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Agronomy, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 144 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Disease causes significant loss of grape yield in commercial vineyards and is driven by complex [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Germination Patterns in Seeds Produced in Apical and Basal Fruits of Two Thlaspi arvense Populations
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050756 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
The aim of the present work is to study possible differences in the germination behavior of apical and basal seeds (produced in the upper and lower fruits of the infruitescence), of two populations of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense), both produced in [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work is to study possible differences in the germination behavior of apical and basal seeds (produced in the upper and lower fruits of the infruitescence), of two populations of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense), both produced in a Mediterranean and a continental temperate climate. The results showed that among the three studied factors (population, seed type, production site), only the production site was relevant for the total germination, germinating those produced in Morris in a greater amount than those produced in Lleida. Germination models could be applied only to seeds produced at Morris (>10% germination), and despite the lack of differences in the total germination percentage, germination rates (speed—b parameter—and time to 50% germination—G50) differed between population and seed types—apical seeds from the Spanish population germinated faster (lower b parameter) than the rest, while apical seeds of both populations germinated faster than the corresponding basal seeds (lower G50). The results show, on the one hand, the importance of the seed production site if this species was considered as a commercial oilseed crop and, on the other hand, differences that will help seed selection for seed germination and establishment improvement of pennycress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Oilseed Crops for Biofuel and Biobased Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Genotype, Growing Season and Nitrogen Level on Gluten Protein Assembly of Durum Wheat Grown under Mediterranean Conditions
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050755 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Water deficit and high temperatures are the main environmental factors which affect both wheat yield and technological quality in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the variation in the gluten protein assembly of four durum wheat genotypes in [...] Read more.
Water deficit and high temperatures are the main environmental factors which affect both wheat yield and technological quality in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the variation in the gluten protein assembly of four durum wheat genotypes in relation to growing seasons and different nitrogen levels. The genotypes, Marco Aurelio, Quadrato, Pietrafitta and Redidenari, were grown under three nitrogen levels (36, 90 and 120 kg ha−1) during two growing seasons in Southern Italy. Significant lower yield and a higher protein concentration were observed in the year characterized by a higher temperature at the end of the crop cycle. The effect of the high temperatures on protein assembly was different for the genotypes in relation to their earliness. Based on PCA, in the warmer year, only the medium-early genotype Quadrato showed positive values along the “protein polymerization degree” factor, while the medium and medium-late genotypes, Marco Aurelio and Pietrafitta showed negative values along the “proteins assembly” factor. No clear separation along the two factors was observed for the early genotype Redidenari. The variation in gluten protein assembly observed in the four genotypes in relation to the growing season might help breeding programs to select genotypes suitable for facing the ongoing climate changes in Mediterranean area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Breeding and Genetics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperBrief Report
Mortierella elongata Increases Plant Biomass among Non-Leguminous Crop Species
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050754 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that M. elongata (M. elongata) isolated from Populus field sites has a dual endophyte–saprotroph lifestyle and is able to promote the growth of Populus. However, little is known about the host fidelity of M. elongata and [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that M. elongata (M. elongata) isolated from Populus field sites has a dual endophyte–saprotroph lifestyle and is able to promote the growth of Populus. However, little is known about the host fidelity of M. elongata and whether M. elongata strains differ from one another in their ability to promote plant growth. Here, we compared the impacts of three Populus-associated M. elongata isolates (PMI 77, PMI 93, and PMI 624) on the growth of seven different crop species by measuring plant height, plant dry biomass, and leaf area. M. elongata isolates PMI 624 and PMI 93 increased the plant height, leaf area, and plant dry weight of Citrullus lanatus, Zea mays, Solanum lycopersicum, and Cucurbita to a much greater degree than PMI 77 (33.9% to 14.1%). No significant impacts were observed for any isolate on the growth of Abelmoschus esculentus or Glycine max. On the contrary, Glycine max significantly decreased in height by 30.6% after the inoculation of M. elongata PMI 77. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that M. elongata generally promoted metrics of the plant performance among a diverse set of importantly non-leguminous crop species. Future research on understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie strain and host variability is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strengths and Weaknesses of National Variety Trial Data for Multi-Environment Analysis: A Case Study on Grain Yield and Protein Content
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050753 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 418
Abstract
Multi-environment trial studies provide an opportunity for the detailed analysis of complex traits. However, conducting trials across a large number of regions can be costly and labor intensive. The Australian National Variety Trials (NVT) provide grain yield and protein content (GPC) data of [...] Read more.
Multi-environment trial studies provide an opportunity for the detailed analysis of complex traits. However, conducting trials across a large number of regions can be costly and labor intensive. The Australian National Variety Trials (NVT) provide grain yield and protein content (GPC) data of over 200 wheat varieties in many and varied environments across the Australian wheat-belt and is representative of similar trials conducted in other countries. Through our analysis of the NVT dataset, we highlight the advantages and limitations in using these data to explore the relationship between grain yield and GPC in the low yielding environments of Australia. Eight environment types (ETs), categorized in a previous study based on the time and intensity of drought stress, were used to analyze the impact of drought on the relationship between grain yield and protein content. The study illustrates the value of comprehensive multi-environment analysis to explore the complex relationship between yield and GPC, and to identify the most appropriate environments to select for a favorable relationship. However, the NVT trial design does not follow the rigor associated with a normal genotype × environment study and this limits the accuracy of the interpretation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of an Adapted Greenhouse Cooling System with Pre-Chamber and Inflatable Air Ducts for Semi-Arid Regions in Warm Conditions
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050752 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 450
Abstract
The growing needs for fruit and vegetable production, together with the current climate change situation, make agriculture under plastic and greenhouse cooling indispensable. The most commonly used approaches are natural ventilation, shading and fan-pad systems. To foster a climate that allows forplant production [...] Read more.
The growing needs for fruit and vegetable production, together with the current climate change situation, make agriculture under plastic and greenhouse cooling indispensable. The most commonly used approaches are natural ventilation, shading and fan-pad systems. To foster a climate that allows forplant production under cover in extreme conditions, a novel fan-pad system has been devised that incorporates a pre-chamber and an air distribution system using air ducts running alongside the crop rows. The system has been tested in a greenhouse in Almeria (Spain) during the daytime in August, when the weather was hotter. Tests were also carried out in combination with natural ventilation and shading. The results indicate that the fan-pad system was efficient under extreme weather conditions and that it avoided creating horizontal thermal gradients. By determining the theoretical value of the air temperature leaving the pad, we were able to estimate the evaporative cooling potential of the fan-pad system as a function of the outdoor climate. Under extreme conditions, the fan-pad system’s efficiency decreased along with increased air temperature and, above all, the increased relative humidity of the outside air. When the outdoor climate is warm and humid, natural ventilation may be the most efficient temperature control method. If the outdoor climate is warm and dry, the evaporative pad is more effective, especially when combined with shading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybridization in Peppers (Capsicum spp.) to Improve the Volatile Composition in Fully Ripe Fruits: The Effects of Parent Combinations and Fruit Tissues
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050751 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), especially C. annuum L., are one of the most important vegetables and spices in the world and their fruits are used in a range of food dishes, to provide aroma and flavor. Pungency has been largely studied, while [...] Read more.
Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), especially C. annuum L., are one of the most important vegetables and spices in the world and their fruits are used in a range of food dishes, to provide aroma and flavor. Pungency has been largely studied, while studies on the volatile fraction are more recent and less diverse. A considerable varietal diversity among peppers has been reported in terms of the aroma quality and the qualitative and quantitative variation in the volatile fraction, particularly in fully ripe fruits, which encompass most diverse food applications and aroma profiles. Thus, a study was designed to study the inheritance of the volatile fractions in peppers and to determine if they can be improved by breeding strategies. The volatile fraction of 175 samples of ripe fruits from a diverse collection of peppers, encompassing a range of varietal types and aroma qualities, were isolated by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A diverse profile of volatiles including terpenoids, esters, alkanes, and several aldehydes and alcohols, was found among the evaluated accessions. Our findings indicated that, in most cases, hybridization provided higher amounts of total volatiles and a more complex composition, particularly in the pericarp. In addition, the volatile fraction can be inherited from the parents to the offspring, as most individual volatiles in hybrids, especially major volatiles, were present in at least one of the parents, following intermediate (levels between parents) or transgressive (levels higher than the best parent) inheritance. De novo compounds (present in the hybrid, absent in the parents) were found in many samples. Comparatively, placental tissues had higher total and individual volatile levels compared with the pericarp in most parent accessions and hybrids, which must be considered by breeders if this part of the fruit is included in food formulations. By combining parent lines with complementary volatile fractions, hybridization offers a feasible method to improve the volatile composition of ripe fruits in Capsicum peppers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Hydrological Processes in Agricultural Areas with Complex Topography
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050750 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Agricultural intensification and soil mismanagement have been recognized among the main causes of soil erosion in Mediterranean climate areas such as the Arbia stream basin (Tuscany, Italy). This study aims at predicting soil loss from agricultural fields as it is essential for providing [...] Read more.
Agricultural intensification and soil mismanagement have been recognized among the main causes of soil erosion in Mediterranean climate areas such as the Arbia stream basin (Tuscany, Italy). This study aims at predicting soil loss from agricultural fields as it is essential for providing reliable information for prioritizing soil conservation measures. Thus, measured soil loss from 243 agricultural fields within the Arbia stream basin during the period 2007–2010 were used to calibrate and validate the ArcSWAT 2012 model at hydrological response units (HRU) scale. Analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey honest significant test was used to assess significant measured soil loss differences between slope steepness classes and land covers. Soil loss estimation was always “very good” for irrigated field crops, olive groves, and vineyards, “good” for unirrigated field crops, and “unsatisfactory” for broad-leaved forest. The model succeeded in the quantitative assessment of erosive processes at HRU scales. Its application to the whole Arbia stream basin estimated that 31% of the total surface is subjected to higher erosion levels. This approach might help facilitate the identification of priority areas that need the implementation of conservation measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cropping System and Humidity Level on Nitrate Content and Tipburn Incidence in Endive
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050749 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Tipburn is an important disorder caused by a calcium deficiency that affects the marketability of endives. Genotype, air relative humidity, and temperature are directly involved in tipburn occurrence. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of cropping systems and relative humidity on the [...] Read more.
Tipburn is an important disorder caused by a calcium deficiency that affects the marketability of endives. Genotype, air relative humidity, and temperature are directly involved in tipburn occurrence. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of cropping systems and relative humidity on the marketable yield, nitrate accumulation, and incidence of tipburn in endives. Two cultivars were evaluated in pots (‘Cuartana’ and ‘Natacha’), two cropping systems (greenhouse and open-field), and in two different air humidity levels (high level: plants under a plastic tunnel with an extra supply of humidity with micro-sprinklers, and low level: plants without an extra supply of humidity and outside of a plastic tunnel) during two years (2013 and 2014) in different growing seasons. Nitrate content was determined by reflectometry, and tipburn was evaluated using a qualitative scale. Results showed that tipburn was favored under greenhouse with low humidity levels, with 40–60% plants affected. ‘Natacha’ was more susceptible to tipburn (>20% plants affected) than ‘Cuartana’ (<20% plants affected). Leaf nitrate accumulation was favored by the highest temperatures (greenhouse). It is concluded that in our conditions, tipburn incidence in endives depends on the interaction of genotype and the environmental conditions. Nitrate content was more influenced by the temperature than by the cultivars used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Horticultural and Floricultural Crops)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of a Tomato Landrace as Rootstock Improves the Response of Commercial Tomato under Water Deficit Conditions
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050748 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Grafting onto drought tolerant rootstocks has been proposed as a useful strategy to overcome future water scarcity periods. The ‘de Ramellet’ tomato is a drought tolerant landrace selected under semiarid Mediterranean summer conditions under rain-fed or low irrigation. In this manuscript, the responses [...] Read more.
Grafting onto drought tolerant rootstocks has been proposed as a useful strategy to overcome future water scarcity periods. The ‘de Ramellet’ tomato is a drought tolerant landrace selected under semiarid Mediterranean summer conditions under rain-fed or low irrigation. In this manuscript, the responses of a commercial hybrid ‘de Ramellet’ genotype grafted onto a traditional ‘de Ramellet’ (RL) and a commercial Maxifort (Mx) tomato rootstocks under commercial greenhouse conditions are studied. Non-grafted (NON) and self-grafted (SELF) plants were used as controls. Two water regimes were established: well-watered (WW, covering plant water demands) and water deficit (WD, reducing 50% irrigation as compared to WW). The results confirm an improvement in agronomic performance of Mx as compared to NON, but also show a similar improving effect of RL. Grafting enhanced plant growth regardless of the rootstock under WW conditions. Similarly, water-use efficiency (assessed as leaf carbon isotope composition) increased in grafted plants under WD treatment as compared to NON. Despite the lack of significant differences, RL tended to promote higher fruit production and fruit number than Mx, irrespective of the water treatment, whereas RL was the single graft combination with higher fruit production than NON under WD. In conclusion, the results uncover the potential of drought-adapted landraces to be used as rootstocks in order to increase plant growth and fruit production under both well-watered and water deficit cultivation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rootstock of Vegetable Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Orchard Spray Study: A Prediction Model of Droplet Deposition States on Leaf Surfaces
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050747 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
During air-assisted spraying operations in orchards, the interaction between the droplets and the target leaves has a decisive influence on the retention of the droplets on the leaves and the final deposition state. Based on the observation of the final deposition effect of [...] Read more.
During air-assisted spraying operations in orchards, the interaction between the droplets and the target leaves has a decisive influence on the retention of the droplets on the leaves and the final deposition state. Based on the observation of the final deposition effect of the droplets in the spray test, the retention state of the droplets on the leaves is divided into three categories: uniform distribution (hereinafter referred to as uniform), accumulation, and loss. During the initial interaction between the droplets and the leaves, the adhesion or sliding state of the droplets has an important influence on the final deposition state of the droplets, which is determined by the target leaf adhesion work in this paper. Based on obtaining the characteristic parameters of the leaf surface, a theoretical model of adhesion work related to parameters such as the contact angle, rough factor, and initial tilt angle of the leaf is established. Afterward, through the connection of the droplet coverage on the macro level, the establishment of the deposition state model of the droplet group on the leaf is completed. By conducting the experiment test based on the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM), the droplet deposition states under the influence of the spray distance, fan outlet wind speed and droplet size were studied and compared with the predicted values. The test results show that the prediction accuracies of the three states of uniform, accumulation, and loss were 87.5%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the established prediction model can effectively predict the deposition states of droplets on leaves and provide a reference for the selection of spray operation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Soil Properties and Bacterial Community Composition with Biochar Amendment after Six Years
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050746 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Changes in soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community composition were investigated six years after biochar amendment at 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% (w/w), which were coded as C0, C1, C2 and C3, respectively. Results showed that some soil characteristics were sustainable, as they [...] Read more.
Changes in soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community composition were investigated six years after biochar amendment at 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% (w/w), which were coded as C0, C1, C2 and C3, respectively. Results showed that some soil characteristics were sustainable, as they were still affected by biochar addition after six years. Compared to the control, biochar-treated soils had higher pH, total carbon (TC), C/N, total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). Soil pH, C/N and the content of TC, TN and AK all increased along with the increase of biochar dosage. The results of Illumina MiSeq sequencing demonstrated that biochar enhanced soil bacteria diversity and modified the community composition over time. The relative abundance of Nitrospirae and Verrucomicrobia phylum increased but that of Acidobacteria phylum decreased significantly in biochar amended soils. The addition of biochar also enriched some bacterial genera, such as uncultured Nitrosomonadace, uncultured Gemmatimonadac, uncultured Nitrospiraceae and Magnetovibrio. In particular, the relative abundance of uncultured Nitrospiraceae was enhanced by 16.9%, 42.8% and 73.6% in C1, C2 and C3, respectively, compared to C0. Biochar has a potential role in enhancing the abundance of bacteria involved in N cycling. Soil pH, TC, TN, TK and AK, were closely related to alterations in the composition of the soil bacterial community. Meanwhile, these soil properties were significantly influenced by biochar amendment, which indicates that biochar affected the soil microbial community indirectly by altering the soil characteristics in the long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Climate Impacts on Herbicide, Insecticide, and Fungicide Expenditures
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050745 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The climate alters pest populations and in turn, pesticide use and cost as well as use of other pest treatments. This paper analyzes the effect of the climate on pesticide expenditures by category, namely: fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. This is done by econometrically [...] Read more.
The climate alters pest populations and in turn, pesticide use and cost as well as use of other pest treatments. This paper analyzes the effect of the climate on pesticide expenditures by category, namely: fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. This is done by econometrically estimating the effects of climate variables such as mean temperature and precipitation as well as the number of hot days, cold days, and wet days on the mean and variance of expenditures by category. The estimates are performed for corn, soybeans, spring and winter wheat, and potatoes. We find that climate factors influence fungicide, herbicide, and insecticide expenditures and that this influence is heterogeneous, varying in nature across crops and pesticide categories. Moreover, we find that climate extremes are more important in determining pesticide expenditures than climate averages in several cases. Full article
Open AccessReview
In Vitro Propagation Strategies of Medicinally Important Berry Crop, Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050744 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) is a health-promoting small fruit crop rich in antioxidant metabolites that helps to reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases. Being heterozygous, lingonberries cannot preserve genetic characteristics through seed propagation. Conventional vegetative propagation, although it produces true-to-type plants, is [...] Read more.
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) is a health-promoting small fruit crop rich in antioxidant metabolites that helps to reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases. Being heterozygous, lingonberries cannot preserve genetic characteristics through seed propagation. Conventional vegetative propagation, although it produces true-to-type plants, is not economically viable. In vitro propagation can multiply plants much faster than conventional methods. A liquid cultures system under a bioreactor micropropagation system is of significant importance to increase the multiplication rates of in vitro-produced shoots. Enhanced vegetative growth and variation in biochemical constituents are observed in micropropagated plants. Clonal fidelity, although it may be a serious problem for commercial micropropagation, can be verified efficiently by molecular markers. The current review provides detailed and updated information on lingonberry micropropagation along with conventional methods and their effects on morphological, molecular and biochemical characteristics in micropropagated plants, filling the gap in literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Farming Technology Trends: Economic and Environmental Effects, Labor Impact, and Adoption Readiness
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050743 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Farming faces challenges that increase the adverse effects on farms’ economics, labor, and the environment. Smart farming technologies (SFTs) are expected to assist in reverting this situation. In this work, 1064 SFTs were derived from scientific papers, research projects, and industrial products. They [...] Read more.
Farming faces challenges that increase the adverse effects on farms’ economics, labor, and the environment. Smart farming technologies (SFTs) are expected to assist in reverting this situation. In this work, 1064 SFTs were derived from scientific papers, research projects, and industrial products. They were classified by technology readiness level (TRL), typology, and field operation, and they were assessed for their economic, environmental, and labor impact, as well as their adoption readiness from end-users. It was shown that scientific articles dealt with SFTs of lower TRL than research projects. In scientific articles, researchers investigated mostly recording technologies, while, in research projects, they focused primarily on farm management information systems and robotic/automation systems. Scouting technologies were the main SFT type in scientific papers and research projects, but variable rate application technologies were mostly located in commercial products. In scientific papers, there was limited analysis of economic, environmental, and labor impact of the SFTs under investigation, while, in research projects, these impacts were studied thoroughly. Further, in commercial SFTs, the focus was on economic impact and less on labor and environmental issues. With respect to adoption readiness, it was found that all of the factors to facilitate SFT adoption became more positive moving from SFTs in scientific papers to fully functional commercial SFTs, indicating that SFTs reach the market when most of these factors are addressed for the benefit of the farmers. This SFT analysis is expected to inform researchers on adapting their research, as well as help policy-makers adjust their strategy toward digitized agriculture adoption and farmers with the current situation and future trends of SFTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Breeding Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Adapted to Subtropical Agroecosystems
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050742 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Alfalfa is planted in more than 30 million hectares worldwide, but despite its popularity in temperate regions, it is not widely grown in subtropical agroecosystems. It is critical to improve alfalfa for such regions, considering current predictions of global warming and the increasing [...] Read more.
Alfalfa is planted in more than 30 million hectares worldwide, but despite its popularity in temperate regions, it is not widely grown in subtropical agroecosystems. It is critical to improve alfalfa for such regions, considering current predictions of global warming and the increasing demands for animal-based products. In this study, we examined the diversity present in subtropical alfalfa germplasm and reported genetic parameters for forage production. An initial screening was performed from 2014 to 2016, evaluating 121 populations from different subtropical origins. Then, a breeding population was created by crossing selected plants, resulting in 145 full-sib and 36 half-sib families, which were planted in a row-column design with augmented representation of three controls (‘Bulldog805′, ‘FL99′ and ‘UF2015′). Dry matter yield (DMY), canopy height (AH), and percentage blooming (BLOOM) were measured across several harvests. Moderate narrow-sense heritability and high genetic correlations between consecutive harvests were estimated for all traits. The breeding line UF2015 produced higher DMY than FL99 and Bulldog805, and it could be a candidate cultivar release. Several families produced higher DMY than all checks, and they can be utilized to develop high yielding and adapted alfalfa cultivars for subtropical agroecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Crop Production, Management, and Ecophysiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery of 15N Labeled Nitrogen Fertilizer by Fertigated and Drip Irrigated Greenhouse Vegetable Crops
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050741 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The stable isotope 15N was used to assess the recovery of mineral N fertilizer applied to fertigated and drip-irrigated spring muskmelon and autumn-winter sweet pepper crops grown in greenhouse soil plots. They received 92–96% of mineral N fertilizer as NO3 [...] Read more.
The stable isotope 15N was used to assess the recovery of mineral N fertilizer applied to fertigated and drip-irrigated spring muskmelon and autumn-winter sweet pepper crops grown in greenhouse soil plots. They received 92–96% of mineral N fertilizer as NO3. 15N-labeled Ca (NO3)2 fertilizer was applied to crops during vegetative growth and fruit production phases. Crops were grown with either conventional management or combined improved N and irrigation management. Improved management for both irrigation and N was based on the combined use of models, to estimate crop requirements, and of monitoring of soil parameters. In sweet pepper, from conventional management, 15N recoveries from the 15N applications made during vegetative growth and fruit production were 66% and 58%, respectively. With improved management in sweet pepper, the corresponding 15N recoveries were 82% and 77%. In muskmelon, 15N recoveries from conventional management from the 15N applications made during vegetative growth and fruit production were 71% and 42%, respectively. With improved management, the corresponding 15N recoveries were 68% and 44%, respectively. The results demonstrated that combined drip irrigation and fertigation systems with frequent irrigation and N fertilizer application can have very high recovery of applied N fertilizer, of 77–82%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrogen Fertilization in Vegetable Crops)
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Open AccessArticle
Response of the Arthropod Community to Soil Characteristics and Management in the Franciacorta Viticultural Area (Lombardy, Italy)
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050740 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Soil represents an important pool of biodiversity, hosting about a quarter of the living species on our planet. This soil richness has led to increasing interest in the structural and functional characteristics of its biodiversity. Studies of arthropod responses, in terms of abundance [...] Read more.
Soil represents an important pool of biodiversity, hosting about a quarter of the living species on our planet. This soil richness has led to increasing interest in the structural and functional characteristics of its biodiversity. Studies of arthropod responses, in terms of abundance and taxon richness, have increased in relation to their ecological value as bioindicators of environmental change. This research was carried out over the 2014–2018 period with the aim to better understand arthropod taxa responses in vineyard soils in Franciacorta (Lombardy, Italy). To determine the biological composition in terms of arthropod taxa presence, one hundred soil samples were analysed. Environmental characteristics, such as chemical composition, soil moisture and temperature, and soil management were characterized for each soil sample. A total of 19 taxa were identified; the NMDS model analysis and the cluster analysis divided them into five groups according to their co-occurrence patterns. Each group was related to certain abiotic conditions; of these, soil moisture, temperature and organic matter were shown to be significant. A decision tree analysis showed that a longer period since conversion from conventional to organic farming lead to a higher arthropod biodiversity defined as a higher number of taxa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seed Morphology in the Vitaceae Based on Geometric Models
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050739 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Morphometric methods based on artificial vision algorithms provide measurements for magnitudes descriptive of seed images (i.e., the length, width, area, and surface circularity index). Nevertheless, their results frequently omit the resemblance of the images to geometric figures that may be used as models. [...] Read more.
Morphometric methods based on artificial vision algorithms provide measurements for magnitudes descriptive of seed images (i.e., the length, width, area, and surface circularity index). Nevertheless, their results frequently omit the resemblance of the images to geometric figures that may be used as models. A complementary method based on the comparison of seed images with geometric models is applied to seeds of Vitis spp. The J index gives the percentage of similarity between a seed image and the model. Seven new geometric models are described based on the heart-shaped and piriform curves. Seeds of different species, subspecies and cultivars of Vitis adjust to different models. Models 1 and 3, the heart curve and the water drop, adjust better to seeds of V. amurensis, V. labrusca and V. rupestris than to V. vinifera. Model 6, the Fibonacci’s pear, adjusts well to seeds of V. vinifera, in general, and better to V. vinifera ssp. vinifera than to V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Seed morphology in species of Cissus and Parthenocissus, two relatives of Vitis in the Vitaceae, is also analysed. Geometric models are a tool for the description and identification of species and lower taxonomic levels complementing the results of morphometric analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Onion Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor) Epidemics: Trends from 31 Years of Observational Data
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050738 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Onion downy mildew (ODM) caused by Peronospora destructor has been increasing annually in south-western Québec since the early 2000s, reaching 33% of affected onion fields in 2014. Using observational data collected over a period of 31 consecutive years, this study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Onion downy mildew (ODM) caused by Peronospora destructor has been increasing annually in south-western Québec since the early 2000s, reaching 33% of affected onion fields in 2014. Using observational data collected over a period of 31 consecutive years, this study aimed to investigate the variations in ODM incidence and epidemic onset and identify the meteorological variables that influence its polyetic development. A logistic model was fitted to each ODM epidemic to estimate and compare the onset of epidemics on a regional basis. Results of this analysis showed that the first observation date, 10% epidemic onset (b10) and mid-time (b) were, on average, 30.4, 15.1 and 11.3 days earlier in 2007–2017 than in 1987–1996. Results of a principal component analysis suggested that regional disease incidence was mostly influenced by the precipitation regime, the final regional disease incidence the previous year, and warmer temperature during the harvest period the previous fall. Subsequently, the data were divided in three periods of 10, 10 and 11 years, and a discriminant analysis was performed to classify each year in the correct period. Using a sufficient subset of five discriminating variables (temperature and rainfall at harvest the previous fall, winter coldness, solar radiation, and disease incidence the previous year), it was possible to classify 93.5% of the ODM epidemics in the period where they belong. These results suggest that P. destructor may overwinter under northern latitudes and help to highlight the need for more research on overwintering and for the development of molecular-based tools enabling the monitoring of initial and secondary inoculum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Real-Time Gas-Exchange Measurement System for Crop Stands in Environmental Scenarios
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050737 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
In contrast to conducting measurements on single plants, canopy gas exchange monitored continuously and for large batches of plants can give high-value data for crop physiological models. To this end, a system including eight airtight greenhouse cabins with a ground area of 28.8 [...] Read more.
In contrast to conducting measurements on single plants, canopy gas exchange monitored continuously and for large batches of plants can give high-value data for crop physiological models. To this end, a system including eight airtight greenhouse cabins with a ground area of 28.8 m2 and a volume of 107.8 m3 each was designed for measuring the CO2 and H2O gas exchange of crop stands following the general principle of semi-open chambers. The measuring facility consists of a set of mass flow meters allowing air exchange rates between 0.5 h−1 and 19 h−1 (i.e., m3 gas per m3 greenhouse air per hour) and CO2 supply rates up to 4 L min−1 (i.e., ca. 14.9 g m−2 greenhouse h−1) and sensors for measuring the concentrations of CO2 and H2O. There are four separated belowground troughs per cabin for the root environment that can be operated as individual gas exchange chambers measuring the belowground gas exchange for example root zone respiration. This paper outlines a demonstration of the possibilities and constraints for measuring crop gas exchange in combination with crop model validation for larger crop stands under various conditions and discusses them along with examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aphid Behavior on Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) Associated with Ocimum spp. (Lamiaceae) as Repellent Plants
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050736 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Various plant species contain biocidal and/or semiochemical components. These can be used for managing insect pests, in order to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and to improve the quality of vegetable crops. This study was conducted to assess the effect of repellent [...] Read more.
Various plant species contain biocidal and/or semiochemical components. These can be used for managing insect pests, in order to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and to improve the quality of vegetable crops. This study was conducted to assess the effect of repellent plants Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on aphids Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae Sulzer when they are associated with Amaranthus hybridus L. plants. The results have shown that in the two approaches tested—Ocimum sp. plants surrounded by A. hybridus plants and the dual-choice test—the number of aphids on the A. hybridus plant associated with either O. gratissimum or O. basilicum was significantly less significant compared to the A. hybridus alone. This first study on the association between A. hybridus and Ocimum spp. shows that the Ocimum species might be used as an alternative method for controlling aphids in order to avoid the use of synthetic pesticides on Amaranthus. The ability of Ocimum spp. to repel pests can make it an important companion plant for farmers, because those plants can not only be used to control pests, but they can also be harvested, providing a direct economic return. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Grain Endogenous Selenium and Moderate Salt Stress Work as Synergic Elicitors in the Enrichment of Bioactive Compounds in Maize Sprouts
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050735 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 320
Abstract
Salt stress and selenium are known to elicitate the production of plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties. On this basis, maize grains obtained from mother plants fertilized or not fertilized with selenium were sprouted at different levels of salinity (0, 25, and 50 [...] Read more.
Salt stress and selenium are known to elicitate the production of plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties. On this basis, maize grains obtained from mother plants fertilized or not fertilized with selenium were sprouted at different levels of salinity (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl) to evaluate the effects on the sprout yield, inorganic and organic Se species, minerals, and secondary metabolites, as revealed by a metabolomics analysis. Grain endogenous selenium (135 mg kg−1 vs. 0.19 mg kg−1 of the non-enriched grain) and salinity affected the sprout yield and composition, with salinity having the greatest effect on secondary metabolites. Most of the Se in sprouts was in an inorganic form, despite Se-enriched grains only containing organic Se. Some synergic effect was observed between Se and salinity. The best combination was obtained with Se-enriched grains sprouted at 25 mM NaCl, since this provided a good yield (not lower than in the untreated control), while sprout shoots were enriched in selenocystine and pro-nutritional semipolar compounds with antioxidant properties. Therefore, using grains from Se-fertilized crops and sprouting them under mild salt stress might represent a promising technique for improving the nutritional value of sprouts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Design Criterion Based on Shear Energy Consumption for Robotic Harvesting Tools
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050734 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Smart and precise agriculture has increasingly been developed in the last decade, and with that, the idea of optimizing the tools commonly used in this field. One way to improve these devices, particularly cutting tools conceived for harvesting purposes, is to measure the [...] Read more.
Smart and precise agriculture has increasingly been developed in the last decade, and with that, the idea of optimizing the tools commonly used in this field. One way to improve these devices, particularly cutting tools conceived for harvesting purposes, is to measure the shear energy consumption required for a particular plant. The aim of this research is to establish both a design criterion for cutting grippers and a quantifiable way to evaluate and classify a harvesting tool for a specific crop. This design criterion could help to minimize energy consumption in future harvesting robots, making them more energy-efficient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultivar Dependent Impact on Yield and Its Components of Young Almond Trees under Sustained-Deficit Irrigation in Semi-Arid Environments
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050733 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. (D.A. Webb)) plantations in irrigated semi-arid areas need to successfully face the new scenarios of climate change combining sustainable irrigation strategies and tolerant cultivars to water stress. This work examines the response of young almond (cvs. [...] Read more.
Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. (D.A. Webb)) plantations in irrigated semi-arid areas need to successfully face the new scenarios of climate change combining sustainable irrigation strategies and tolerant cultivars to water stress. This work examines the response of young almond (cvs. Guara, Marta, and Lauranne) subjected to different irrigation doses under semi-arid conditions (South-West Spain). The trial was conducted during two seasons (2018–2019) with three irrigation strategies: A full-irrigated treatment (FI), which received 100% of the irrigation requirements (IR), and two sustained-deficit irrigation strategies that received 75% (SDI75) and 65% (SDI65) of IR. Crop water status was assessed by leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) measurements, determining the yield response at the end of each season. Different physiological responses for the studied cultivars were observed, especially considering the Ψleaf measurements. In this way, cv. Marta behaved more tolerant, while cvs. Guara and Lauranne maintained higher gs rates in response to water stress. These differences were also observed in terms of yield. The cv. Lauranne did not reflect yield losses, and the opposite trend was observed for cv. Guara, in which reductions on fruit numbers per tree were detected. On overall, effective irrigation water savings (≈2100 m3·ha−1 in SDI65) could be feasible, although these responses are going to be substantially different, depending on the used cultivar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Plant Water Use Efficiency for a Sustainable Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Wind Erosion Depending on Cropping System and Tillage Method in a Semi-Arid Region
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050732 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Wind erosion is a major environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions, where it has significant impacts on desertification and soil degradation. To understand the effects of cropping systems and tillage methods on the reduction of soil wind erosion, wind tunnel investigations were [...] Read more.
Wind erosion is a major environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions, where it has significant impacts on desertification and soil degradation. To understand the effects of cropping systems and tillage methods on the reduction of soil wind erosion, wind tunnel investigations were performed on soil samples from an irrigated field in an experiment conducted in semi-arid northwestern China in 2016–2018. Three cropping systems for annual spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) strip intercropping (W/M), a two-year wheat-winter rape-maize rotation (WRM), and a two-year wheat-maize rotation (WM)) were each evaluated with two tillage methods (conventional tillage without wheat straw retention (CT) and no-tillage with 25–30 cm tall wheat straw (NT)). The mean rate of soil erosion by wind with NT was 18.9% to 36.2% less than that with CT. With increasing wind velocity, the rate of soil erosion by wind increased for both CT and NT but was faster with CT than NT. Soil wind erosion occurred with a wind velocity ≥14 m s−1, and NT greatly decreased the rate of soil erosion when wind velocity exceeded 14 m s−1. W/M, WRM, and WM with NT increased non-erodible aggregates by 53.7%, 53.7%, and 54.9% in 2017, and 51.3%, 49.6% and 44.6% in 2018, respectively, than conventional tillage. At a height of 0–20 cm, the rate of soil transport with CT decreased with increasing height. The volume of soil transport at a height of 0–4 cm and soil transport percentage at a height of 0–4 and 0–20 cm (Q0–4/Q0–20) with NT were less than with CT. These findings show that NT with cropping system intensification can be an effective strategy for resisting wind erosion in irrigated semi-arid regions, thereby reducing the negative environmental impacts of crop production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroecology and Organic Agriculture for Sustainable Crop Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of SDHI Seed Treatment on the Physiological Conditions of Spring Barley Seedlings under Drought Stress
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050731 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Seed treatments help reduce the pathogen load and thus improve the condition of plants from their earliest developmental stages, but they can have impacts beyond their basic fungicide protection role. In this study, we investigated how seven spring barley seed treatments affected the [...] Read more.
Seed treatments help reduce the pathogen load and thus improve the condition of plants from their earliest developmental stages, but they can have impacts beyond their basic fungicide protection role. In this study, we investigated how seven spring barley seed treatments affected the plants’ physiological state. The tested seed treatments differed significantly in their impacts on the vigor parameters of barley seeds and on the physiological state of seedlings under drought stress and after regeneration. Seed treatments based on substances from the succinate-dehydrogenase-inhibitors (SDHI) group did not cause inhibition of seedling growth and also display by the highest vigor index values. Using the analysis of photosynthesis-related parameters, we showed that seed treatments from the SDHI group provided a superior tolerance of the imposed drought in spring barley than other treatments. In addition to protection against abiotic stress, SDHI treatments also rendered a higher efficiency of photochemical reactions in the treated plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism and Improvement of Drought Resistance in Crops)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Calibration of the Surface Renewal Method (SR) under Different Meteorological Conditions in an Avocado Orchard
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050730 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The surface renewal method (SR) allows estimating the sensible heat flux (H) using high-frequency thermocouples. Traditionally, SR has been compared and calibrated using standard instruments such as the Eddy covariance system (EC). Calibration involves correcting H measured with SR (H’ [...] Read more.
The surface renewal method (SR) allows estimating the sensible heat flux (H) using high-frequency thermocouples. Traditionally, SR has been compared and calibrated using standard instruments such as the Eddy covariance system (EC). Calibration involves correcting H measured with SR (H’SR) by means of the calibration factor (α). However, several studies show that α is not constant and could depend on canopy architecture, measurement height, atmospheric stability, and weather conditions. In avocado orchards, there is not enough information about energy fluxes and the application of the SR method. Therefore, the objective of this study is to calibrate the SR method in a mature avocado orchard considering the effect of meteorological conditions on the determination of α. The components of the surface energy balance were measured using an EC system in a commercial avocado orchard (cv. Hass) located in the Aconcagua Valley, Valparaíso Region, Chile. To evaluate the effect of the meteorological conditions on the determination of α, the dataset was classified into nine categories based on solar radiation and wind intensity. The results show that α varies according to meteorological conditions, with significant differences for cloudy days. The use of the variable α reduced the error in estimating H, so, this methodology can be used to have a more precise approximation of the energy balance and therefore to the water requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Irrigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Detasseling Methods on Seed Yield of Some Parent Inbred Lines of Turda Maize Hybrids
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050729 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
During the process of maize seed production, in order to ensure the genetic purity of parental forms of hybrid maize, an important work performed is the removal of male inflorescences from plants on mother rows. Hand detasseling has high precision but is labor-intensive. [...] Read more.
During the process of maize seed production, in order to ensure the genetic purity of parental forms of hybrid maize, an important work performed is the removal of male inflorescences from plants on mother rows. Hand detasseling has high precision but is labor-intensive. Mechanical detasseling offers the possibility to cover large acreages in a short period of time, but the number of leaves removed has a varying influence on plant performance and seed yield. The aim of this study was to simulate three types of damages on plants similar to those induced through mechanical detasseling and to assess the effects for five inbred lines during the course of three years. Results show that when tassels alone were removed, the average seed yield decreased an average of 4–21%. When two leaves were removed with the tassel, yield decreased an average of 22–31%, while when plants were cut above the main ear, seed yield decreased an average of 31–66%. Environmental conditions influenced seed yield, especially high temperatures during flowering. Yield response to tassel and leaves removal varied between the inbred lines. Genotype controls maize ear and kernel characters, while environmental factors exercise a strong influence on seed yield, due to the succession of years with contrasting weather conditions in a key phenophase. Within the trend of full mechanization in agriculture, identification of inbred lines that cope better with plant damage can assist in optimizing seed production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Breeding and Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle
QTL Mapping for Resistance to Early Blight in a Tetraploid Potato Population
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050728 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease in most potato-growing regions. Growing cultivars with higher levels of resistance to early blight can reduce tuber yield losses and the need for fungicide applications. In this research, [...] Read more.
Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease in most potato-growing regions. Growing cultivars with higher levels of resistance to early blight can reduce tuber yield losses and the need for fungicide applications. In this research, a bi-parental tetraploid potato population, segregating for resistance to early blight in leaves and tubers, was characterized to identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with foliar and tuber early blight resistance. Assessment of the disease resistance in the foliage was performed by field evaluation and in tuber under controlled conditions. Results from this study revealed significant differences (P < 0.001) in resistance to A. solani among potato clones both in the leaves and in tubers. There was no statistically significant correlation (r = 0.06, P = 0.35) between the resistance scores from leaves and tubers. Several clones exhibited; however, high levels of resistance both in leaves and tubers and are; thus, promising candidates for breeding for early blight resistance. Linkage mapping revealed several QTL for early blight affecting both foliage and tubers. QTL associated with disease resistance in the tuber were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11 and 12. QTL associated with disease resistance in foliage were also examined for independence from defoliation, and independent QTL were; thus, found on chromosomes 5 and 11. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Breeding and Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Profiling of Essential Oils Components and Polyphenols for Their Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Grown in Different Environmental Conditions
Agronomy 2020, 10(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050727 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
In the present study, the yield, the chemical composition, and the antioxidant activities of the essential oils (EOs) of eight medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) cultivated under two environmental conditions characterized by a different altitude (namely mountainous and plain) were evaluated. Cultivation at [...] Read more.
In the present study, the yield, the chemical composition, and the antioxidant activities of the essential oils (EOs) of eight medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) cultivated under two environmental conditions characterized by a different altitude (namely mountainous and plain) were evaluated. Cultivation at different environmental conditions resulted in significant differences in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity for most of the studied species. In particular, high altitudes resulted in increased phenolic compounds’ content and antioxidant activity for artemisia plants, while specific parameters increased in the case of spearmint (total phenols) and rosemary (flavonoids). In contrast, in pelargonium, all the tested parameters were positively affected in the plain area, whereas, for laurel and sage, only flavanols remained unaffected. EO yield in mountainous pelargonium and spearmint decreased while, in mountainous laurel, pelargonium and spearmint increased when compared to plain areas. In addition, the major EO constituents’ content for most of the species were affected by environmental conditions. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were variably correlated with total phenols, flavonoids, and flavanols, depending on the species and the altitude. Lastly, in limited cases, antioxidant activity (DPPH or FRAP values) was positively correlated with some EO components (e.g., borneol and β-pinene in artemisia and laurel plants grown in the plain, respectively, or 1,8-cineole in mountainous grown verbena plants). In conclusion, environmental conditions (altitude) affected antioxidants’ content and EO yield and composition of the studied MAPs. These findings can be used to introduce cultivation of MAPs in specific ecosystems for the production of high added value products. Full article
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