPAR-γ2, C/EBP-α, FOXO1 and IGFBP-2 have a close relationship with insulin resistance in VAT of morbidly obese individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
BACE1 Inhibition Using 2’-OMePS Steric Blocking Antisense Oligonucleotides
Genes 2019, 10(9), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090705 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Amyloid beta-peptide is produced by the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by two secretases, a β-secretase, beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and a γ-secretase. It has been hypothesised that partial inhibition of BACE1 in individuals with a high risk of [...] Read more.
Amyloid beta-peptide is produced by the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by two secretases, a β-secretase, beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and a γ-secretase. It has been hypothesised that partial inhibition of BACE1 in individuals with a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease may be beneficial in preventing cognitive decline. In this study, we report the development of a novel antisense oligonucleotide (AO) that could efficiently downregulate the BACE1 transcript and partially inhibit BACE1 protein. We designed and synthesised a range of 2’-OMethyl-modified antisense oligonucleotides with a phosphorothioate backbone across various exons of the BACE1 transcript, of which AO2, targeting exon 2, efficiently downregulated BACE1 RNA expression by 90%. The sequence of AO2 was later synthesised with a phosphorodiamidate morpholino chemistry, which was found to be not as efficient at downregulating BACE1 expression as the 2’-OMethyl antisense oligonucleotides with a phosphorothioate backbone variant. AO2 also reduced BACE1 protein levels by 45%. In line with our results, we firmly believe that AO2 could be used as a potential preventative therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Characteristic and RNA-Seq Analysis in Transparent Mutant of Carp–Goldfish Nucleocytoplasmic Hybrid
Genes 2019, 10(9), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090704 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
In teleost, pigment in the skin and scales played important roles in various biological processes. Iridophores, one of the main pigment cells in teleost, could produce silver pigments to reflect light. However, the specific mechanism of the formation of silver pigments is still [...] Read more.
In teleost, pigment in the skin and scales played important roles in various biological processes. Iridophores, one of the main pigment cells in teleost, could produce silver pigments to reflect light. However, the specific mechanism of the formation of silver pigments is still unclear. In our previous study, some transparent mutant individuals were found in the carp–goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (CyCa hybrid) population. In the present study, using transparent mutants (TM) and wild type (WT) of the CyCa hybrid as a model, firstly, microscopic observations showed that the silver pigments and melanin were both lost in the scales of transparent mutants compared to that in wild types. Secondly, genetic study demonstrated that the transparent trait in the CyCa hybrid was recessively inherent, and controlled by an allele in line with Mendelism. Thirdly, RNA-Seq analysis showed that differential expression genes (DEGs) between wild type and transparent mutants were mainly enriched in the metabolism of guanine, such as hydrolase, guanyl nucleotide binding, guanyl ribonucleotide binding, and GTPase activity. Among the DEGs, purine nucleoside phosphorylase 4a (pnp4a) and endothelin receptor B (ednrb) were more highly expressed in the wild type compared to the transparent mutant (p < 0.05). Finally, miRNA-Seq analysis showed that miRNA-146a and miR-153b were both more highly expressed in the transparent mutant compared to that in wild type (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis between miRNAs and mRNAs indicated that miRNA-146a was associated with six DEGs (MGAT5B, MFAP4, GP2, htt, Sema6b, Obscn) that might be involved in silver pigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Physiological Maturation Properties of Mycelia in Pleurotus tuoliensis
Genes 2019, 10(9), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090703 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Pleurotus tuoliensis is a precious edible fungus with extremely high nutritive and medicinal value. The cultivation period of P. tuoliensis is longer than those of other Pleurotus species, which is mainly due to a longer mycelium physiological maturation period (30–60 days). Currently, the [...] Read more.
Pleurotus tuoliensis is a precious edible fungus with extremely high nutritive and medicinal value. The cultivation period of P. tuoliensis is longer than those of other Pleurotus species, which is mainly due to a longer mycelium physiological maturation period (30–60 days). Currently, the molecular processes underlying physiological maturation of the mycelium remain unclear. We performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of immature and mature mycelia using RNA-seq. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in identification of 17,030 unigenes. 451 differentially expressed genes—including those encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), glycoside hydrolase family proteins, exopolygalacturonase, and versatile peroxidases—were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that nucleotide synthesis and energy metabolism are highly active during the physiological maturation of mycelia, and genes related to these pathways were significantly upregulated in mature mycelia. NDPK is predicted to be essential for mycelia maturation. Our findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of mycelia maturation in a commercially important fungal species. Future efforts will focus on the function of NDPK and the mechanism by which it regulates mycelia maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Interaction Clusters for MiRNA and MRNA Pairs in TCGA Network
Genes 2019, 10(9), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090702 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Existing methods often fail to recognize the conversions for the biological roles of the pairs of genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) between the tumor and normal samples. We have developed a novel cluster scoring method to identify messenger RNA (mRNA) and miRNA interaction pairs [...] Read more.
Existing methods often fail to recognize the conversions for the biological roles of the pairs of genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) between the tumor and normal samples. We have developed a novel cluster scoring method to identify messenger RNA (mRNA) and miRNA interaction pairs and clusters while considering tumor and normal samples jointly. Our method has identified 54 significant clusters for 15 cancer types selected from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We also determined the shared clusters across tumor types and/or subtypes. In addition, we compared gene and miRNA overlap between lists identified in our liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) study and regulatory relationships reported from human and rat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease studies (NAFLD). Finally, we analyzed biological functions for the single significant cluster in LIHC and uncovered a significantly enriched pathway (phospholipase D signaling pathway) with six genes represented in the cluster, symbols: DGKQ, LPAR2, PDGFRB, PIK3R3, PTGFR and RAPGEF3. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Soybean Laccase Gene Family: Evolution and Possible Roles in Plant Defense and Stem Strength Selection
Genes 2019, 10(9), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090701 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Laccase is a widely used industrial oxidase for food processing, dye synthesis, paper making, and pollution remediation. At present, laccases used by industries come mainly from fungi. Plants contain numerous genes encoding laccase enzymes that show properties which are distinct from that of [...] Read more.
Laccase is a widely used industrial oxidase for food processing, dye synthesis, paper making, and pollution remediation. At present, laccases used by industries come mainly from fungi. Plants contain numerous genes encoding laccase enzymes that show properties which are distinct from that of the fungal laccases. These plant-specific laccases may have better potential for industrial purposes. The aim of this work was to conduct a genome-wide search for the soybean laccase genes and analyze their characteristics and specific functions. A total of 93 putative laccase genes (GmLac) were identified from the soybean genome. All 93 GmLac enzymes contain three typical Cu-oxidase domains, and they were classified into five groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Although adjacent members on the tree showed highly similar exon/intron organization and motif composition, there were differences among the members within a class for both conserved and differentiated functions. Based on the expression patterns, some members of laccase were expressed in specific tissues/organs, while some exhibited a constitutive expression pattern. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed that some laccase genes might be involved in providing resistance to oomycetes. Analysis of the selective pressures acting on the laccase gene family in the process of soybean domestication revealed that 10 genes could have been under artificial selection during the domestication process. Four of these genes may have contributed to the transition of the soft and thin stem of wild soybean species into strong, thick, and erect stems of the cultivated soybean species. Our study provides a foundation for future functional studies of the soybean laccase gene family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Open AccessReview
Overcoming Fish Defences: The Virulence Factors of Yersinia ruckeri
Genes 2019, 10(9), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090700 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease, a bacterial infection of marine and freshwater fish. The disease mainly affects salmonids, and outbreaks have significant economic impact on fish farms all over the world. Vaccination routines are in place against the [...] Read more.
Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease, a bacterial infection of marine and freshwater fish. The disease mainly affects salmonids, and outbreaks have significant economic impact on fish farms all over the world. Vaccination routines are in place against the major serotypes of Y. ruckeri but are not effective in all cases. Despite the economic importance of enteric redmouth disease, a detailed molecular understanding of the disease is lacking. A considerable number of mostly omics-based studies have been performed in recent years to identify genes related to Y. ruckeri virulence. This review summarizes the knowledge on Y. ruckeri virulence factors. Understanding the molecular pathogenicity of Y. ruckeri will aid in developing more efficient vaccines and antimicrobial compounds directed against enteric redmouth disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Bacterial Associations in Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Reconstruction and Analysis of Gene Networks of Human Neurotransmitter Systems Reveal Genes with Contentious Manifestation for Anxiety, Depression, and Intellectual Disabilities
Genes 2019, 10(9), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090699 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Background: The study of the biological basis of anxiety, depression, and intellectual disabilities in humans is one of the most actual problems of modern neurophysiology. Of particular interest is the study of complex interactions between molecular genetic factors, electrophysiological properties of the nervous [...] Read more.
Background: The study of the biological basis of anxiety, depression, and intellectual disabilities in humans is one of the most actual problems of modern neurophysiology. Of particular interest is the study of complex interactions between molecular genetic factors, electrophysiological properties of the nervous system, and the behavioral characteristics of people. The neurobiological understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders requires not only the identification of genes that play a role in the molecular mechanisms of the occurrence and course of diseases, but also the understanding of complex interactions that occur between these genes. A systematic study of such interactions obviously contributes to the development of new methods of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disorders, as the orientation to allele variants of individual loci is not reliable enough, because the literature describes a number of genes, the same alleles of which can be associated with different, sometimes extremely different variants of phenotypic traits, depending on the genetic background, of their carriers, habitat, and other factors. Results: In our study, we have reconstructed a series of gene networks (in the form of protein–protein interactions networks, as well as networks of transcription regulation) to build a model of the influence of complex interactions of environmental factors and genetic risk factors for intellectual disability, depression, and other disorders in human behavior. Conclusion: A list of candidate genes whose expression is presumably associated with environmental factors and has potentially contentious manifestation for behavioral and neurological traits is identified for further experimental verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Intellectual Disability)
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Open AccessArticle
Twenty-Five Years Experience on RET Genetic Screening on Hereditary MTC: An Update on The Prevalence of Germline RET Mutations
Genes 2019, 10(9), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090698 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Background: Pathogenic germline mutations affecting the RET proto-oncogene underlie the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of germline RET mutations in a large series of MTC, collected over the last 25 years, [...] Read more.
Background: Pathogenic germline mutations affecting the RET proto-oncogene underlie the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of germline RET mutations in a large series of MTC, collected over the last 25 years, and to reappraise their clinical significance. Methods: We performed RET genetic screening in 2031 Italian subjects: patients who presented with sporadic (n = 1264) or hereditary (n = 117) MTC, plus 650 relatives. Results: A RET germline mutation was found in 115/117 (98.3%) hereditary and in 78/1264 (6.2%) apparently sporadic cases: in total, 42 distinct germline variants were found. The V804M mutation was the most prevalent in our cohort, especially in cases that presented as sporadic, while mutations affecting cysteine residues were the most frequent in the group of clinically hereditary cases. All M918T mutations were “de novo” and exclusively associated with MEN2B. Several variants of unknown significance (VUS) were also found. Conclusions: a) RET genetic screening is informative in both hereditary and sporadic MTC; b) the prevalence of different mutations varies with V804M being the most frequent; c) the association genotype–phenotype is confirmed; d) by RET screening, some VUS can be found but their pathogenic role must be demonstrated before screening the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer: Genetics and Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
BRCA2 Deletion Induces Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Telomerase Positive Colon Cancer Cells
Genes 2019, 10(9), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090697 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 200
Abstract
BRCA1/2 are tumor suppressor genes controlling genomic stability also at telomeric and subtelomeric loci. Their mutation confers a predisposition to different human cancers but also sensitivity to antitumor drugs including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and G-quadruplex stabilizers. Here we demonstrate that BRCA2 deletion [...] Read more.
BRCA1/2 are tumor suppressor genes controlling genomic stability also at telomeric and subtelomeric loci. Their mutation confers a predisposition to different human cancers but also sensitivity to antitumor drugs including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and G-quadruplex stabilizers. Here we demonstrate that BRCA2 deletion triggers TERRA hyperexpression and alternative lengthening mechanisms (ALT) in colon cancer cells in presence of telomerase activity. This finding opens the question if cancer patients bearing BRCA2 germline or sporadic mutation are suitable for anti-telomerase therapies, or how ALT activation could influence the short or long-term response to anti-PARP inhibitors or anti-G-quadruplex therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ALT: From Telomere Maintenance Mechanisms to Proposed Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiles of Late Embryogenesis-Abundant (LEA) Genes during Grain Maturation in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Genes 2019, 10(9), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090696 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) genes play important roles in plant growth and development, especially the cellular dehydration tolerance during seed maturation. In order to comprehensively understand the roles of LEA family members in wheat, we carried out a series of analyses based on the [...] Read more.
Late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) genes play important roles in plant growth and development, especially the cellular dehydration tolerance during seed maturation. In order to comprehensively understand the roles of LEA family members in wheat, we carried out a series of analyses based on the latest genome sequence of the bread wheat Chinese Spring. 121 Triticum aestivum L. LEA (TaLEA) genes, classified as 8 groups, were identified and characterized. TaLEA genes are distributed in all chromosomes, most of them with a low number of introns (≤3). Expression profiles showed that most TaLEA genes expressed specifically in grains. By qRT-PCR analysis, we confirmed that 12 genes among them showed high expression levels during late stage grain maturation in two spring wheat cultivars, Yangmai16 and Yangmai15. For most genes, the peak of expression appeared earlier in Yangmai16. Statistical analysis indicated that expression level of 8 genes in Yangmai 16 were significantly higher than Yangmai 15 at 25 days after anthesis. Taken together, our results provide more knowledge for future functional analysis and potential utilization of TaLEA genes in wheat breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Histone Methylation Participates in Gene Expression Control during the Early Development of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas
Genes 2019, 10(9), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090695 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Histone methylation patterns are important epigenetic regulators of mammalian development, notably through stem cell identity maintenance by chromatin remodeling and transcriptional control of pluripotency genes. But, the implications of histone marks are poorly understood in distant groups outside vertebrates and ecdysozoan models. However, [...] Read more.
Histone methylation patterns are important epigenetic regulators of mammalian development, notably through stem cell identity maintenance by chromatin remodeling and transcriptional control of pluripotency genes. But, the implications of histone marks are poorly understood in distant groups outside vertebrates and ecdysozoan models. However, the development of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is under the strong epigenetic influence of DNA methylation, and Jumonji histone-demethylase orthologues are highly expressed during C. gigas early life. This suggests a physiological relevance of histone methylation regulation in oyster development, raising the question of functional conservation of this epigenetic pathway in lophotrochozoan. Quantification of histone methylation using fluorescent ELISAs during oyster early life indicated significant variations in monomethyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me), an overall decrease in H3K9 mono- and tri-methylations, and in H3K36 methylations, respectively, whereas no significant modification could be detected in H3K27 methylation. Early in vivo treatment with the JmjC-specific inhibitor Methylstat induced hypermethylation of all the examined histone H3 lysines and developmental alterations as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy. Using microarrays, we identified 376 genes that were differentially expressed under methylstat treatment, which expression patterns could discriminate between samples as indicated by principal component analysis. Furthermore, Gene Ontology revealed that these genes were related to processes potentially important for embryonic stages such as binding, cell differentiation and development. These results suggest an important physiological significance of histone methylation in the oyster embryonic and larval life, providing, to our knowledge, the first insights into epigenetic regulation by histone methylation in lophotrochozoan development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics and Adaptation)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization, Expression, and Interaction Analyses of OsMORF Gene Family in Rice
Genes 2019, 10(9), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090694 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 149
Abstract
The multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF) gene family plays a key role in organelle RNA editing in flowering plants. MORF genes expressions are also affected by abiotic stress. Although seven OsMORF genes have been identified in rice, few reports have been published [...] Read more.
The multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF) gene family plays a key role in organelle RNA editing in flowering plants. MORF genes expressions are also affected by abiotic stress. Although seven OsMORF genes have been identified in rice, few reports have been published on their expression patterns in different tissues and under abiotic stress, and OsMORF–OsMORF interactions. In this study, we analyzed the gene structure of OsMORF family genes. The MORF family members were divided into six subgroups in different plants based on phylogenetic analysis. Seven OsMORF genes were highly expressed in leaves. Six and seven OsMORF genes expressions were affected by cold and salt stresses, respectively. OsMORF–OsMORF interaction analysis indicated that OsMORF1, OsMORF8a, and OsMORF8b could each interact with themselves to form homomers. Moreover, five OsMORF proteins were shown to be able to interact with each other, such as OsMORF8a and OsMORF8b interacting with OsMORF1 and OsMORF2b, respectively, to form heteromers. These results provide information for further study of OsMORF gene function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Interspecific Genetic Differences and Historical Demography in South American Arowanas (Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae, Osteoglossum)
Genes 2019, 10(9), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090693 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The South American arowanas (Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae, Osteoglossum) are emblematic species widely distributed in the Amazon and surrounding basins. Arowana species are under strong anthropogenic pressure as they are extensively exploited for ornamental and food purposes. Until now, limited genetic and cytogenetic information [...] Read more.
The South American arowanas (Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae, Osteoglossum) are emblematic species widely distributed in the Amazon and surrounding basins. Arowana species are under strong anthropogenic pressure as they are extensively exploited for ornamental and food purposes. Until now, limited genetic and cytogenetic information has been available, with only a few studies reporting to their genetic diversity and population structure. In the present study, cytogenetic and DArTseq-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to investigate the genetic diversity of the two Osteoglossum species, the silver arowana O. bicirrhosum, and the black arowana O. ferreirai. Both species differ in their 2n (with 2n = 54 and 56 for O. ferreirai and O. bicirrhosum, respectively) and in the composition and distribution of their repetitive DNA content, consistent with their taxonomic status as different species. Our genetic dataset was coupled with contemporary and paleogeographic niche modeling, to develop concurrent demographic models that were tested against each other with a deep learning approach in O. bicirrhosum. Our genetic results reveal that O. bicirrhosum colonized the Tocantins-Araguaia basin from the Amazon basin about one million years ago. In addition, we highlighted a higher genetic diversity of O. bicirrhosum in the Amazon populations in comparison to those from the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variations Associated with Drug Resistance Markers in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Myanmar
Genes 2019, 10(9), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090692 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
The emergence and spread of drug resistance is a problem hindering malaria elimination in Southeast Asia. In this study, genetic variations in drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were determined in parasites from asymptomatic populations located in three geographically dispersed townships of Myanmar [...] Read more.
The emergence and spread of drug resistance is a problem hindering malaria elimination in Southeast Asia. In this study, genetic variations in drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were determined in parasites from asymptomatic populations located in three geographically dispersed townships of Myanmar by PCR and sequencing. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps), chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmdr1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1), and Kelch protein 13 (k13) were present in 92.3%, 97.6%, 84.0%, 98.8%, and 68.3% of the parasites, respectively. The pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 I185K, and pfmrp1 I876V mutations were present in 82.7%, 2.5%, 87.5%, and 59.8% isolates, respectively. The most prevalent haplotypes for pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfcrt and pfmdr1 were 51I/59R/108N/164L, 436A/437G/540E/581A, 74I/75E/76T/220S/271E/326N/356T/371I, and 86N/130E/184Y/185K/1225V, respectively. In addition, 57 isolates had three different point mutations (K191T, F446I, and P574L) and three types of N-terminal insertions (N, NN, NNN) in the k13 gene. In total, 43 distinct haplotypes potentially associated with multidrug resistance were identified. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum in asymptomatic infections from diverse townships in Myanmar, emphasizing the importance of targeting asymptomatic infections to prevent the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Population Genetics of the Highly Polymorphic RPP8 Gene Family
Genes 2019, 10(9), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090691 - 08 Sep 2019
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) genes provide some of the most extreme examples of polymorphism in eukaryotic genomes, rivalling even the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex. Surprisingly, this is also true in Arabidopsis thaliana, a predominantly selfing species with low [...] Read more.
Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) genes provide some of the most extreme examples of polymorphism in eukaryotic genomes, rivalling even the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex. Surprisingly, this is also true in Arabidopsis thaliana, a predominantly selfing species with low heterozygosity. Here, we investigate how gene duplication and intergenic exchange contribute to this extraordinary variation. RPP8 is a three-locus system that is configured chromosomally as either a direct-repeat tandem duplication or as a single copy locus, plus a locus 2 Mb distant. We sequenced 48 RPP8 alleles from 37 accessions of A. thaliana and 12 RPP8 alleles from Arabidopsis lyrata to investigate the patterns of interlocus shared variation. The tandem duplicates display fixed differences and share less variation with each other than either shares with the distant paralog. A high level of shared polymorphism among alleles at one of the tandem duplicates, the single-copy locus and the distal locus, must involve both classical crossing over and intergenic gene conversion. Despite these polymorphism-enhancing mechanisms, the observed nucleotide diversity could not be replicated under neutral forward-in-time simulations. Only by adding balancing selection to the simulations do they approach the level of polymorphism observed at RPP8. In this NLR gene triad, genetic architecture, gene function and selection all combine to generate diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NLR gene evolution in plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Wood Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Critical Pathway Genes of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis and Novel Regulators for Vascular Cambium Development in Populus
Genes 2019, 10(9), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090690 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Wood, the most abundant biomass on Earth, is composed of secondary xylem differentiated from vascular cambium. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of wood formation remain largely unclear. To gain insight into wood formation, we performed a series of wood-forming tissue-specific transcriptome analyses from [...] Read more.
Wood, the most abundant biomass on Earth, is composed of secondary xylem differentiated from vascular cambium. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of wood formation remain largely unclear. To gain insight into wood formation, we performed a series of wood-forming tissue-specific transcriptome analyses from a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. glandulosa, clone BH) using RNA-seq. Together with shoot apex and leaf tissue, cambium and xylem tissues were isolated from vertical stem segments representing a gradient of secondary growth developmental stages (i.e., immature, intermediate, and mature stem). In a comparative transcriptome analysis of the ‘developing xylem’ and ‘leaf’ tissue, we could identify critical players catalyzing each biosynthetic step of secondary wall components (e.g., cellulose, xylan, and lignin). Several candidate genes involved in the initiation of vascular cambium formation were found via a co-expression network analysis using abundantly expressed genes in the ‘intermediate stem-derived cambium’ tissue. We found that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the PtrHAM4-1, a GRAS family transcription factor, resulted in a significant increase of vascular cambium development. This phenotype was successfully reproduced in the transgenic poplars overexpressing the PtrHAM4-1. Taken together, our results may serve as a springboard for further research to unravel the molecular mechanism of wood formation, one of the most important biological processes on this planet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Secondary Growth)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Throughput RNA Sequencing Reveals NDUFC2-AS lncRNA Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation in Chinese Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)
Genes 2019, 10(9), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090689 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) is prevalent in China and the increasing demand for meat production has changed its role from being a beast of burden to a meat source. The low fat deposition level has become one of the main barriers [...] Read more.
The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) is prevalent in China and the increasing demand for meat production has changed its role from being a beast of burden to a meat source. The low fat deposition level has become one of the main barriers for its use in meat production. It is urgent to reveal factors involved in fat deposition in buffalo. This study performed RNA sequencing to investigate both long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs of adipose tissues in young and adult buffalos. A total of 124 lncRNAs and 2008 mRNAs showed differential expression patterns between young and adult samples. Coexpression analysis and functional enrichment revealed 585 mRNA–lncRNA pairs with potential function in fat deposition. After validation by qRT-PCR, we focused on a lncRNA transcribed from the ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit C2 (NDUFC2) antisense (AS) strand which showed high correlation with thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP). NDUFC2-AS lncRNA is highly expressed in adipose tissue and maturation adipocytes and mainly exists in the nucleus. Functional assays demonstrated that NDUFC2-AS lncRNA promotes adipogenic differentiation by upregulating the expression levels of THRSP and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in buffalo. These results indicate that NDUFC2-AS lncRNA promotes fat deposition in buffalo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Genomic Analysis of γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane-Degrading Sphingopyxis lindanitolerans WS5A3p Strain in the Context of the Pangenome of Sphingopyxis
Genes 2019, 10(9), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090688 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Sphingopyxis inhabit diverse environmental niches, including marine, freshwater, oceans, soil and anthropogenic sites. The genus includes 20 phylogenetically distinct, valid species, but only a few with a sequenced genome. In this work, we analyzed the nearly complete genome of the newly described species, [...] Read more.
Sphingopyxis inhabit diverse environmental niches, including marine, freshwater, oceans, soil and anthropogenic sites. The genus includes 20 phylogenetically distinct, valid species, but only a few with a sequenced genome. In this work, we analyzed the nearly complete genome of the newly described species, Sphingopyxis lindanitolerans, and compared it to the other available Sphingopyxis genomes. The genome included 4.3 Mbp in total and consists of a circular chromosome, and two putative plasmids. Among the identified set of lin genes responsible for γ-hexachlorocyclohexane pesticide degradation, we discovered a gene coding for a new isoform of the LinA protein. The significant potential of this species in the remediation of contaminated soil is also correlated with the fact that its genome encodes a higher number of enzymes potentially involved in aromatic compound degradation than for most other Sphingopyxis strains. Additional analysis of 44 Sphingopyxis representatives provides insights into the pangenome of Sphingopyxis and revealed a core of 734 protein clusters and between four and 1667 unique proteins per genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Genomics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage Isolates from UK Children and Their Household Contacts, Pre-PCV7 to Post-PCV13
Genes 2019, 10(9), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090687 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis to investigate the population structure of 877 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from five carriage studies from 2002 (N = 346), 2010 (N = 127), 2013 (N = 153), 2016 (N = 187) and [...] Read more.
We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis to investigate the population structure of 877 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from five carriage studies from 2002 (N = 346), 2010 (N = 127), 2013 (N = 153), 2016 (N = 187) and 2018 (N = 64) in UK households which covers the period pre-PCV7 to post-PCV13 implementation. The genomic lineages seen in the population were determined using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and PopPUNK (Population Partitioning Using Nucleotide K-mers) which was used for local and global comparisons. A Roary core genome alignment of all the carriage genomes was used to investigate phylogenetic relationships between the lineages. The results showed an influx of previously undetected sequence types after vaccination associated with non-vaccine serotypes. A small number of lineages persisted throughout, associated with both non-vaccine and vaccine types (such as ST199), or that could be an example of serotype switching from vaccine to non-vaccine types (ST177). Serotype 3 persisted throughout the study years, represented by ST180 and Global Pneumococcal Sequencing Cluster (GPSC) 12; the local PopPUNK analysis and core genome maximum likelihood phylogeny separated them into two clades, one of which is only seen in later study years. The genomic data showed that serotype replacement in the carriage studies was mostly due to a change in genotype as well as serotype, but that some important genetic lineages, previously associated with vaccine types, persisted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Streptococcus pneumoniae)
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Open AccessArticle
Gene Expression Profiles and microRNA Regulation Networks in Tiller Primordia, Stem Tips, and Young Spikes of Wheat Guomai 301
Genes 2019, 10(9), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090686 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Tillering and spike differentiation are two key events for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A study on the transcriptomes and microRNA group profiles of wheat at the two key developmental stages will bring insight into the molecular regulation mechanisms. Guomai 301 is a [...] Read more.
Tillering and spike differentiation are two key events for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A study on the transcriptomes and microRNA group profiles of wheat at the two key developmental stages will bring insight into the molecular regulation mechanisms. Guomai 301 is a representative excellent new high yield wheat cultivar in the Henan province in China. The transcriptomes and microRNA (miRNA) groups of tiller primordia (TPs), stem tips (STs), and young spikes (YSs) in Guomai 301 were compared to each other. A total of 1741 tillering specifically expressed and 281 early spikes differentiating specifically expressed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Six major expression profile clusters of tissue-specific DEGs for the three tissues were classified by gene co-expression analysis using K-means cluster. The ribosome (ko03010), photosynthesis-antenna proteins (ko00196), and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) were the main metabolic pathways in TPs, STs, and YSs, respectively. Similarly, 67 TP specifically expressed and 19 YS specifically expressed differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, 65 of them were novel. The roles of 3 well known miRNAs, tae-miR156, tae-miR164, and tae-miR167a, in post-transcriptional regulation were similar to that of other researches. There were 651 significant negative miRNA–mRNA interaction pairs in TPs and YSs, involving 63 differentially expressed miRNAs (fold change > 4) and 416 differentially expressed mRNAs. Among them 12 key known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs were further analyzed, and miRNA–mRNA regulatory networks during tillering and early spike differentiating were established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting miRNA-Disease Associations by Incorporating Projections in Low-Dimensional Space and Local Topological Information
Genes 2019, 10(9), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090685 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Predicting the potential microRNA (miRNA) candidates associated with a disease helps in exploring the mechanisms of disease development. Most recent approaches have utilized heterogeneous information about miRNAs and diseases, including miRNA similarities, disease similarities, and miRNA-disease associations. However, these methods do not utilize [...] Read more.
Predicting the potential microRNA (miRNA) candidates associated with a disease helps in exploring the mechanisms of disease development. Most recent approaches have utilized heterogeneous information about miRNAs and diseases, including miRNA similarities, disease similarities, and miRNA-disease associations. However, these methods do not utilize the projections of miRNAs and diseases in a low-dimensional space. Thus, it is necessary to develop a method that can utilize the effective information in the low-dimensional space to predict potential disease-related miRNA candidates. We proposed a method based on non-negative matrix factorization, named DMAPred, to predict potential miRNA-disease associations. DMAPred exploits the similarities and associations of diseases and miRNAs, and it integrates local topological information of the miRNA network. The likelihood that a miRNA is associated with a disease also depends on their projections in low-dimensional space. Therefore, we project miRNAs and diseases into low-dimensional feature space to yield their low-dimensional and dense feature representations. Moreover, the sparse characteristic of miRNA-disease associations was introduced to make our predictive model more credible. DMAPred achieved superior performance for 15 well-characterized diseases with AUCs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) ranging from 0.860 to 0.973 and AUPRs (area under the precision-recall curve) ranging from 0.118 to 0.761. In addition, case studies on breast, prostatic, and lung neoplasms demonstrated the ability of DMAPred to discover potential disease-related miRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Associations Between Non-Coding RNA and Diseases)
Open AccessCommunication
A Simple Method to Detect the Inhibition of Transcription Factor-DNA Binding Due to Protein–Protein Interactions In Vivo
Genes 2019, 10(9), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090684 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-regulatory elements (DNA) could modulate the expression of downstream genes, while interactions between TFs and other proteins might inhibit them binding to DNA. Nowadays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches are usually [...] Read more.
Binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-regulatory elements (DNA) could modulate the expression of downstream genes, while interactions between TFs and other proteins might inhibit them binding to DNA. Nowadays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches are usually employed to detect the inhibitory effect. However, EMSA might not reflect the inhibitory effect in vivo. ChIP requires preparation of specific antibody or stable genetic transformation and complicated experimental steps, making it laborious and time-consuming. Here, based on the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) system, we present a simple method to detect the inhibition of TF–DNA binding due to protein–protein interactions in vivo. When interactions between TFs and other proteins inhibit TFs binding to DNA, the reporter (Aureobasidin A resistance) gene is not activated, thereby inhibiting yeast growth on media containing the AbA antibiotic. Two examples were tested with the newly developed method to demonstrate its feasibility. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative strategy for detecting the inhibition of DNA-binding of TFs due to their interactions with other proteins in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technologies and Resources for Genetics)
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