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Cancers, Volume 14, Issue 3 (February-1 2022) – 392 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this work, Safarulla et al. demonstrate in vitro that a subset of neutrophils could be reprogrammed distinctly into a metastasis-promoting state within a primary breast tumor microenvironment. Their results identify the activation of neutrophil receptor CXCR2 as a key regulator of not only the recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils towards brain-tropic variants of metastatic breast cancer, but also of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps formation with a unique tumor-aiding spatio-temporal dynamics. The authors show the potential utility of CXCR2 inhibitor in limiting neutrophil inflammation and the resultant suppression of tumor activity. This new perspective indicates that neutrophil reprogramming during tumorigenesis is a problem worthy of attention. Preventing or reversing this neutrophil behavior may be a potential strategy for better management of brain metastatic breast tumors. View this paper
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Article
Validation of IL-7R as an Immunological Biomarker for Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030853 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer for which no early diagnostic method is available. The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests that the immune system plays crucial roles in tumor development and progression. We validated a PDAC-specific biomarker derived from peripheral blood mononuclear [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer for which no early diagnostic method is available. The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests that the immune system plays crucial roles in tumor development and progression. We validated a PDAC-specific biomarker derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to facilitate early PDAC diagnosis. mRNA levels of interleukin-7R (IL-7R), reportedly a potential immunological marker for PDAC, were measured in PBMCs isolated prospectively from healthy controls (n = 100) and patients with PDAC (n = 135), pancreatic cysts (n = 82), chronic pancreatitis (n = 42), acute pancreatitis (n = 47), and other malignancies (n = 116). The IL-7R level was significantly higher in patients with PDAC than in healthy controls, patients with benign pancreatic disease, and patients with other malignancies. As diagnostic parameters, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for IL-7R were 58.5%, 92%, 90.8%, 62.2%, and 72.8%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.766. IL-7R levels did not differ between resectable and unresectable PDAC cases. The combined measurement of IL-7R and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) significantly improved the diagnostic parameters and AUROC compared with the use of IL-7R or CA19-9 alone. IL-7R is significantly upregulated in PBMCs in patients with PDAC, and it may be a novel diagnostic marker for PDAC. The combined use of IL-7R and CA19-9 enhanced the diagnostic performance. Full article
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Article
Differences in Administration of Methotrexate and Impact on Outcome in Low-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030852 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Methotrexate (MTX) is frequently used as first-line treatment for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Intravenous and intramuscular (im) routes of administration are the most common methods, although oral administration is used by some Scandinavian centers. The primary aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Methotrexate (MTX) is frequently used as first-line treatment for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Intravenous and intramuscular (im) routes of administration are the most common methods, although oral administration is used by some Scandinavian centers. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of form of administration (im/oral) on resistance to methotrexate (MTX-R) treatment in low-risk GTN. Secondary aims were time to hCG normalization, rates of toxicity-induced treatment switch, and rates of complete remission and recurrence. In total, 170 women treated at Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1994 and 2018 were included, of whom 107 were given im and 63 oral MTX. MTX-R developed in 35% and 54% in the im and oral groups, respectively (p = 0.01). There was no difference in days to hCG normalization (42 vs. 41 days, p = 0.50) for MTX-sensitive women. Toxicity-induced treatment switch was only seen in the im group. Complete remission was obtained in 99.1% and 100% (p = 0.44), and recurrence rate within one year was 2.8% and 1.6% (p = 0.29). The form of administration of MTX had a significant impact on development of MTX-R and treatment-associated toxicity, but does not affect rates of complete remission, recurrence or survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Treatment of Rare Tumors)
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Article
Clinical Validity of Circulating Tumor DNA as Prognostic and Predictive Marker for Personalized Colorectal Cancer Patient Management
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030851 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising liquid biopsy (LB) marker to support clinical decisions in precision medicine. For implementation into routine clinical practice, clinicians need precise ctDNA level cutoffs for reporting residual disease and monitoring tumor burden changes during therapy. We clinically [...] Read more.
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising liquid biopsy (LB) marker to support clinical decisions in precision medicine. For implementation into routine clinical practice, clinicians need precise ctDNA level cutoffs for reporting residual disease and monitoring tumor burden changes during therapy. We clinically validated the limit of blank (LOB) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of assays for the clinically most relevant somatic variants BRAF p.V600E and KRAS p.G12/p.G13 in colorectal cancer (CRC) in a study cohort encompassing a total of 212 plasma samples. We prove that residual disease detection using the LOB as a clinically verified cutoff for ctDNA positivity is in concordance with clinical evidence of metastasis or recurrence. We further show that tumor burden changes during chemotherapy and the course of disease are correctly predicted using the LOQ as a cutoff for quantitative ctDNA changes. The high potential of LB using ctDNA for accurately predicting the course of disease was proven by direct comparison to the routinely used carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as well as the circulating free DNA (cfDNA) concentration. Our results show that LB using validated ctDNA assays outperforms CEA and cfDNA for residual disease detection and the prediction of tumor burden changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 5th ACTC: “Liquid Biopsy in Its Best”)
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Article
Genetic Alterations Predict Long-Term Survival in Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreatic Head
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030850 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Background: Survival of patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) is poor and has remained almost unchanged over the past decades. The genomic landscape of PDAC has been characterized in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify a genetic profile [...] Read more.
Background: Survival of patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) is poor and has remained almost unchanged over the past decades. The genomic landscape of PDAC has been characterized in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify a genetic profile as a possible predictor of prolonged survival in order to tailor therapy for PDAC patients. Methods: Panel next generation sequencing (NGS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed on paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from curatively treated PDAC patients. Tumor slides were re-evaluated with a focus on the histomorphology. Patients were subgrouped according to short and long overall (<4 years/>4 years) and disease-free (<2 years/>2 years) survival. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. Clinicopathological staging variables as well as the histomorphological subgroups were homogenously distributed between short- and long-term overall and disease-free survivors. In survival analysis, patients with the KRAS G12D mutation and patients with TP53 nonsense and splice-site mutations had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients with long-term OS and DFS showed no KRAS G12D, no TP53 nonsense or splice-site mutations. Rare Q61H/D57N KRAS mutations were only found in long-term survivors. The allele frequency rate of KRAS and TP53 mutations in tumor cells was significantly higher in short-term disease-free survivors and overall survivors, respectively. Conclusions: NGS of PDAC revealed significant differences in survival outcome in a patient collective with homogenously distributed clinicopathological variables. Further multi-institutional studies are warranted to identify more long-term survivors to detect genetic differences suitable for targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper from Journal Reviewers)
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Article
Functional Therapeutic Target Validation Using Pediatric Zebrafish Xenograft Models
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030849 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 959
Abstract
The survival rate among children with relapsed tumors remains poor, due to tumor heterogeneity, lack of directly actionable tumor drivers and multidrug resistance. Novel personalized medicine approaches tailored to each tumor are urgently needed to improve cancer treatment. Current pediatric precision oncology platforms, [...] Read more.
The survival rate among children with relapsed tumors remains poor, due to tumor heterogeneity, lack of directly actionable tumor drivers and multidrug resistance. Novel personalized medicine approaches tailored to each tumor are urgently needed to improve cancer treatment. Current pediatric precision oncology platforms, such as the INFORM (INdividualized Therapy FOr Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood) study, reveal that molecular profiling of tumor tissue identifies targets associated with clinical benefit in a subgroup of patients only and should be complemented with functional drug testing. In such an approach, patient-derived tumor cells are exposed to a library of approved oncological drugs in a physiological setting, e.g., in the form of animal avatars injected with patient tumor cells. We used molecularly fully characterized tumor samples from the INFORM study to compare drug screen results of individual patient-derived cell models in functional assays: (i) patient-derived spheroid cultures within a few days after tumor dissociation; (ii) tumor cells reisolated from the corresponding mouse PDX; (iii) corresponding long-term organoid-like cultures and (iv) drug evaluation with the corresponding zebrafish PDX (zPDX) model. Each model had its advantage and complemented the others for drug hit and drug combination selection. Our results provide evidence that in vivo zPDX drug screening is a promising add-on to current functional drug screening in precision medicine platforms. Full article
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Review
The Chemokine System in Oncogenic Pathways Driven by Viruses: Perspectives for Cancer Immunotherapy
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030848 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Chemokines interact with glycosaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix and activate heptahelical cellular receptors that mainly consist of G Protein-Coupled Receptors and a few atypical receptors also with decoy activity. They are well-described targets of oncogenic pathways and key players in cancer development, invasiveness, [...] Read more.
Chemokines interact with glycosaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix and activate heptahelical cellular receptors that mainly consist of G Protein-Coupled Receptors and a few atypical receptors also with decoy activity. They are well-described targets of oncogenic pathways and key players in cancer development, invasiveness, and metastasis acting both at the level of cancer cells and cells of the tumor microenvironment. Hence, they can regulate cancer cell proliferation and survival and promote immune or endothelial cell migration into the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, oncogenic viruses display the potential of jeopardizing the chemokine system by encoding mimics of chemokines and receptors as well as several products such as oncogenic proteins or microRNAs that deregulate their human host transcriptome. Conversely, the chemokine system participates in the host responses that control the virus life cycle, knowing that most oncoviruses establish asymptomatic latent infections. Therefore, the deregulated expression and function of chemokines and receptors as a consequence of acquired or inherited mutations could bias oncovirus infection toward pro-oncogenic pathways. We here review these different processes and discuss the anticancer therapeutic potential of targeting chemokine availability or receptor activation, from signaling to decoy-associated functions, in combination with immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Roles of Chemokines in Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Article
Correlation between Tissue Cellularity and Metabolism Represented by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) and 18F-FDG PET/MRI in Head and Neck Cancer (HNC)
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030847 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess the association of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (18F-FDG/PET) and DWI imaging parameters from a primary tumor and their correlations with clinicopathological factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed primary tumors in 71 patients with proven HNC. Primary tumor radiological parameters: DWI [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to assess the association of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (18F-FDG/PET) and DWI imaging parameters from a primary tumor and their correlations with clinicopathological factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed primary tumors in 71 patients with proven HNC. Primary tumor radiological parameters: DWI and FDG, as well as pathological characteristics were analyzed. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between DWI and FDG parameters, ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis, independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney test, and multiple regression were performed on the clinicopathological features that may affect the 18F- FDG and apparent-diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the tumor. Results: No significant correlations were observed between DWI and any of the 18F-FDG parameters (p > 0.05). SUVmax correlated with N-stages (p = 0.023), TLG and MTV correlated with T-stages (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001), and ADC correlated with tumor grades (p = 0.05). SUVmax was able to differentiate between N+ and N− groups (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our results revealed a non-significant correlation between the FDG-PET and ADC-MR parameters. FDG-PET-based glucose metabolic and DWI-MR-derived cellularity data may represent different biological aspects of HNC. Full article
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Article
Identification of Early-Onset Metastasis in SF3B1 Mutated Uveal Melanoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030846 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Approximately 25% of all uveal melanoma (UM) contain driver mutations in the gene encoding the spliceosome factor SF3B1, and whilst patients with such SF3B1 mutations generally have an intermediate risk on developing metastatic disease, a third of these patients develop early metastasis [...] Read more.
Approximately 25% of all uveal melanoma (UM) contain driver mutations in the gene encoding the spliceosome factor SF3B1, and whilst patients with such SF3B1 mutations generally have an intermediate risk on developing metastatic disease, a third of these patients develop early metastasis within 5 years after diagnosis. We therefore investigated whether clinical and/or genetic variables could be indicative of short progression-free survival (PFS < 60 months) or long PFS (PFS ≥ 60 months) for SF3B1-mutated (SF3B1mut) UM patients. We collected 146 SF3B1mut UM from our Rotterdam Ocular Melanoma Studygroup (ROMS) database and external published datasets. After stratification of all SF3B1mut UM using short PFS vs. long PFS, only largest tumor diameter (LTD) was significantly larger (mean: 17.7 mm (±2.8 SD) in the short PFS SF3B1mut group vs. the long PFS group (mean: 14.7 (±3.7 SD, p = 0.001). Combined ROMS and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptomic data were evaluated, and we identified SF3B1mut-specific canonical transcripts (e.g., a low expression of ABHD6 indicative for early-onset metastatic disease) or distinct expression of SF3B1mut UM aberrant transcripts, indicative of early- or late-onset or no metastatic SF3B1mut UM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uveal Melanoma: From Diagnosis to Therapy)
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Article
Brachytherapy for the Conservative Treatment of Female Peri-Urethral Carcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030845 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Introduction: Peri-urethral cancers (PUC) are rare tumors. Brachytherapy (BT), either monotherapy or combined with radiation therapy, is a preferred treatment option to spare the morbidity of surgery and achieve organ preservation. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the largest experience of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Peri-urethral cancers (PUC) are rare tumors. Brachytherapy (BT), either monotherapy or combined with radiation therapy, is a preferred treatment option to spare the morbidity of surgery and achieve organ preservation. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the largest experience of brachytherapy among women with PUC. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the medical records of female patients with PUC who underwent low- or pulse-dose-rate BT with or without external beam radiotherapy at Gustave Roussy between 1990 and 2018. Patients were categorized according to the treatment intention into a primary and recurrent group. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for survival analysis, and the Cox proportional-hazard model was used for univariate analysis. Brachythewharapy-related adverse events were reported according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. Results: We identified 44 patients with PUC who underwent BT. Of the 44 patients, 22 had primary tumors and 22 had recurrent tumors. Histologies were mainly adenocarcinoma (n = 20) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14). The median prescribed dose was 60 Gy for the 24 patients treated with BT alone and 20 Gy (IQ range: 15–56.25 Gy) for the 20 patients treated with BT in combination with EBRT. With a median follow-up of 21.5 months (range 7.5–60.8), a total of six patients experienced local relapse (17.5%). The 2-year overall survival probability was 63% (95%CI: 49.2–81.4%). The most common toxicities were acute genito-urinary grade 1–2 toxicities. At the last follow-up, four patients experienced focal necrosis. Conclusions: In this cohort of women with PUC undergoing BT, we observed an 80% probability of local control with acceptable morbidity. Though survival was poor, with high metastatic relapse probability, BT was useful to focally escalate the dose and optimize local control in the context of an organ sparing strategy. Full article
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Review
Gene Editing with CRISPR/Cas Methodology and Thyroid Cancer: Where Are We?
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030844 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Important advances on the role of genetic alterations in thyroid cancer have been achieved in the last two decades. One key reason is linked to the development of technical approaches that allowed for the mimicking of genetic alterations in vitro and in vivo [...] Read more.
Important advances on the role of genetic alterations in thyroid cancer have been achieved in the last two decades. One key reason is linked to the development of technical approaches that allowed for the mimicking of genetic alterations in vitro and in vivo and, more recently, the gene editing methodology. The CRISPR/Cas methodology has emerged as a tangible tool for editing virtually any DNA sequence in the genome. To induce a double-strand break and programmable gene editing, Cas9 endonuclease is guided by a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that is complementary to the target sequence in DNA. The gene editing per se occurs as the cells repair the broken DNA and may erroneously change the original DNA sequence. In this review, we explore the principles of the CRISPR/Cas system to facilitate an understanding of the mainstream technique and its applications in gene editing. Furthermore, we explored new applications of CRISPR/Cas for gene modulation without changing the DNA sequence and provided a Dry Lab experience for those who are interested in starting “CRISPRing” any given gene. In the last section, we will discuss the progress in the knowledge of thyroid cancer biology fostered by the CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thyroid Carcinoma)
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Review
Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Immunotherapy for Leukemia
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030843 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood resulting from the abnormal differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). There are four main types of leukemia including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and chronic lymphocytic [...] Read more.
Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood resulting from the abnormal differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). There are four main types of leukemia including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While chemotherapy and radiation have been conventional forms of treatment for leukemia, these therapies increase infection susceptibility, adverse side effects and immune cell inactivation. Immunotherapies are becoming promising treatment options for leukemia, with natural killer (NK) cell-mediated therapy providing a specific direction of interest. The role of NK cells is critical for cancer cell elimination as these immune cells are the first line of defense against cancer proliferation and are involved in both recognition and cytolysis of rapidly dividing and abnormal cell populations. NK cells possess various activating and inhibitory receptors, which regulate NK cell function, signaling either inhibition and continued surveillance, or activation and subsequent cytotoxic activity. In this review, we describe NK cells and NK cell receptors, functional impairment of NK cells in leukemia, NK cell immunotherapies currently under investigation, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive transfer, chimeric antigen receptor-NKs (CAR-NKs), bi-specific/tri-specific killer engagers (BiKEs/TriKEs) and future potential targets of NK cell-based immunotherapy for leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies)
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Systematic Review
Dose-Intense Cisplatin-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Increases Survival in Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Up-to-Date Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030842 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Purpose: We set out to demonstrate the benefit of using dose-intense cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in terms of overall survival and progression-free survival. Methods: We searched through MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to May 2021 to identify randomized clinical trials comparing the benefit [...] Read more.
Purpose: We set out to demonstrate the benefit of using dose-intense cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in terms of overall survival and progression-free survival. Methods: We searched through MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to May 2021 to identify randomized clinical trials comparing the benefit of using cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by local treatment with local treatment alone for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The PRISMA statement was applied. Results: Twenty-two randomized clinical trials were retrieved between 1991 and 2019, corresponding to 3632 women with FIGO stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer. More than 50% of the randomized clinical trials were assessed as having a low risk of bias. There was no benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on overall survival, but there was significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 45%, p = 0.01). In contrast, dose-intense cisplatin at over 72.5 mg/m2/3 weeks was significantly associated with increased overall survival (RR = 0.87, p < 0.05) with no heterogeneity across the pooled studies (I2 = 36%, p = 0.11). The survival benefit was even greater when cisplatin was administered at a dose over 105 mg/m2/3 weeks (RR = 0.79, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Even though radiotherapy combined with weekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains standard of care for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer, our meta-analysis makes it possible to consider the use of dose-intense cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy when local treatment is suboptimal and opens perspectives for designing new clinical trials in this setting. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be proposed when surgery is local treatment instead of standard chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecologic Cancers: Clinical and Translational Research)
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Article
Oncogenic Events Dictate the Types and Locations of Gynecological Malignancies Originating from Krt8+ Mesothelial and Müllerian-Derived Epithelial Cells
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030841 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Ovarian and uterine cancers are the most prevalent types of gynecological malignancies originating from mesothelial and/or Müllerian-derived epithelial cells. Recent genomic studies have identified common mutations in them that affect signaling pathways such as p53, PTEN/PI3K, RAS, and WNT pathways. However, how these [...] Read more.
Ovarian and uterine cancers are the most prevalent types of gynecological malignancies originating from mesothelial and/or Müllerian-derived epithelial cells. Recent genomic studies have identified common mutations in them that affect signaling pathways such as p53, PTEN/PI3K, RAS, and WNT pathways. However, how these mutations and their corresponding deregulated pathways affect gynecological cancer development from their cells-of-origin remains largely elusive. To address this, we performed the intrabursal injection of Cre-expressing adenovirus under the control of Krt8 promoter (Ad-K8-Cre) to mice carrying combinations of various conditional alleles for cancer genes. We found that Ad-K8-Cre specifically targeted mesothelial cells, including ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells (mainly the LGR5+ subset of OSE cells) and mesothelial cells lining the fallopian tube (FT) serosa; the injected Ad-K8-Cre also targeted Müllerian-derived epithelial cells, including FT epithelial cells and uterine endometrial epithelial cells. The loss of p53 may preferentially affect Müllerian-derived epithelial cells, leading to the development of uterine and ovarian malignancies, whereas PTEN-loss may preferentially affect mesothelial cells, leading to the development of ovarian endometrioid malignancies (upon KRAS-activation or APC-loss) or adenoma on the FT surface (upon DICER-loss). Overall, our data suggest that different Krt8+ mesothelial and epithelial cell types in the female reproductive system may have different sensitivities toward oncogenic mutations and, as a result, oncogenic events may dominantly determine the locations and types of the gynecological malignancies developed from them. Full article
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Article
Combination of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Panobinostat (LBH589) with β-Catenin Inhibitor Tegavivint (BC2059) Exerts Significant Anti-Myeloma Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030840 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Over the last three decades changes in the treatment paradigm for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) have led to a significant increase in overall survival. Despite this, the majority of patients relapse after one or more lines of treatment while acquiring resistance to [...] Read more.
Over the last three decades changes in the treatment paradigm for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) have led to a significant increase in overall survival. Despite this, the majority of patients relapse after one or more lines of treatment while acquiring resistance to available therapies. Panobinostat, a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, was approved by the FDA in 2015 for patients with relapsed MM but how to incorporate panobinostat most effectively into everyday practice remains unclear. Dysregulation of the Wnt canonical pathway, and its key mediator β-catenin, has been shown to be important for the evolution of MM and the acquisition of drug resistance, making it a potentially attractive therapeutic target. Despite concerns regarding the safety of Wnt pathway inhibitors, we have recently shown that the β-catenin inhibitor Tegavivint is deliverable and effective in in vivo models of MM. In this study we show that the combination of low concentrations of panobinostat and Tegavivint have significant in vitro and in vivo anti-MM effects including in the context of proteasome inhibitor resistance, by targeting both aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration and the down-regulation of down-stream β-catenin targets including myc, cyclinD1, and cyclinD2. The significant anti-MM effect of this novel combination warrants further evaluation for the treatment of MM patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Myeloma Research and Treatment)
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Review
Role of CBL Mutations in Cancer and Non-Malignant Phenotype
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030839 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
CBL plays a key role in different cell pathways, mainly related to cancer onset and progression, hematopoietic development and T cell receptor regulation. Somatic CBL mutations have been reported in a variety of malignancies, ranging from acute myeloid leukemia to lung cancer. Growing [...] Read more.
CBL plays a key role in different cell pathways, mainly related to cancer onset and progression, hematopoietic development and T cell receptor regulation. Somatic CBL mutations have been reported in a variety of malignancies, ranging from acute myeloid leukemia to lung cancer. Growing evidence have defined the clinical spectrum of germline CBL mutations configuring the so-called CBL syndrome; a cancer-predisposing condition that also includes multisystemic involvement characterized by variable phenotypic expression and expressivity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms in which CBL exerts its function and describes the clinical manifestation of CBL mutations in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Cancer Predisposition)
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Article
Cutaneous Melanoma Systematic Diagnostic Workflows and Integrated Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Assessed with a Retrospective, Comparative Longitudinal (2009–2018) Study
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030838 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Background: The increasing global burden of melanoma demands efficient health services. Accurate early melanoma diagnosis improves prognosis. Objectives: To assess melanoma prevention strategies and a systematic diagnostic-therapeutical workflow (improved patient access and high-performance technology integration) and estimate cost savings. Methods: Retrospective analysis of [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing global burden of melanoma demands efficient health services. Accurate early melanoma diagnosis improves prognosis. Objectives: To assess melanoma prevention strategies and a systematic diagnostic-therapeutical workflow (improved patient access and high-performance technology integration) and estimate cost savings. Methods: Retrospective analysis of epidemiological data of an entire province over a 10-year period of all excised lesions suspicious for melanoma (melanoma or benign), registered according to excision location: reference hospital (DP) or other (NDP). A systematic diagnostic-therapeutical workflow, including direct patient access, primary care physician education and high-performance technology (reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)) integration, was implemented. Impact was assessed with the number of lesions needed to excise (NNE). Results: From 40,832 suspicious lesions excised, 7.5% (n = 3054) were melanoma. There was a 279% increase in the number of melanomas excised (n = 203 (2009) to n = 567 (2018)). Identification precision improved more than 100% (5.1% in 2009 to 12.0% in 2018). After RCM implementation, NNE decreased almost 3-fold at DP and by half at NDP. Overall NNE for DP was significantly lower (NNE = 8) than for NDP (NNE = 20), p < 0.001. Cost savings amounted to EUR 1,476,392.00. Conclusions: Melanoma prevention strategies combined with systematic diagnostic-therapeutical workflow reduced the ratio of nevi excised to identify each melanoma. Total costs may be reduced by as much as 37%. Full article
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Review
High-Dose Chemotherapy in Children with Newly Diagnosed Medulloblastoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030837 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue has been used as an adjuvant therapy or as salvage therapy to treat pediatric patients with brain tumors, and to avoid deleterious side effects of radiotherapy in infants and very young children. Here, we present the most [...] Read more.
High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue has been used as an adjuvant therapy or as salvage therapy to treat pediatric patients with brain tumors, and to avoid deleterious side effects of radiotherapy in infants and very young children. Here, we present the most recent trials using high-dose chemotherapy regimens for medulloblastoma in children, and we discuss their contribution to improved survival and describe their toxicity profile and limitations. Full article
Review
Beyond Glioma: The Utility of Radiomic Analysis for Non-Glial Intracranial Tumors
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030836 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
The field of radiomics is rapidly expanding and gaining a valuable role in neuro-oncology. The possibilities related to the use of radiomic analysis, such as distinguishing types of malignancies, predicting tumor grade, determining the presence of particular molecular markers, consistency, therapy response, and [...] Read more.
The field of radiomics is rapidly expanding and gaining a valuable role in neuro-oncology. The possibilities related to the use of radiomic analysis, such as distinguishing types of malignancies, predicting tumor grade, determining the presence of particular molecular markers, consistency, therapy response, and prognosis, can considerably influence decision-making in medicine in the near future. Even though the main focus of radiomic analyses has been on glial CNS tumors, studies on other intracranial tumors have shown encouraging results. Therefore, as the main focus of this review, we performed an analysis of publications on PubMed and Web of Science databases, focusing on radiomics in CNS metastases, lymphoma, meningioma, medulloblastoma, and pituitary tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroradiology in Cancer)
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Article
ATP8B1 Knockdown Activated the Choline Metabolism Pathway and Induced High-Level Intracellular REDOX Homeostasis in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030835 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) is essential for maintaining the stability and polarity of the epithelial membrane and can translocate specific phospholipids from the outer membrane to the inner membrane of the cell. Although ATP8B1 plays important roles [...] Read more.
The flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) is essential for maintaining the stability and polarity of the epithelial membrane and can translocate specific phospholipids from the outer membrane to the inner membrane of the cell. Although ATP8B1 plays important roles in cell functions, ATP8B1 has been poorly studied in tumors and its prognostic value in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) remains unclear. By investigating the whole genomic expression profiles of LUSC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital (TJMUCH) cohort, we found that low expression of ATP8B1 was associated with poor prognosis of LUSC patients. The results from cellular experiments and a xenograft-bearing mice model indicated that ATP8B1 knockdown firstly induced mitochondrial dysfunction and promoted ROS production. Secondly, ATP8B1 knockdown promoted glutathione synthesis via upregulation of the CHKA-dependent choline metabolism pathway, therefore producing and maintaining high-level intracellular REDOX homeostasis to aggravate carcinogenesis and progression of LUSC. In summary, we proposed ATP8B1 as a novel predictive biomarker in LUSC and targeting ATP8B1-driven specific metabolic disorder might be a promising therapeutic strategy for LUSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Application of Big Medical Data in Precision Medicine)
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Article
Identification of a Gene-Expression-Based Surrogate of Genomic Instability during Oral Carcinogenesis
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030834 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
Background: Our goal was to identify a gene-expression-based surrogate of genomic instability (GI) associated with the transformation of oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: GI was defined as the fraction of genome altered (FGA). Training sets included [...] Read more.
Background: Our goal was to identify a gene-expression-based surrogate of genomic instability (GI) associated with the transformation of oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: GI was defined as the fraction of genome altered (FGA). Training sets included the CCLE and TCGA databases. The relevance of the enrichment score of the top correlated genes, referred to as the GIN score, was evaluated in eight independent public datasets from the GEO repository, including a cohort of patients with OPMD with available outcome. Results: A set of 20 genes correlated with FGA in head and neck SCC were identified. A significant correlation was found between the 20-gene based GIN score and FGA in 95 esophagus SCC (r = 0.59) and 501 lung SCC (r = 0.63), and in 33 OPMD/OSCC (r = 0.38). A significantly increased GIN score was observed at different stages of oral carcinogenesis (normal–dysplasia –OSCC) in five independent datasets. The GIN score was higher in 10 OPMD that transformed into oral cancer compared to 10 nontransforming OPMD (p = 0.0288), and was associated with oral-cancer-free survival in 86 patients with OPMD (p = 0.0081). Conclusions: The GIN score is a gene-expression surrogate of GI, and is associated with oral carcinogenesis and OPMD malignant transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Preventive Medicine of Oral Cancer)
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Article
Systemic Influences of Mammary Cancer on Monocytes in Mice
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030833 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence that cancer causes systemic changes. These influences are most evident in the bone marrow and the blood, particularly in the myeloid compartment. Here, we show that there is an increase in the number of bone marrow, [...] Read more.
There is a growing body of evidence that cancer causes systemic changes. These influences are most evident in the bone marrow and the blood, particularly in the myeloid compartment. Here, we show that there is an increase in the number of bone marrow, circulating and splenic monocytes by using mouse models of breast cancer caused by the mammary epithelial expression of the polyoma middle T antigen. Cancer does not affect ratios of classical to non-classical populations of monocytes in the circulation nor does it affect their half-lives. Single cell RNA sequencing also indicates that cancer does not induce any new monocyte populations. Cancer does not change the monocytic progenitor number in the bone marrow, but the proliferation rate of monocytes is higher, thus providing an explanation for the expansion of the circulating numbers. Deep RNA sequencing of these monocytic populations reveals that cancer causes changes in the classical monocyte compartment, with changes evident in bone marrow monocytes and even more so in the blood, suggesting influences in both compartments, with the down-regulation of interferon type 1 signaling and antigen presentation being the most prominent of these. Consistent with this analysis, down-regulated genes are enriched with STAT1/STAT2 binding sites in their promoter, which are transcription factors required for type 1 interferon signaling. However, these transcriptome changes in mice did not replicate those found in patients with breast cancer. Consequently, this mouse model of breast cancer may be insufficient to study the systemic influences of human cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy)
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Review
Systemic Therapy for Oligoprogression in Patients with Metastatic NSCLC Harboring Activating EGFR Mutations
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030832 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
After a variable period of activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment, patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations develop resistance to these TKIs. In some cases, an oligoprogression is diagnosed, and its management [...] Read more.
After a variable period of activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment, patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations develop resistance to these TKIs. In some cases, an oligoprogression is diagnosed, and its management is still controversial. The oligoprogression represents an intermediate stage of metastatic NSCLC between localized and widely disseminated disease, and is characterized by a limited number and/or sites of metastases in which a disease progression appears, together with a more indolent tumor biology. Currently, the management of oligoprogressed NSCLC involves local treatment, including radiotherapy and/or surgery, to control the progressive lesions. Systemic therapy should also be a potential approach to boost the activity of EGFR-TKIs. However, considering the lack of large trials addressing this topic, the optimal therapeutic strategies remain undefined and should be evaluated on an individualized basis. In this paper, we review the most relevant scientific evidence of continuing the systemic therapy with the same EGFR-TKI for the management of patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and oligoprogressed to first-line EGFR-TKIs, also discussing the controversies and potential future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligoprogression in the Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC))
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Commentary
A Comprehensive Commentary on the Multilocular Cystic Renal Neoplasm of Low Malignant Potential: A Urologist’s Perspective
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030831 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (MCRNLMP) is a cystic renal tumor with indolent clinical behavior. In most of cases, it is an incidental finding during the examination of other health issues. The true incidence rate is estimated to be between [...] Read more.
Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (MCRNLMP) is a cystic renal tumor with indolent clinical behavior. In most of cases, it is an incidental finding during the examination of other health issues. The true incidence rate is estimated to be between 1.5% and 4% of all RCCs. These lesions are classified according to the Bosniak classification as Bosniak category III. There is a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools that can be utilized in the identification of this tumor, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MRI) or contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Management choices of these lesions range from conservative approaches, such as clinical follow-up, to surgery. Minimally invasive techniques (i.e., robotic surgery and laparoscopy) are preferred, with an emphasis on nephron sparing surgery, if clinically feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma)
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Review
Dissecting TET2 Regulatory Networks in Blood Differentiation and Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030830 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Cytosine methylation (5mC) of CpG is the major epigenetic modification of mammalian DNA, playing essential roles during development and cancer. Although DNA methylation is generally associated with transcriptional repression, its role in gene regulation during cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. DNA demethylation [...] Read more.
Cytosine methylation (5mC) of CpG is the major epigenetic modification of mammalian DNA, playing essential roles during development and cancer. Although DNA methylation is generally associated with transcriptional repression, its role in gene regulation during cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. DNA demethylation can be either passive or active when initiated by TET dioxygenases. During active demethylation, transcription factors (TFs) recruit TET enzymes (TET1, 2, and 3) to specific gene regulatory regions to first catalyze the oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and subsequently to higher oxidized cytosine derivatives. Only TET2 is frequently mutated in the hematopoietic system from the three TET family members. These mutations initially lead to the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment expansion, eventually evolving to give rise to a wide range of blood malignancies. This review focuses on recent advances in characterizing the main TET2-mediated molecular mechanisms that activate aberrant transcriptional programs in blood cancer onset and development. In addition, we discuss some of the key outstanding questions in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Regulation in Human Cancers)
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Article
Identification of Prognostic Markers of Gynecologic Cancers Utilizing Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Models
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030829 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are important in vivo models for the development of precision medicine. However, challenges exist regarding genetic alterations and relapse after primary treatment. Thus, PDX models are required as a new approach for preclinical and clinical studies. We established PDX models [...] Read more.
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are important in vivo models for the development of precision medicine. However, challenges exist regarding genetic alterations and relapse after primary treatment. Thus, PDX models are required as a new approach for preclinical and clinical studies. We established PDX models of gynecologic cancers and analyzed their clinical information. We subcutaneously transplanted 207 tumor tissues from patients with gynecologic cancer into nude mice from 2014 to 2019. The successful engraftment rate of ovarian, cervical, and uterine cancer was 47%, 64%, and 56%, respectively. The subsequent passages (P2 and P3) showed higher success and faster growth rates than the first passage (P1). Using gynecologic cancer PDX models, the tumor grade is a common clinical factor affecting PDX establishment. We found that the PDX success rate correlated with the patient’s prognosis, and also that ovarian cancer patients with a poor prognosis had a faster PDX growth rate (p < 0.0001). Next, the gene sets associated with inflammation and immune responses were shown in high-ranking successful PDX engraftment through gene set enrichment analysis and RNA sequencing. Up-regulated genes in successful engraftment were found to correlate with ovarian clear cell cancer patient outcomes via Gene Expression Omnibus dataset analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cancer)
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Article
Long-Term Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development and Predictive Ability of Non-Invasive Scoring Systems in Patients with HCV-Related Cirrhosis Treated with Direct-Acting Antivirals
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030828 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are still at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the accuracy of non-invasive scoring systems (NSS) for the prediction of de novo HCC development in patients treated with DAA [...] Read more.
Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are still at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the accuracy of non-invasive scoring systems (NSS) for the prediction of de novo HCC development in patients treated with DAA on long-term follow-up (FU). We analyzed data from 575 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and no history of HCC who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) to DAA therapy. NSS (i.e., Forns index, APRI, FIB-4, ALBI, and aMAP) were calculated at 3 months after the end of therapy. Performance for de novo HCC prediction was evaluated in terms of area under the curve (AUC) and Harrell’s C-index. During a median FU of 44.9 (27.8–58.6) months, 57 (9.9%) patients developed de novo HCC. All five NSS were associated with the risk of de novo HCC. At multivariate analysis, only the ALBI score resulted in being significantly and independently associated with de novo HCC development (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.91, 95% CI 2.91–8.28, p < 0.001). ALBI showed the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of de novo HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years of FU, with AUC values of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78–0.85), 0.71 (95% CI 0.66–0.75), and 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.76), respectively. Consistently, the best predictive performance assessed by Harrell’s C-statistic was observed for ALBI (C-index = 0.70, 95% CI 0.62–0.77). ALBI score may represent a valuable and inexpensive tool for risk stratification and the personalization of an HCC surveillance strategy for patients with cirrhosis and previous history of HCV infection treated with DAA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Disease)
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Article
Evaluating the Role of Hepatobiliary Phase of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Predicting Treatment Impact of Lenvatinib and Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab on Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030827 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Background: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy has high response rates in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) has been reported to be useful as an imaging biomarker for detecting β-catenin mutations. We evaluated whether [...] Read more.
Background: Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy has high response rates in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) has been reported to be useful as an imaging biomarker for detecting β-catenin mutations. We evaluated whether the pretreatment of the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI could predict the therapeutic effect of lenvatinib and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. Methods: This study included 68 patients (lenvatinib group (n = 33) and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group (n = 35)). The visual assessment and relative enhancement ratio (RER) of the largest HCC lesions were evaluated using the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. Results: The hyperintensity type (RER ≥ 0.9) was 18.2% in the lenvatinib group and 20.0% in the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group. In the lenvatinib group, progression-free survival (PFS) was not different between the heterogeneous and homogenous types (p = 0.688) or between the hyperintensity and hypointensity types (p = 0.757). In the atezolizumab plus bevacizumab group, the heterogeneous type had significantly shorter PFS than the homogenous type (p = 0.007), and the hyperintensity type had significantly shorter PFS than the hypointensity type (p = 0.012). Conclusions: The hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI was useful for predicting the therapeutic effect of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy on unresectable HCC. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Follow-Up of Elderly Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated with Decitabine: A Real-World Study of the Apulian Hematological Network
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030826 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Decitabine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, was approved for use in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not eligible for standard chemotherapy and is now widely accepted as standard treatment. Although a number of clinical trials demonstrated its benefits in elderly AML patients, older [...] Read more.
Decitabine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, was approved for use in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not eligible for standard chemotherapy and is now widely accepted as standard treatment. Although a number of clinical trials demonstrated its benefits in elderly AML patients, older adults and patients with frequent comorbidities are typically under-represented in such settings. Thus, the aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a real-world setting, the effectiveness and toxicity of decitabine administered as a single agent in unselected previously untreated elderly AML patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy. In nine hematological departments of the Apulian Hematological Network (REP), we enrolled 199 patients (median age: 75.4 years; range: 61–91) with de novo (n = 94) or secondary/therapy-related (n = 105) AML treated with decitabine 20 mg/m2 for five days every 4 weeks. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate Cox regression. The average number of cycles administered per patient was 6.3 (SD: 6.0; median: 5 cycles). Complete response was achieved by 31 patients (15.6%) and partial response by 57 (28.6%), for a total of 88 responders overall (44.2%). After a median follow-up of 33.6 months, median OS was 8.7 months (95% CI: 7.4–10.3), and the 6-month, 1-year, and 3-year OS rates were 62.7%, 37.0%, and 7.1%, respectively. Mortality was increased in AML patients with ≥3 comorbidities (HR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.18–5.08) vs. no comorbidities and in those with adverse karyotype (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05–2.38) vs. favourable or intermediate profile. Infection was the main registered adverse event (46.0%). In conclusion, this REP real-life study demonstrates, after a follow-up of almost 3 years, how decitabine administered to AML patients not suitable for intensive chemotherapy is effective and well tolerated, even in a population of truly elderly patients with frequent comorbidities. Full article
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Article
Statins Reduce Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease: A 17-Year Longitudinal Study
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030825 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Taiwan. Whether statin therapy associated with the HCC risk in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD is unclear. Using population-based insurance claim data from Taiwan, [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Taiwan. Whether statin therapy associated with the HCC risk in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD is unclear. Using population-based insurance claim data from Taiwan, we identified from hyperlipidemic patients taking statins or not (677,364 versus 867,707) in 1999–2015. Among them, three pairs of propensity score matched statin and non-statin cohorts were established by renal function: 413,867 pairs with normal renal function (NRF), 46,851 pairs with CKD and 6372 pairs with ESRD. Incidence rates of HCC were compared, by the end of 2016, between statin and non-statin cohorts, between hydrophilic statins (HS) and lipophilic statins (LS) users, and between statin-ezetimibe combination therapy (SECT) and statin monotherapy (SM) users. The HCC incidence increased progressively from NRF to CKD and ESRD groups, was lower in the statin cohort than in the non-statin cohort, with the differences of incidence per 10,000 person-years increased from (7.77 vs. 21.4) in NRF group to (15.8 vs. 37.1) in CKD group to (19.1 vs. 47.8) in ESRD group. The incidence increased with age, but the Cox method estimated hazard ratios showed a greater statin effectiveness in older patients. Among statin users, the HCC incidence was lower in HS users than in LS users, and lower in SECT users than in SM users, but the difference was significant only in the NRF group. Hyperlipidemic patients with CKD and ESRD receiving statins are at reduced HCC risks; the treatment effectiveness is superior for HS users than for LS users, and for SECT users than for SM users, but not significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing and Influencing Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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Article
Oncogenic Alterations in Histologically Negative Lymph Nodes Are Associated with Prognosis of Patients with Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030824 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Background: Survival of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies greatly. We sought to explore whether presence of oncogenic alterations in histologically-negative lymph nodes (LNs) can be of prognostic significance in stage I lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: Genomic [...] Read more.
Background: Survival of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies greatly. We sought to explore whether presence of oncogenic alterations in histologically-negative lymph nodes (LNs) can be of prognostic significance in stage I lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: Genomic analysis of oncogenic alterations was applied to 123 stage I LUAD tumors. The same genomic variants identified in primary tumors were examined in corresponding histologically-negative LNs. Results: A total of 102 (82.9%) patients had at least one canonical oncogenic alteration detected in primary tumors, and 57 LNs from 12 patients (11.8%) were found to carry the identical oncogenic alterations detected in the corresponding primary tumor tissues, including EGFR mutations (six cases), KRAS mutations (three cases), ALK fusion (one case), BRAF mutation (one case) and HER2 & NRAS co-mutations (one case). None of these LNs was found to have occult tumor cells by routine pathological assessment or immunohistochemistry staining using antibodies against pan-cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) and the epithelial marker Ber-EP4. The detection rate of oncogenenic alterations in LN was significantly higher in RAS-mutant tumors than EGFR mutant tumors (36.36% verse 7.41%, p = 0.017). Patients with oncogenic alterations in LN showed inferior disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.025) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.027). Furthermore, patients with RAS-mutations detected in LN had the worst DFS and OS (p = 0.001). Among the 11 patients with RAS mutation in primary tumors, DFS and OS in the four patients with mutations detected in LN were significantly shorter than the remaining seven patients without mutations LN (DFS, p = 0.001, OS, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Genomic analysis has the potential to detect oncogenic alterations in regional LNs for localized LUAD and presence of oncogenic alterations in regional LN may be associated with inferior clinical outcome of stage I LUAD, particularly for certain molecular subgroups. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT04266691 Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actionable Mutations in Lung Cancer)
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