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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Harpalus sinicus and Its Implications for Phylogenetic Analyses

1
Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China
2
School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090724
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Genetics and Genomics)
In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Harpalus sinicus (occasionally named as the Chinese ground beetle) which is the first mitochondrial genome for Harpalus. The mitogenome is 16,521 bp in length, comprising 37 genes, and a control region. The A + T content of the mitogenome is as high as 80.6%. A mitochondrial origins of light-strand replication (OL)-like region is found firstly in the insect mitogenome, which can form a stem-loop hairpin structure. Thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) share high homology, and all of them are under purifying selection. All tRNA genes (tRNAs) can be folded into the classic cloverleaf secondary structures except tRNA-Ser (GCU), which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) stem. The secondary structure of two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) is predicted based on previous insect models. Twelve types of tandem repeats and two stem-loop structures are detected in the control region, and two stem-loop structures may be involved in the initiation of replication and transcription. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomes suggest that Harpalus is an independent lineage in Carabidae, and is closely related to four genera (Abax, Amara, Stomis, and Pterostichus). In general, this study provides meaningful genetic information for Harpalus sinicus and new insights into the phylogenetic relationships within the Carabidae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Harpalus sinicus; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny Harpalus sinicus; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny
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Yu, X.; Tan, W.; Zhang, H.; Jiang, W.; Gao, H.; Wang, W.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Tian, X. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Harpalus sinicus and Its Implications for Phylogenetic Analyses. Genes 2019, 10, 724.

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