# Seed Morphology in the Vitaceae Based on Geometric Models

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Species and Varieties Used

#### 2.2. Seed Images

#### 2.3. General Morphological Description by Image Analysis

#### 2.4. Comparison with Geometric Models

#### 2.4.1. Description of the Geometric Models Used

#### 2.4.2. Calculation of the J Index

#### 2.5. Statistical Analysis

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. General Morphological Description and Comparison of Vitis Species, Subspecies and Cultivars

#### 3.1.1. Comparison of Vitis Species and Subspecies

#### 3.1.2. Comparison of Vitis vinifera Cultivars

#### 3.2. Morphological Description of Vitis Species and Cultivars by Similarity with Geometric Models. Values of J Index

#### 3.2.1. Comparison of Vitis Species and Subspecies

#### 3.2.2. Comparison of Vitis vinifera Cultivars

#### 3.3. Seed Size and Shape of Cissus and Parthenocissus, Two Relatives of Vitis in the Vitaceae

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Seeds of V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris in three orientations: dorsal (D), lateral (L) and ventral (V). Ventral views are used in all the images, because the seeds are more stable and the orientation occurs in a plane perpendicular to the line of vision. In the dorsal view, the seed tends to oscillate resting on the central rib and a flank, resulting in more variable sub-lateral orientations.

**Figure 2.**Geometric models for the quantification of shape in seeds of the Vitaceae: (M1) The fourth heart curve of Weisstein [31]. (M2) A rounded heart curve modified from M1. (M3) The water drop, obtained from M1, adapting the basis in the heart curve to a circumference overlapping the maximum width of the curve. (M4) Obtained by scalling M3 in the y-axis by a factor of 123/100. (M5) Obtained by scalling M1 in the y-axis by a factor of 123/100. (M6) Fibonacci’s pear, obtained by scalling the pear curve of Weisstein [30] with r = 2 in the y-axis by a factor equal to the Golden Ratio $\Phi $. (M7) Derived from an ellipse.

**Figure 3.**The application of geometric models to seeds of the Vitaceae for the calculation of the J index. Left: two of the models used. Above: seeds of V. amurensis adjust well to M3. Below: Seeds of V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivar Morenillo adjust well to M6.

**Figure 4.**Method for obtaining the J index (percentage of similarity between two images; the geometric figure and the seed image). Left: the seed (V. amurensis) and the geometric model (M3). The composed image, in the center contains both the seed and the model. Right: total surface occupied by both figures (top) and shared surface (bottom). The surface comprised in the white perimeter is the common region, C; while total area (C+D) is obtained from the image in the right top figure. The J index is the ratio between the shared and the total area x 100. The bar is equal to 1 cm.

**Figure 5.**From left to right in all rows: Three of the models used (M3, the water drop is applied in rows 1 and 3; M1, the heart curve is applied in row 2; and M7 is applied in rows 5 and 6; a figure composed with the silhouettes of 20 seed images (120 for V. vinifera ssp. vinifera in row 5)), and six representative images of seeds of the following species (top to bottom): V. amurensis (row 1), V. labrusca (row 2), V. rupestris (row 3), V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris (row 4), V. vinifera ssp. vinifera (row 5; the second image contains the composed silhouettes of all six varieties). The bar is equal to 1 cm.

**Figure 6.**From left to right in all rows: Models used (M5, the elongated heart curve is applied in row 1; M6, the Fibonnacci’s pear is applied in row 2; and M7 is applied in rows 3 to 6); a figure composed of silhouettes of 20 seed images; representative images of seeds of the six V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars analyzed. From top to bottom: Meserguera (row 1), Carignano (row 2), Camarate (row 3), Cercial (row 4), Malvasia (row 5) and Morenillo (row 6). The bar is equal to 1 cm.

**Figure 7.**From left to right: Model 4 (an elongated water drop), a figure composed with the silhouettes of 20 seed images, and five representative images of seeds of C. verticillata. The bar is equal to 1 cm.

**Figure 8.**From left to right: Model 2 (three rounded heart curves), three figures composed with the silhouettes of 20 seed images, and five representative images of seeds of P. tricuspidata. The first row contains seeds from one-seed fruits; the second from two-seed fruits and the third, from three seed-fruits. The bar is equal to 1 cm.

**Table 1.**Mean values of the area (A), perimeter (P), length of the major axis (L), length of the minor axis (W), aspect ratio (AR is the ratio L/W), circularity (C) and roundness (R) in the seeds of four species of Vitis analyzed.

N | A | P | L | W | AR | C | R | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

V. amurensis | 44 | 0.14^{a} (0.01) | 1.48^{a} (0.06) | 0.49^{a} (0.03) | 0.38^{b} (0.02) | 1.22^{a} (0.07) | 0.80^{d} (0.03) | 0.82^{d} (0.05) |

V. labrusca | 41 | 0.27^{c} (0.02) | 2.13^{c} (0.06) | 0.71^{c} (0.03) | 0.55^{d} (0.02) | 1.23^{a} (0.08) | 0.76^{b,c} (0.03) | 0.81^{c,d} (0.06) |

V. rupestris | 33 | 0.16^{b} (0.02) | 1.60^{b} (0.11) | 0.55^{b} (0.04) | 0.41^{c} (0.02) | 1.29^{a} (0.07) | 0.78^{c,d} (0.02) | 0.78^{c} (0.04) |

V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris | 122 | 0.16^{b} (0.03) | 1.66^{b} (0.24) | 0.58^{b} (0.08) | 0.39^{b} (0.03) | 1.49^{b} (0.26) | 0.73^{b} (0.06) | 0.69^{b} (0.09) |

V. vinifera ssp. vinifera | 301 | 0.15^{a,b} (0.03) | 1.64^{b} (0.21) | 0.58^{b} (0.07) | 0.36^{a} (0.04) | 1.71^{c} (0.21) | 0.68^{a} (0.06) | 0.60^{a} (0.07) |

Vitis amurensis | 44 | 0.14^{a} (0.01) | 1.48^{a} (0.06) | 0.49^{a} (0.03) | 0.38^{b} (0.02) | 1.22^{a} (0.07) | 0.80^{d} (0.03) | 0.82^{d} (0.05) |

Vitis labrusca | 41 | 0.27^{c} (0.02) | 2.13^{c} (0.06) | 0.71^{c} (0.03) | 0.55^{d} (0.02) | 1.23^{a} (0.08) | 0.76^{b,c} (0.03) | 0.81^{c,d} (0.06) |

Vitis rupestris | 33 | 0.16^{b} (0.02) | 1.60^{b} (0.11) | 0.55^{b} (0.04) | 0.41^{c} (0.02) | 1.29^{a} (0.07) | 0.78^{c,d} (0.02) | 0.78^{c} (0.04) |

Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris | 122 | 0.16^{b} (0.03) | 1.66^{b} (0.24) | 0.58^{b} (0.08) | 0.39^{b} (0.03) | 1.49^{b} (0.26) | 0.73^{b} (0.06) | 0.69^{b} (0.09) |

Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera | 301 | 0.15^{a,b} (0.03) | 1.64^{b} (0.21) | 0.58^{b} (0.07) | 0.36^{a} (0.04) | 1.71^{c} (0.21) | 0.68^{a} (0.06) | 0.60^{a} (0.07) |

^{2}; P, L and W, in cm. Standard deviation is given between parentheses. The mean values marked with the same letter in each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (Scheffe’s test). N is the number of seeds used.

**Table 2.**Mean values of the area (A), perimeter (P), length of the major axis (L), length of the minor axis (W), aspect ratio (AR is the ratio L/W), circularity (C) and roundness (R), obtained for the images of the seeds of six cultivars of V. vinifera ssp. vinifera).

N | A | P | L | W | AR | C | R | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Camarate | 73 | 0.13^{a.b} (0.02) | 1.54^{a} (0.11) | 0.55^{a,b} (0.04) | 0.34^{a.b} (0.02) | 1.70^{b,c} (0.12) | 0.69^{b} (0.04) | 0.59^{b,c} (0.04) |

Carignano | 52 | 0.15^{c} (0.02) | 1.76^{b} (0.16) | 0.64^{c} (0.04) | 0.35^{b} (0.03) | 1.95^{d} (0.12) | 0.62^{a} (0.06) | 0.51^{a} (0.03) |

Cercial | 58 | 0.12^{a} (0.02) | 1.46^{a} (0.10) | 0.52^{a} (0.03) | 0.32^{a} (0.03) | 1.75^{c} (0.13) | 0.69^{b} (0.04) | 0.58^{b} (0.04) |

Malvasia | 33 | 0.17^{d} (0.02) | 1.75^{b} (0.11) | 0.61^{c} (0.05) | 0.39^{d} (0.02) | 1.63^{b} (0.15) | 0.70^{b} (0.04) | 0.62^{c,d} (0.06) |

Meserguera | 39 | 0.14^{b.c} (0.02) | 1.57ª (0.09) | 0.56^{b} (0.03) | 0.36^{c} (0.03) | 1.51^{a} (0.12) | 0.73^{c} (0.03) | 0.67^{e} (0.05) |

Morenillo | 46 | 0.18^{d} (0.04) | 1.84^{b} (0.32) | 0.65^{c} (0.11) | 0.40^{d} (0.03) | 1.63^{b.c} (0.30) | 0.68^{b} (0.06) | 0.63^{d} (0.07) |

^{2}; P, L and W, in cm. Standard deviation is given between parentheses. The values marked with the same letter in each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (Scheffe’s test).

**Table 3.**Mean values of the J index in seeds of four species of Vitis, with four of the models used.

N | J Index M1 | J Index M3 | J Index M6 | J Index M7 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Vitis amurensis | 20 | 86.8^{b} (2.65) | 90.6^{c} (2.16) | 68.4^{a} (2.77) | 79.1^{a} (3.02) |

Vitis labrusca | 20 | 89.6^{b} (2.48) | 88.3^{b,c} (2.08) | 74.3^{b} (3.78) | 81.5^{a,b} (4.35) |

Vitis rupestris | 20 | 87.4^{b} (2.74) | 90.0^{c} (2.03) | 76.3^{b} (2.50) | 83.7^{b} (2.38) |

Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris | 20 | 78.6^{a} (5.88) | 86.3^{b} (3.82) | 80.7^{c} (4.83) | 88.4^{c} (3.41) |

Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera | 120 | 75.8^{a} (5.32) | 77.6^{a} (4.19) | 87.5^{d} (3.10) | 88.9^{c} (3.35) |

**Table 4.**Mean values of the J index in six cultivars of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera, with the models used (M5, M6 and M7).

Cultivar | N | J Index M5 | J Index M6 | J Index M7 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Camarate | 20 | 84.5^{b,c} (2.45) | 88.5^{a} (2.33) | 89.9^{b,c} (2.18) |

Carignano | 20 | 79.7^{a} (2.08) | 86.8^{a} (2.91) | 83.9^{a} (2.39) |

Cercial | 20 | 83.4^{b} (2.44) | 88.4^{a} (1.83) | 90.1^{b,c} (2.50) |

Malvasia | 20 | 85.9^{c,d} (3.74) | 86.3^{a} (2.44) | 91.7^{c} (3.26) |

Meserguera | 20 | 90.4^{e} (1.80) | 86.1^{a} (4.35) | 88.6^{b} (1.93) |

Morenillo | 20 | 88.0^{d} (2.11) | 88.6^{a} (3.21) | 89.4^{b} (1.35) |

**Table 5.**Mean values of the area (A), perimeter (P), length of the major axis (L), length of the minor axis (W), aspect ratio (AR is the ratio L/W), circularity (C) and roundness (R) for seeds in the species C. verticillata and P. tricuspidata.

N | A | P | L | W | AR | C | R | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

C. verticillata | 28 | 1.15^{a} (0.07) | 1.43^{a} (0.05) | 0.50^{b} (0.02) | 0.35^{a} (0.01) | 1.40^{b} (0.05) | 0.71^{a} (0.03) | 0.72^{a} (0.02) |

P. tricuspidata | 36 | 1.40^{b} (0.17) | 1.45^{a} (0.08) | 0.45^{a} (0.03) | 0.41^{b} (0.03) | 1.10^{a} (0.08) | 0.83^{b} (0.03) | 0.93^{b} (0.06) |

^{2}; P, L and W, in cm. Standard deviation is given between parentheses. Values marked with the same letter in each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (Scheffe’s test).

**Table 6.**Mean values of the area (A), perimeter (P), length of the major axis (L), length of the minor axis , aspect ratio (AR is the ratio L/W), circularity (C) and roundness (R) and J index values in seeds of P. tricuspidata (Siebold and Zucc.) Planch has one, two or three seeds per fruit. J index values were obtained with M4 (an elongated water drop).

Seeds/Fruit | N | A | P | L | W | AR | C | R | J Index (M2) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 12 | 1.25^{a} | 1.40^{a} | 0.42^{a} | 0.40^{a} | 1.03^{a} | 0.82^{a} | 0.97^{b} | 93.7^{b} |

(0.10) | (0.06) | (0.02) | (0.02) | (0.02) | (0.03) | (0.02) | (1.29) | ||

2 | 12 | 1.52^{c} | 1.50^{c} | 0.47^{b} | 0.43^{b} | 1.05^{a} | 0.84^{a} | 0.95^{b} | 91.8^{b} |

(0.13) | (0.07) | (0.02) | (0.02) | (0.02) | (0.03) | (0.02) | (1.47) | ||

3 | 12 | 1.38^{b} | 1.40^{b} | 0.47^{b} | 0.40^{a} | 1.16^{b} | 0.83^{a} | 0.86^{a} | 88.6^{a} |

(0.14) | (0.07) | (0.02) | (0.03) | (0.08) | (0.02) | (0.06) | (3.71) |

^{2}; P, L and W, in cm. Standard deviation is given between parentheses. Values marked with the same letter in each column do not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (Scheffe’s test).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Martín-Gómez, J.J.; Gutiérrez del Pozo, D.; Ucchesu, M.; Bacchetta, G.; Cabello Sáenz de Santamaría, F.; Tocino, Á.; Cervantes, E.
Seed Morphology in the Vitaceae Based on Geometric Models. *Agronomy* **2020**, *10*, 739.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050739

**AMA Style**

Martín-Gómez JJ, Gutiérrez del Pozo D, Ucchesu M, Bacchetta G, Cabello Sáenz de Santamaría F, Tocino Á, Cervantes E.
Seed Morphology in the Vitaceae Based on Geometric Models. *Agronomy*. 2020; 10(5):739.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050739

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Martín-Gómez, José Javier, Diego Gutiérrez del Pozo, Mariano Ucchesu, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Félix Cabello Sáenz de Santamaría, Ángel Tocino, and Emilio Cervantes.
2020. "Seed Morphology in the Vitaceae Based on Geometric Models" *Agronomy* 10, no. 5: 739.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10050739