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Cancers, Volume 14, Issue 24 (December-2 2022) – 251 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the principal therapy for advanced prostate cancer. ADT controls tumor growth by rapidly altering the prostate tumor microenvironment and subsequently inducing cancer cell death. ADT induces vascular damage and thereby reduces intratumoral blood flow, but the mechanism has long been elusive. This work, for the first time, functionally defines TNF as the mediator of castration-induced vascular damage in prostate tumors. This pathological response to androgen deprivation—beginning with endothelial cell apoptosis and increased vessel permeability and culminating in hypoxia—indirectly contributes to prostate cancer regression. Since TNF is also a critical death receptor ligand for prostate epithelial cells, we propose that TNF is a multi-purpose, comprehensive signal that mediates prostate cancer regression following androgen deprivation. View this paper
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Review
Best Supportive Care of the Patient with Oesophageal Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6268; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246268 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Background: Oesophageal cancer patients have poor survival, and most are unfit for curative or systemic palliative treatment. This article aims to review the best supportive care for oesophageal cancer, focusing on the management of its most frequent or distinctive symptoms and complications. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Oesophageal cancer patients have poor survival, and most are unfit for curative or systemic palliative treatment. This article aims to review the best supportive care for oesophageal cancer, focusing on the management of its most frequent or distinctive symptoms and complications. Methods: Evidence-based review on palliative supportive care of oesophageal cancer, based on Pubmed search for relevant clinical practice guidelines, reviews and original articles, with additional records collected from related articles suggestions, references and societies recommendations. Results: We identified 1075 records, from which we screened 138 records that were related to oesophageal cancer supportive care, complemented with 48 additional records, finally including 60 records. This review summarizes the management of oesophageal cancer-related main problems, including dysphagia, malnutrition, pain, nausea and vomiting, fistula and bleeding. In recent years, several treatments have been developed, while optimal management is not yet standardized. Conclusion: This review contributes toward improving supportive care and decision making for oesophageal cancer patients, presenting updated summary recommendations for each of their main symptoms. A robust body of evidence is still lacking, and the best supportive care decisions should be individualized and shared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Life and Side Effects Management in Cancer Treatment)
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Review
Lipid Metabolism Heterogeneity and Crosstalk with Mitochondria Functions Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246267 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be triggered by genetic alterations in mammary epithelial cells, leading to diverse disease outcomes in individual patients. The metabolic heterogeneity of BC enhances its ability to adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment and [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be triggered by genetic alterations in mammary epithelial cells, leading to diverse disease outcomes in individual patients. The metabolic heterogeneity of BC enhances its ability to adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment and metabolic stress, but unfavorably affects the patient’s therapy response, prognosis and clinical effect. Extrinsic factors from the tumor microenvironment and the intrinsic parameters of cancer cells influence their mitochondrial functions, which consequently alter their lipid metabolism and their ability to proliferate, migrate and survive in a harsh environment. The balanced interplay between mitochondria and fatty acid synthesis or fatty acid oxidation has been attributed to a combination of environmental factors and to the genetic makeup, oncogenic signaling and activities of different transcription factors. Hence, understanding the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolic heterogeneity and alterations in BC is gaining interest as a major target for drug resistance. Here we review the major recent reports on lipid metabolism heterogeneity and bring to light knowledge on the functional contribution of diverse lipid metabolic pathways to breast tumorigenesis and therapy resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Functions in Cancer)
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Article
Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Healthcare Access Measures among Women with Ovarian Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246266 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Several proposed theoretical frameworks have defined the complex nature of healthcare access (HCA) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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Review
Surgical Aspects of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6265; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246265 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy. It originates from the bile ducts and is the second most common primary cancer of the liver. Surgery is considered the only curative treatment of ICC, offering the best chance for long-term survival. The [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy. It originates from the bile ducts and is the second most common primary cancer of the liver. Surgery is considered the only curative treatment of ICC, offering the best chance for long-term survival. The purpose of this article is to review the available literature on ICC, with a focus on the various aspects of the surgical care in this potentially lethal malignancy. Full article
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Review
A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment of Radionecrosis in Malignant Gliomas and Cerebral Metastases
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6264; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246264 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Radiation necrosis represents a potentially devastating complication after radiation therapy in brain tumors. The establishment of the diagnosis and especially the differentiation from progression and pseudoprogression with its therapeutic implications requires interdisciplinary consent and monitoring. Herein, we want to provide an overview of [...] Read more.
Radiation necrosis represents a potentially devastating complication after radiation therapy in brain tumors. The establishment of the diagnosis and especially the differentiation from progression and pseudoprogression with its therapeutic implications requires interdisciplinary consent and monitoring. Herein, we want to provide an overview of the diagnostic modalities, therapeutic possibilities and an outlook on future developments to tackle this challenging topic. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the current morphological, functional, metabolic and evolving imaging tools described in the literature in order to (I) identify the best criteria to distinguish radionecrosis from tumor recurrence after the radio-oncological treatment of malignant gliomas and cerebral metastases, (II) analyze the therapeutic possibilities and (III) give an outlook on future developments to tackle this challenging topic. Additionally, we provide the experience of a tertiary tumor center with this important issue in neuro-oncology and provide an institutional pathway dealing with this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
Comparing Genetic Risk and Clinical Risk Classification in Luminal-like Breast Cancer Patients Using a 23-Gene Classifier
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6263; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246263 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Background: A 23-gene classifier has been developed based on gene expression profiles of Taiwanese luminal-like breast cancer. We aim to stratify risk of relapse and identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy based on genetic model among distinct clinical risk groups. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: A 23-gene classifier has been developed based on gene expression profiles of Taiwanese luminal-like breast cancer. We aim to stratify risk of relapse and identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy based on genetic model among distinct clinical risk groups. Methods: There were 248 luminal (hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor II-negative) breast cancer patients with 23-gene classifier results. Using the modified Adjuvant! Online definition, clinical high/low-risk groups were tabulated with the genetic model. The primary endpoint was a recurrence-free interval (RFI) at 5 years. Results: There was a significant difference between the high/low-risk groups defined by the 23-gene classifier for the 5-year prognosis of recurrence (16 recurrences in high-risk and 3 recurrences in low-risk; log-rank test: p < 0.0001). Among the clinically high-risk group, the 5-year RFI of high risk defined by the 23-gene classifier was significantly higher than that of the low-risk group (15 recurrences in high-risk and 2 recurrences in low-risk; log-rank test: p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed that 23-gene classifier can be used to stratify clinically high-risk patients into distinct survival patterns based on genomic risks and displays the potentiality to guide adjuvant chemotherapy. The 23-gene classifier can provide a better estimation of breast cancer prognosis which can help physicians make a better treatment decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Bioinformatics Based Analysis of Cancer)
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Article
A Label-Free Proteomic Approach for the Identification of Biomarkers in the Exosome of Endometrial Cancer Serum
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6262; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246262 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Endometrial cancers (ECs) are mostly adenocarcinomas arising from the inner part of the uterus. The identification of serum biomarkers, either soluble or carried in the exosome, may be useful in making an early diagnosis. We used label-free quantification mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS)-based proteomics to [...] Read more.
Endometrial cancers (ECs) are mostly adenocarcinomas arising from the inner part of the uterus. The identification of serum biomarkers, either soluble or carried in the exosome, may be useful in making an early diagnosis. We used label-free quantification mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS)-based proteomics to investigate the proteome of exosomes in the albumin-depleted serum from 12 patients with EC, as compared to 12 healthy controls. After quantification and statistical analysis, we found significant changes in the abundance (p < 0.05) of 33 proteins in EC vs. control samples, with a fold change of ≥1.5 or ≤0.6. Validation using Western blotting analysis in 36 patients with EC as compared to 36 healthy individuals confirmed the upregulation of APOA1, HBB, CA1, HBD, LPA, SAA4, PF4V1, and APOE. A multivariate logistic regression model based on the abundance of these proteins was able to separate the controls from the EC patients with excellent sensitivity levels, particularly for stage 1 ECs. The results show that using LFQ-MS to explore the specific proteome of serum exosomes allows for the identification of biomarkers in EC. These observations suggest that PF4V1, CA1, HBD, and APOE represent biomarkers that are able to reach the clinical stage, after a validation phase. Full article
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Article
Integration of Clinical and CT-Based Radiomic Features for Pretreatment Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6261; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246261 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential of a machine learning model with integrated clinical and CT-based radiomics features in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) in breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in 329 [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential of a machine learning model with integrated clinical and CT-based radiomics features in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) in breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in 329 patients with breast tumors (n = 331) before NST. Pyradiomics was used for feature extraction, and 107 features of seven classes were extracted. Feature selection was performed on the basis of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and six ICC thresholds (0.7–0.95) were examined to identify the feature set resulting in optimal model performance. Clinical factors, such as age, clinical stage, cancer cell type, and cell surface receptors, were used for prediction. We tried six machine learning algorithms, and clinical, radiomics, and clinical–radiomics models were trained for each algorithm. Radiomics and clinical–radiomics models with gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features only were also built for comparison. The linear support vector machine (SVM) regression model trained with radiomics features of ICC ≥0.85 in combination with clinical factors performed the best (AUC = 0.87). The performance of the clinical and radiomics linear SVM models showed statistically significant difference after correction for multiple comparisons (AUC = 0.69 vs. 0.78; p < 0.001). The AUC of the radiomics model trained with GLCM features was significantly lower than that of the radiomics model trained with all seven classes of radiomics features (AUC = 0.85 vs. 0.87; p = 0.011). Integration of clinical and CT-based radiomics features was helpful in the pretreatment prediction of pCR to NST in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Oncology Imaging)
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Article
Therapeutic Target Identification and Inhibitor Screening against Riboflavin Synthase of Colorectal Cancer Associated Fusobacterium nucleatum
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6260; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246260 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among all cancers in terms of prevalence. There is growing evidence that gut microbiota has a role in the development of colorectal cancer. Fusobacterium nucleatum is overrepresented in the gastrointestinal tract and tumor microenvironment of patients with CRC. [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among all cancers in terms of prevalence. There is growing evidence that gut microbiota has a role in the development of colorectal cancer. Fusobacterium nucleatum is overrepresented in the gastrointestinal tract and tumor microenvironment of patients with CRC. This suggests the role of F. nucleatum as a potential risk factor in the development of CRC. Hence, we aimed to explore whole genomes of F. nucleatum strains related to CRC to predict potential therapeutic markers through a pan-genome integrated subtractive genomics approach. In the current study, we identified 538 proteins as essential for F. nucleatum survival, 209 non-homologous to a human host, and 12 as drug targets. Eventually, riboflavin synthase (RiS) was selected as a therapeutic target for further processing. Three different inhibitor libraries of lead-like natural products, i.e., cyanobactins (n = 237), streptomycins (n = 607), and marine bacterial secondary metabolites (n = 1226) were screened against it. After the structure-based study, three compounds, i.e., CMNPD3609 (−7.63) > Malyngamide V (−7.03) > ZINC06804365 (−7.01) were prioritized as potential inhibitors of F. nucleatum. Additionally, the stability and flexibility of these compounds bound to RiS were determined via a molecular dynamics simulation of 50 ns. Results revealed the stability of these compounds within the binding pocket, after 5 ns. ADMET profiling showed compounds as drug-like, non-permeable to the blood brain barrier, non-toxic, and HIA permeable. Pan-genomics mediated drug target identification and the virtual screening of inhibitors is the preliminary step towards inhibition of this pathogenic oncobacterium and we suggest mouse model experiments to validate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial, Viral and Parasitic Pathogens and Colorectal Cancer)
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Article
Impact of Mobilization Strategies on Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection Efficiency and Product Quality: A Retrospective Single-Center Study
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6259; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246259 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Autologous stem cell transplantation is routinely used in the management of several hematological diseases, solid tumors, and immune disorders. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection performed by apheresis is the preferred source of stem cells. In this study, the potential impact of mobilization [...] Read more.
Autologous stem cell transplantation is routinely used in the management of several hematological diseases, solid tumors, and immune disorders. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection performed by apheresis is the preferred source of stem cells. In this study, the potential impact of mobilization regimens on the performance of the Spectra Optia® continuous mononuclear cell collection system was evaluated. We performed a retrospective data analysis for patients undergoing autologous PBSC collection at the Medical University Vienna, Vienna General Hospital between September 2016 and June 2018. Collections were divided into two main groups according to the mobilization regimen received: without (210 collections) or with (99 collections) plerixafor. Assessed variables included product characteristics and collection efficiency (CE). Overall, product characteristics were similar between the groups. Median CD34+ CE2 was 50.1% versus 53.0%, and CE1 was 66.9% versus 69.9% following mobilization without and with plerixafor, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Simple linear regression showed a very weak positive correlation between the mobilization method and CE1 or CE2 (mobilization with plerixafor increased CE2 by 4.106%). In conclusion, the Spectra Optia® apheresis system led to high CE and a good quality of PBSC products when mobilization regimens with or without plerixafor were used. Full article
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Review
Natural Blockers of PD-1/PD-L1 Interaction for the Immunotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer-Brain Metastasis
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6258; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246258 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
The limited treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastasis (TNBC-BM) have left the door of further drug development for these patients wide open. Although immunotherapy via monoclonal antibodies has shown some promising results in several cancers including TNBC, it cannot be [...] Read more.
The limited treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastasis (TNBC-BM) have left the door of further drug development for these patients wide open. Although immunotherapy via monoclonal antibodies has shown some promising results in several cancers including TNBC, it cannot be considered the most effective treatment for brain metastasis. This is due to the protective role of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) which limits the entrance of most drugs, especially the bulky ones such as antibodies, to the brain. For a drug to traverse the BBB via passive diffusion, various physicochemical properties should be considered. Since natural medicine has been a key inspiration for the development of the majority of current medicines, in this paper, we review several naturally-derived molecules which have the potential for immunotherapy via blocking the interaction of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1. The mechanism of action, physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of these molecules and their theoretical potential to be used for the treatment of TNBC-BM are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer)
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Review
Kinase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: Current State and Future Promises
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6257; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246257 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer, the high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) being its most common and most aggressive form. Despite the latest therapeutical advancements following the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) targeting angiogenesis inhibitors and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) inhibitors [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer, the high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) being its most common and most aggressive form. Despite the latest therapeutical advancements following the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) targeting angiogenesis inhibitors and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) inhibitors to supplement the standard platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy, the expected overall survival of HGSC patients has not improved significantly from the five-year rate of 42%. This calls for the development and testing of more efficient treatment options. Many oncogenic kinase-signaling pathways are dysregulated in HGSC. Since small-molecule kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of many solid cancers due to the generality of the increased activation of protein kinases in carcinomas, it is reasonable to evaluate their potential against HGSC. Here, we present the latest concluded and on-going clinical trials on kinase inhibitors in HGSC, as well as the recent work concerning ovarian cancer patient organoids and xenograft models. We discuss the potential of kinase inhibitors as personalized treatments, which would require comprehensive assessment of the biological mechanisms underlying tumor spread and chemoresistance in individual patients, and their connection to tumor genome and transcriptome to establish identifiable subgroups of patients who are most likely to benefit from a given therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signaling in Cancer)
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Article
Population-Based Temporal Trends and Ethnic Disparity in Cervical Cancer Mortality in South Africa (1999–2018): A Join Point and Age–Period–Cohort Regression Analyses
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6256; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246256 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in low- and middle-income countries such as South Africa. The current impact of national cervical cancer control and sexual and reproductive health interventions in South Africa reduce its burden. The [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in low- and middle-income countries such as South Africa. The current impact of national cervical cancer control and sexual and reproductive health interventions in South Africa reduce its burden. The aim of this study was to assess the trends in cervical cancer mortality and its relation to breast and gynaecological cancers in South Africa from 1999 to 2018. We conducted joinpoint regression analyses of the trends in crude and age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) for cervical cancer mortality in South Africa from 1999 to 2018. An age–period–cohort regression analysis was also conducted to determine the impact of age, period, and cohort on cervical cancer mortality trends. Analyses were stratified by ethnicity. Cervical cancer (n = 59,190, 43.92%, 95% CI: 43.65–44.18%) was responsible for about 43.9% of breast and gynecological cancer deaths. The mortality rate of cervical cancer (from 11.7 to 14.08 per 100,000) increased at about 0.9% per annum (Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC): 0.9% (AAPC: 0.9%, p-value < 0.001)), and young women aged 25 to 49 years (AAPC: 1.2–3.5%, p-value < 0.001) had increased rates. The risk of cervical cancer mortality increased among successive birth cohorts. In 2018, cervical cancer mortality rate among Blacks (16.74 per 100,000 women) was about twice the rates among Coloureds (8.53 deaths per 100,000 women) and approximately four-fold among Indians/Asians (4.16 deaths per 100,000 women), and Whites (3.06 deaths per 100,000 women). Cervical cancer control efforts should be enhanced in South Africa and targeted at ethnic difference, age, period, and cohort effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Incidence, Mortality, Trend, and Survival of Cancer)
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Review
An Immunocompetent Environment Unravels the Proto-Oncogenic Role of miR-22
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6255; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246255 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
MiR-22 was first identified as a proto-oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) due to its ability to post-transcriptionally suppress the expression of the potent PTEN (Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog) tumor suppressor gene. miR-22 tumorigenic role in cancer was subsequently supported by its ability to positively trigger [...] Read more.
MiR-22 was first identified as a proto-oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) due to its ability to post-transcriptionally suppress the expression of the potent PTEN (Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog) tumor suppressor gene. miR-22 tumorigenic role in cancer was subsequently supported by its ability to positively trigger lipogenesis, anabolic metabolism, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) towards the metastatic spread. However, during the following years, the picture was complicated by the identification of targets that support a tumor-suppressive role in certain tissues or cell types. Indeed, many papers have been published where in vitro cellular assays and in vivo immunodeficient or immunosuppressed xenograft models are used. However, here we show that all the studies performed in vivo, in immunocompetent transgenic and knock-out animal models, unanimously support a proto-oncogenic role for miR-22. Since miR-22 is actively secreted from and readily exchanged between normal and tumoral cells, a functional immune dimension at play could well represent the divider that allows reconciling these contradictory findings. In addition to a critical review of this vast literature, here we provide further proof of the oncogenic role of miR-22 through the analysis of its genomic locus vis a vis the genetic landscape of human cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection miRNAs: New Insights in Tumor Biology)
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Article
High-Frequency Nanosecond Bleomycin Electrochemotherapy and its Effects on Changes in the Immune System and Survival
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6254; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246254 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
In this work, a time-dependent and time-independent study on bleomycin-based high-frequency nsECT (3.5 kV/cm × 200 pulses) for the elimination of LLC1 tumours in C57BL/6J mice is performed. We show the efficiency of nsECT (200 ns and 700 ns delivered at 1 kHz [...] Read more.
In this work, a time-dependent and time-independent study on bleomycin-based high-frequency nsECT (3.5 kV/cm × 200 pulses) for the elimination of LLC1 tumours in C57BL/6J mice is performed. We show the efficiency of nsECT (200 ns and 700 ns delivered at 1 kHz and 1 MHz) for the elimination of tumours in mice and increase of their survival. The dynamics of the immunomodulatory effects were observed after electrochemotherapy by investigating immune cell populations and antitumour antibodies at different timepoints after the treatment. ECT treatment resulted in an increased percentage of CD4+ T, splenic memory B and tumour-associated dendritic cell subsets. Moreover, increased levels of antitumour IgG antibodies after ECT treatment were detected. Based on the time-dependent study results, nsECT treatment upregulated PD 1 expression on splenic CD4+ Tr1 cells, increased the expansion of splenic CD8+ T, CD4+CD8+ T, plasma cells and the proportion of tumour-associated pro inflammatory macrophages. The Lin population of immune cells that was increased in the spleens and tumour after nsECT was identified. It was shown that nsECT prolonged survival of the treated mice and induced significant changes in the immune system, which shows a promising alliance of nanosecond electrochemotherapy and immunotherapy. Full article
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Article
Real-Time Split-Dose PET/CT-Guided Ablation Improves Colorectal Liver Metastasis Detection and Ablation Zone Margin Assessments without the Need for Repeated Contrast Injection
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6253; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246253 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Background: Real-time split-dose PET can identify the targeted colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) and eliminate the need for repeated contrast administration before and during thermal ablation (TA). This study aimed to assess the added value of pre-ablation real-time split-dose PET when combined with non-contract [...] Read more.
Background: Real-time split-dose PET can identify the targeted colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) and eliminate the need for repeated contrast administration before and during thermal ablation (TA). This study aimed to assess the added value of pre-ablation real-time split-dose PET when combined with non-contract CT in the detection of CLM for ablation and the evaluation of the ablation zone and margins. Methods: A total of 190 CLMs/125 participants from two IRB-approved prospective clinical trials using PET/CT-guided TA were analyzed. Based on detection on pre-TA imaging, CLMs were categorized as detectable, non-detectable, and of poor conspicuity on CT alone, and detectable, non-detectable, and low FDG-avidity on PET/CT after the initial dose. Ablation margins around the targeted CLM were evaluated using a 3D volumetric approach. Results: We found that 129/190 (67.9%) CLMs were detectable on CT alone, and 61/190 CLMs (32.1%) were undetectable or of poor conspicuity, not allowing accurate depiction and targeting by CT alone. Thus, the theoretical 5- and 10-mm margins could not be defined in these tumors (32.1%) using CT alone. When TA intraprocedural PET/CT images are obtained and inspected (fused PET/CT), only 4 CLM (2.1%) remained undetectable or had a low FDG avidity. Conclusions: The addition of PET to non-contrast CT improved CLM detection for ablation targeting, margin assessments, and continuous depiction of the FDG avid CLMs during the ablation without the need for multiple intravenous contrast injections pre- and intra-procedurally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Colorectal Cancer Metastatic Disease)
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Review
The Normal, the Radiosensitive, and the Ataxic in the Era of Precision Radiotherapy: A Narrative Review
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6252; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246252 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 593
Abstract
(1) Background: radiotherapy is a cornerstone of cancer treatment. When delivering a tumoricidal dose, the risk of severe late toxicities is usually kept below 5% using dose-volume constraints. However, individual radiation sensitivity (iRS) is responsible (with other technical factors) for unexpected toxicities after [...] Read more.
(1) Background: radiotherapy is a cornerstone of cancer treatment. When delivering a tumoricidal dose, the risk of severe late toxicities is usually kept below 5% using dose-volume constraints. However, individual radiation sensitivity (iRS) is responsible (with other technical factors) for unexpected toxicities after exposure to a dose that induces no toxicity in the general population. Diagnosing iRS before radiotherapy could avoid unnecessary toxicities in patients with a grossly normal phenotype. Thus, we reviewed iRS diagnostic data and their impact on decision-making processes and the RT workflow; (2) Methods: following a description of radiation toxicities, we conducted a critical review of the current state of the knowledge on individual determinants of cellular/tissue radiation; (3) Results: tremendous advances in technology now allow minimally-invasive genomic, epigenetic and functional testing and a better understanding of iRS. Ongoing large translational studies implement various tests and enriched NTCP models designed to improve the prediction of toxicities. iRS testing could better support informed radiotherapy decisions for individuals with a normal phenotype who experience unusual toxicities. Ethics of medical decisions with an accurate prediction of personalized radiotherapy’s risk/benefits and its health economics impact are at stake; (4) Conclusions: iRS testing represents a critical unmet need to design personalized radiotherapy protocols relying on extended NTCP models integrating iRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Radiation Therapy for Oncology)
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Systematic Review
Current Knowledge on Spinal Meningiomas Epidemiology, Tumor Characteristics and Non-Surgical Treatment Options: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis (Part 1)
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6251; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246251 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Background: Spinal meningiomas are the most common primary intradural spinal tumors. Although they are a separate entity, a large portion of the knowledge on spinal meningiomas is based on findings in intracranial meningiomas. Therefore, a comprehensive review of all the literature on spinal [...] Read more.
Background: Spinal meningiomas are the most common primary intradural spinal tumors. Although they are a separate entity, a large portion of the knowledge on spinal meningiomas is based on findings in intracranial meningiomas. Therefore, a comprehensive review of all the literature on spinal meningiomas was performed. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for all studies on spinal meningiomas dating from 2000 and onward. Findings of matching studies were pooled to strengthen the current body of evidence. Results: A total of 104 studies were included. The majority of patients were female (72.83%), elderly (peak decade: seventh), and had a world health organization (WHO) grade 1 tumor (95.7%). Interestingly, the minority of pediatric patients had a male overrepresentation (62.0% vs. 27.17%) and higher-grade tumors (33.3% vs. 4.3%). Sensory and motor dysfunction and pain were the most common presenting symptoms. Despite a handful of studies reporting promising findings associated with the use of non-surgical treatment options, the literature still suffers from contradictory results and limitations of study designs. Conclusions: Elderly females with WHO grade 1 tumors constituted the stereotypical type of patient. Compared to surgical alternatives, the evidence for the use of non-surgical treatments is still relatively weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meningioma Surgery and Functional Outcome)
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Article
Attempting to Identify Bacterial Allies in Immunotherapy of NSCLC Patients
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6250; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246250 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Introduction: Factors other than PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) are being sought as predictors for cancer immuno- or chemoimmunotherapy in ongoing studies and long-term observations. Despite high PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, some patients do not benefit from immunotherapy, while others, without the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Factors other than PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) are being sought as predictors for cancer immuno- or chemoimmunotherapy in ongoing studies and long-term observations. Despite high PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, some patients do not benefit from immunotherapy, while others, without the expression of this molecule, respond to immunotherapy. Attention has been paid to the composition of the gut microbiome as a potential predictive factor for immunotherapy effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Our study enrolled 47 Caucasian patients with stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They were eligible for treatment with first- or second-line immunotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. We collected stool samples before the administration of immunotherapy. We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA isolated from the stool sample and analyzed bacterial V3 and V4 of the 16S rRNA gene. Results: We found that bacteria from the families Barnesiellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Tannerellaceae, and Clostridiaceae could modulate immunotherapy effectiveness. A high abundance of Bacteroidaaceae, Barnesiellaceae, and Tannerellaceae could extend progression-free survival (PFS). Moreover, the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with a high content of Ruminococcaceae family (HR = 6.3, 95% CI: 2.6 to 15.3, p < 0.0001) and in patients with a low abundance of Clostridia UCG-014 (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 9.8, p = 0.005) regardless of the immunotherapy line. Conclusions: The Clostridia class in gut microbiota could affect the effectiveness of immunotherapy, as well as the length of survival of NSCLC patients who received this method of treatment. Full article
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Article
Central Nervous System Metastasis in Neuroblastoma: From Three Decades Clinical Experience to New Considerations in the Immunotherapy Era
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6249; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246249 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) metastatic spread in neuroblastoma (NB) is rare and occurs more often at relapse/progression. We report on CNS involvement in high risk (HR) NB over 25 years. For this retrospective study, we reviewed the CNS imaging of all the patients [...] Read more.
Central nervous system (CNS) metastatic spread in neuroblastoma (NB) is rare and occurs more often at relapse/progression. We report on CNS involvement in high risk (HR) NB over 25 years. For this retrospective study, we reviewed the CNS imaging of all the patients treated at Bambino Gesù Children Hospital from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 2022. A total of 128 patients with HR NB were diagnosed over 26 years. Out of 128 patients, CNS metastatic spread occurred in 6 patients: 3 patients presented a metastatic spread at diagnosis, while in 3 patients, CNS was involved at relapse. Overall, the rate of occurrence of CNS spread is 4.7% with the same distribution at diagnosis and at relapse, namely 2.3%. Interestingly, CNS spread at diagnosis was observed only before 2012, whereas CNS was observed at relapse only after 2012, in the immunotherapy era. CNS metastases presented similar imaging features at diagnosis and at relapse, with a peculiar hemorrhagic aspect and mainly hemispheric localization in patients with bone skull involvement at the time of diagnosis. The outcome is dismal, and 3 out of 6 patients died for progressive disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Oncology)
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Article
High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as an Organ-Sparing Treatment for Early Penile Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6248; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246248 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
Background: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective organ-sparing treatment for patients with early-stage penile cancer. However, only limited data are available on the role of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in this clinical setting. Methods: Between 2002 and 2020, 31 patients with early penile cancer were [...] Read more.
Background: Low-dose-rate brachytherapy is an effective organ-sparing treatment for patients with early-stage penile cancer. However, only limited data are available on the role of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in this clinical setting. Methods: Between 2002 and 2020, 31 patients with early penile cancer were treated at our center with interstitial HDR BT at a dose of 18 × 3 Gy twice daily. A breast brachytherapy template was used for the fixation of stainless hollow needles. Results: The median follow-up was 117.5 months (range, 5–210). Eight patients (25.8%) developed a recurrence; of these, seven were salvaged by partial amputation. Six patients died of internal comorbidities or a second cancer. The probability of local control at 5 and 10 years was 80.7% (95% CI: 63.7–97.7%) and 68.3% (95% CI: 44.0–92.6%), respectively. Cause-specific survival was 100%. Only one case of radiation-induced necrosis was observed. The probability of penile sparing at 5 and 10 years was 80.6% (95% CI: 63.45–97.7%) and 62.1% (95% CI: 34.8–89.4%), respectively. Conclusions: These results show that HDR-BT for penile cancer can achieve results comparable to LDR-BT with organ sparing. Despite the relatively large patient cohort—the second largest reported to date in this clinical setting—prospective data from larger samples are needed to confirm the role of HDR-BT in penile cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Tumors)
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Article
Targeting IRS-1/2 in Uveal Melanoma Inhibits In Vitro Cell Growth, Survival and Migration, and In Vivo Tumor Growth
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6247; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246247 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Uveal melanoma originating in the eye and metastasizing to the liver is associated with poor prognosis and has only one approved therapeutic option. We hypothesized that liver-borne growth factors may contribute to UM growth. Therefore, we investigated the role of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma originating in the eye and metastasizing to the liver is associated with poor prognosis and has only one approved therapeutic option. We hypothesized that liver-borne growth factors may contribute to UM growth. Therefore, we investigated the role of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in UM. Here, we found that IRS-1, the insulin receptor substrate, is overexpressed in both UM cells and tumors. Since we previously observed that IGF-1R antibody therapy was not clinically effective in UM, we investigated the potential of NT157, a small molecule inhibitor of IRS-1/2, in blocking this pathway in UM. NT157 treatment of multiple UM cell lines resulted in reduced cell growth and migration and increased apoptosis. This treatment also significantly inhibited UM tumor growth in vivo, in the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and subcutaneous mouse models, validating the in vitro effect. Mechanistically, through reverse phase protein array (RPPA), we identified significant proteomic changes in the PI3K/AKT pathway, a downstream mediator of IGF-1 signaling, with NT157 treatment. Together, these results suggest that NT157 inhibits cell growth, survival, and migration in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo via inhibiting IGF-1 signaling in UM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Treatment in Uveal Melanoma)
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Review
Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer and Associated Gene Targets
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6246; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246246 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
In the United States, over 100,000 women are diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy every year, with ovarian cancer being the most lethal. One of the hallmark characteristics of ovarian cancer is the development of resistance to chemotherapeutics. While the exact mechanisms of chemoresistance [...] Read more.
In the United States, over 100,000 women are diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy every year, with ovarian cancer being the most lethal. One of the hallmark characteristics of ovarian cancer is the development of resistance to chemotherapeutics. While the exact mechanisms of chemoresistance are poorly understood, it is known that changes at the cellular and molecular level make chemoresistance challenging to treat. Improved therapeutic options are needed to target these changes at the molecular level. Using a precision medicine approach, such as gene therapy, genes can be specifically exploited to resensitize tumors to therapeutics. This review highlights traditional and novel gene targets that can be used to develop new and improved targeted therapies, from drug efflux proteins to ovarian cancer stem cells. The review also addresses the clinical relevance and landscape of the discussed gene targets. Full article
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Review
Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Impact
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246245 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Antiangiogenic drugs were the only mainstay of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment from 2007 to 2017. However, primary or secondary resistance hampered their efficacy. Primary resistance could be due to different molecular and/or genetic characteristics of HCC and their knowledge would clarify the [...] Read more.
Antiangiogenic drugs were the only mainstay of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment from 2007 to 2017. However, primary or secondary resistance hampered their efficacy. Primary resistance could be due to different molecular and/or genetic characteristics of HCC and their knowledge would clarify the optimal treatment approach in each patient. Several molecular mechanisms responsible for secondary resistance have been discovered over the last few years; they represent potential targets for new specific drugs. In this light, the advent of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been a new opportunity; however, their use has highlighted other issues: the vascular normalization compared to a vessel pruning to promote the delivery of an active cancer immunotherapy and the development of resistance to immunotherapy which leads to a better selection of patients as candidates for ICIs. Nevertheless, the combination of antiangiogenic therapy plus ICIs represents an intriguing approach with high potential to improve the survival of these patients. Waiting for results from ongoing clinical trials, this review depicts the current knowledge about the resistance to antiangiogenic drugs in HCC. It could also provide updated information to clinicians focusing on the most effective combinations or sequential approaches in this regard, based on molecular mechanisms. Full article
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Article
Clinical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Early and Late Relapses in Patients Allografted for Myeloid Neoplasms with a Myelodysplastic Component
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6244; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246244 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 669
Abstract
An improved understanding of relapse kinetics is required to optimize detection and treatment strategies for the post-transplant relapse of myeloid neoplasms. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed data from 91 patients allografted for MDS (n = 54), AML-MRC (n = 29) and chronic [...] Read more.
An improved understanding of relapse kinetics is required to optimize detection and treatment strategies for the post-transplant relapse of myeloid neoplasms. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed data from 91 patients allografted for MDS (n = 54), AML-MRC (n = 29) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, n = 8), who relapsed after transplant. Patients with early (<12 months, n = 56) and late relapse (>12 months, n = 35) were compared regarding patient-, disease- and transplant-related factors, including karyotype analyses at diagnosis and relapse. After a median follow-up of 17.4 months after relapse, late relapses showed improved outcomes compared with early relapses (2-yr OS 67% vs. 32%, p = 0.0048). Comparing frequency of distinct patient-, disease- and transplant-related factors among early and late relapses, complex karyotype (p = 0.0004) and unfavorable disease risk at diagnosis (p = 0.0008) as well as clonal evolution at relapse (p = 0.03) were more common in early than in late relapses. Furthermore, patients receiving transplant without prior cytoreduction or in complete remission were more frequently present in the group of late relapses. These data suggest that cytogenetics rather than disease burden at diagnosis and transplant-related factors determine the timepoint of post-transplant relapse and that upfront transplantation may be favored in order to delay relapse. Full article
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Article
Anastomotic Leakage after Colorectal Surgery in Ovarian Cancer: Drainage, Stoma Utility and Risk Factors
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6243; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246243 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Objective: to evaluate the incidence of anastomotic leakage (AL), risk factors and utility of drainage and stoma in patients undergoing intestinal surgery for ovarian cancer in a single institution and in a review of the literature. Methods: retrospective study that includes consecutive patients [...] Read more.
Objective: to evaluate the incidence of anastomotic leakage (AL), risk factors and utility of drainage and stoma in patients undergoing intestinal surgery for ovarian cancer in a single institution and in a review of the literature. Methods: retrospective study that includes consecutive patients undergoing debulking surgery with en bloc pelvic resection with rectosigmoid colectomy for ovarian cancer between 1 November 2011 and 31 December 2021. Data regarding patient and tumour characteristics, surgical procedure, hospitalisation, complications and follow-up were recorded and analysed. The PubMed database was explored for recent publications on this topic. Results: Seventy-five patients were enrolled in the study. All anastomoses were performed at a distance of >6 cm from the anal margin, with negative leak tests and tension-free anastomosis. Diverting stoma were performed in just three patients (4%). At least one perianastomotic pelvic drain was positioned in 71 patients (94.7%) and was removed on average on postoperative day 7. Four patients (5.3%) experienced AL. In all cases, the drain content was not the only sign of complication, as the clinical signs were also highly suggestive. Just one patient received conservative treatment. Average postoperative hospitalisation was 14.6 days (SD: ±9.7). There were no deaths at 30 and 60 days after surgery. Between the AL and non-AL groups, statistically significant differences were observed for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, length of the intestinal resection and fitness for chemotherapy at 30 days. In ovarian cancer, rectosigmoid resection is a standardised procedure with comparable results for AL, and risk factors for AL are discretely homogeneous. What is neither homogeneous nor standardised according to the literature is the use of stomas and/or drains. Conclusion: use in the future of protective stoma and/or intra-abdominal drains is to be explored in selected and standardised situations to verify their preventive role. Full article
Article
Predictive Value of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography Metabolic and Volumetric Parameters for Systemic Metastasis in Tonsillar Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6242; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246242 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Although the prognosis of tonsillar cancer (human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) is improving, disease control failure (distant metastasis) still occurs in some cases. We explored whether several 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) parameters can predict metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical [...] Read more.
Although the prognosis of tonsillar cancer (human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) is improving, disease control failure (distant metastasis) still occurs in some cases. We explored whether several 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) parameters can predict metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with tonsil squamous cell carcinoma who underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) followed by primary surgery. During the follow-up period, systemic metastases were found in 7 of the 55 patients. The most common sites were the lungs (33%), bone (22%), brain/skull base (22%), small bowel (11%), and liver (11%). Pathologically, P53 mutation was less common in patients with systemic metastasis (41.7% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.054) than without systemic metastasis. In terms of PET parameters, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV2.5) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG2.5) values were lower in the primary tumor, and higher in the metastatic lymph nodes, of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive compared to HPV-negative patients (all p < 0.05). The MTV2.5, TLG2.5, and tumor–to–liver uptake ratio were 36.07 ± 54.24 cm3, 183.46 ± 298.62, and 4.90 ± 2.77, respectively, in the systemic metastasis group, respectively; all of these values were higher than those of the patients without systemic metastasis (all p < 0.05). The MTV2.5 value was significantly different between the groups even when the values for the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were summed (53.53 ± 57.78 cm3, p = 0.036). The cut-off value, area under the curve (95% confidence interval), sensitivity, and specificity of MTV2.5 for predicting systemic metastasis were 11.250 cm3, 0.584 (0.036–0.832), 0.571, and 0.565, respectively. The MTV2.5 of metastatic lymph nodes and summed MTV2.5 values of the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher in tonsillar cancer patients with than without systemic metastases. We suggest PET/CT scanning for pre-treatment cancer work-up and post-treatment surveillance to consider additional systemic therapy in patients with a high risk of disease control failure. Full article
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Article
Lung-Heart Outcomes and Mortality through the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic in a Prospective Cohort of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246241 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 566
Abstract
We investigated lung-heart toxicity and mortality in 123 women with stage I-II breast cancer enrolled in 2007–2011 in a prospective trial of adjuvant radiotherapy (TomoBreast). We were concerned whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the outcomes. All patients were analyzed as a single cohort. [...] Read more.
We investigated lung-heart toxicity and mortality in 123 women with stage I-II breast cancer enrolled in 2007–2011 in a prospective trial of adjuvant radiotherapy (TomoBreast). We were concerned whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the outcomes. All patients were analyzed as a single cohort. Lung-heart status was reverse-scored as freedom from adverse-events (fAE) on a 1–5 scale. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pulmonary function tests were untransformed. Statistical analyses applied least-square regression to calendar-year aggregated data. The significance of outliers was determined using the Dixon and the Grubbs corrected tests. At 12.0 years median follow-up, 103 patients remained alive; 10-years overall survival was 87.8%. In 2007–2019, 15 patients died, of whom 11 were cancer-related deaths. In 2020, five patients died, none of whom from cancer. fAE and lung-heart function declined gradually over a decade through 2019, but deteriorated markedly in 2020: fAE dipped significantly from 4.6–4.6 to 4.3–4.2; LVEF dipped to 58.4% versus the expected 60.3% (PDixon = 0.021, PGrubbs = 0.054); forced vital capacity dipped to 2.4 L vs. 2.6 L (PDixon = 0.043, PGrubbs = 0.181); carbon-monoxide diffusing capacity dipped to 12.6 mL/min/mmHg vs. 15.2 (PDixon = 0.008, PGrubbs = 0.006). In conclusion, excess non-cancer mortality was observed in 2020. Deaths in that year totaled one-third of the deaths in the previous decade, and revealed observable lung-heart deterioration. Full article
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Article
Ex Vivo Drug Sensitivity Correlates with Clinical Response and Supports Personalized Therapy in Pediatric AML
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246240 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that accounts for ~20% of all childhood leukemias, and more than 40% of children with AML relapse within three years of diagnosis. Although recent efforts have focused on developing a precise medicine-based approach towards treating [...] Read more.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that accounts for ~20% of all childhood leukemias, and more than 40% of children with AML relapse within three years of diagnosis. Although recent efforts have focused on developing a precise medicine-based approach towards treating AML in adults, there remains a critical gap in therapies designed specifically for children. Here, we present ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles for children with de novo AML using an automated flow cytometry platform. Fresh diagnostic blood or bone marrow aspirate samples were screened for sensitivity in response to 78 dose conditions by measuring the reduction in leukemic blasts relative to the control. In pediatric patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, comprising cytarabine, daunorubicin and etoposide (ADE), ex vivo drug sensitivity results correlated with minimal residual disease (r = 0.63) and one year relapse-free survival (r = 0.70; AUROC = 0.94). In the de novo ADE analysis cohort of 13 patients, AML cells showed greater sensitivity to bortezomib/panobinostat compared with ADE, and comparable sensitivity between venetoclax/azacitidine and ADE ex vivo. Two patients showed a differential response between ADE and bortezomib/panobinostat, thus supporting the incorporation of ex vivo drug sensitivity testing in clinical trials to further evaluate the predictive utility of this platform in children with AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
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Article
Different Oncologic Outcomes in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Sporadic Colorectal Cancer: A Regression Analysis on 2073 Patients
Cancers 2022, 14(24), 6239; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14246239 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in the population aged ≤ 49 (early-onset CRC-EOCRC). Recent studies highlighted the biological and clinical differences between EOCRC and late-onset CRC (LOCRC-age ≥ 50), while comparative results about long-term survival are still debated. This study [...] Read more.
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in the population aged ≤ 49 (early-onset CRC-EOCRC). Recent studies highlighted the biological and clinical differences between EOCRC and late-onset CRC (LOCRC-age ≥ 50), while comparative results about long-term survival are still debated. This study aimed to investigate whether age of onset may impact on oncologic outcomes in a surgical population of sporadic CRC patients. Patients operated on for sporadic CRC from January 2010 to January 2022 were allocated to the EOCRC and LOCRC groups. The primary endpoint was the recurrence/progression-free survival (R/PFS). A total of 423 EOCRC and 1650 LOCRC was included. EOCRC had a worse R/PFS (p < 0.0001) and cancer specific survival (p < 0.0001) compared with LOCRC. At Cox regression analysis, age of onset, tumoral stage, signet ring cells, extramural/lymphovascular/perineural veins invasion, and neoadjuvant therapy were independent risk factors for R/P. The analysis by tumoral stage showed an increased incidence of recurrence in stage I EOCRC (p = 0.014), and early age of onset was an independent predictor for recurrence (p = 0.035). Early age of onset was an independent predictor for worse prognosis, this effect was stronger in stage I patients suggesting a potentially—and still unknown—more aggressive tumoral phenotype in EOCRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology)
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