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The Soybean Laccase Gene Family: Evolution and Possible Roles in Plant Defense and Stem Strength Selection

1
Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
2
School of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
School of Life Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090701
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 18 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Laccase is a widely used industrial oxidase for food processing, dye synthesis, paper making, and pollution remediation. At present, laccases used by industries come mainly from fungi. Plants contain numerous genes encoding laccase enzymes that show properties which are distinct from that of the fungal laccases. These plant-specific laccases may have better potential for industrial purposes. The aim of this work was to conduct a genome-wide search for the soybean laccase genes and analyze their characteristics and specific functions. A total of 93 putative laccase genes (GmLac) were identified from the soybean genome. All 93 GmLac enzymes contain three typical Cu-oxidase domains, and they were classified into five groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Although adjacent members on the tree showed highly similar exon/intron organization and motif composition, there were differences among the members within a class for both conserved and differentiated functions. Based on the expression patterns, some members of laccase were expressed in specific tissues/organs, while some exhibited a constitutive expression pattern. Analysis of the transcriptome revealed that some laccase genes might be involved in providing resistance to oomycetes. Analysis of the selective pressures acting on the laccase gene family in the process of soybean domestication revealed that 10 genes could have been under artificial selection during the domestication process. Four of these genes may have contributed to the transition of the soft and thin stem of wild soybean species into strong, thick, and erect stems of the cultivated soybean species. Our study provides a foundation for future functional studies of the soybean laccase gene family.
Keywords: laccase; Cu-oxidase; GmLac; resistance; selection; soybean; stem strength laccase; Cu-oxidase; GmLac; resistance; selection; soybean; stem strength
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Q.; Li, G.; Zheng, K.; Zhu, X.; Ma, J.; Wang, D.; Tang, K.; Feng, X.; Leng, J.; Yu, H.; Yang, S.; Feng, X. The Soybean Laccase Gene Family: Evolution and Possible Roles in Plant Defense and Stem Strength Selection. Genes 2019, 10, 701.

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