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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2015)

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Open AccessArticle
Real Time Monitoring of Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis by (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8871-8886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105437 - 27 Oct 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Little is known about the effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on angiogenesis in adipocytes. We aimed to test the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipocytes. The levels of VEGF secretion, the expression of VEGF message ribonucleic [...] Read more.
Little is known about the effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on angiogenesis in adipocytes. We aimed to test the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipocytes. The levels of VEGF secretion, the expression of VEGF message ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and VEGF protein in 3T3-L1 cells were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The xCELLigence real time cell analysis system was used to study the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A coculture system was used to test the effects of 3T3-L1 cells on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The conditioned media derived from 3T3-L1 cells treated with or without EGCG was used to culture the HUVECs for a tube formation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), two transcription factors related to both adipogenesis and angiogenesis, were examined to explore the potential mechanism. We found that all the three measurements of VEGF expression in adipocytes (mRNA, protein and secretion in media) were reduced after EGCG treatment. The growth of HUVECs co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells was significantly increased and the conditioned media from EGCG treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited tube formation in HUVECs. Both PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in adipocytes were decreased with EGCG treatment. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that EGCG may inhibit angiogenesis by regulating VEGF expression and secretion in adipocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8859-8870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105436 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8846-8858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105435 - 26 Oct 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4771
Abstract
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we [...] Read more.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD) into seeds (OSD) and skins (OSK), and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively) were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA) and urea nitrogen (BUN), enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8830-8845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105430 - 23 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3674
Abstract
Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years [...] Read more.
Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immune-Relevant and Antioxidant Activities of Vitellogenin and Yolk Proteins in Fish
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8818-8829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105432 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
Vitellogenin (Vtg), the major egg yolk precursor protein, is traditionally thought to provide protein- and lipid-rich nutrients for developing embryos and larvae. However, the roles of Vtg as well as its derived yolk proteins lipovitellin (Lv) and phosvitin (Pv) extend beyond nutritional functions. [...] Read more.
Vitellogenin (Vtg), the major egg yolk precursor protein, is traditionally thought to provide protein- and lipid-rich nutrients for developing embryos and larvae. However, the roles of Vtg as well as its derived yolk proteins lipovitellin (Lv) and phosvitin (Pv) extend beyond nutritional functions. Accumulating data have demonstrated that Vtg, Lv and Pv participate in host innate immune defense with multifaceted functions. They can all act as multivalent pattern recognition receptors capable of identifying invading microbes. Vtg and Pv can also act as immune effectors capable of killing bacteria and virus. Moreover, Vtg and Lv are shown to possess phagocytosis-promoting activity as opsonins. In addition to these immune-relevant functions, Vtg and Pv are found to have antioxidant activity, which is able to protect the host from oxidant stress. These non-nutritional functions clearly deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the molecules, and at the same time, provide a sound basis for potential application of the molecules in human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8802-8817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105433 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. [...] Read more.
Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8783-8801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105431 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4318
Abstract
Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention [...] Read more.
Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supplementation of Antipsychotic Treatment with the Amino Acid Sarcosine Influences Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Parameters in Left Frontal White Matter in Patients with Schizophrenia
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8767-8782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105427 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid [...] Read more.
Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. 1H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T) was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase of NAA/Cr ratio in the WM of the left frontal lobe. Our results further support the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomics Analysis to Identify and Characterize the Molecular Signatures of Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Rats as a Model of Postmenopausal Status
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8752-8766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105434 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Postmenopausal women are particularly at increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we aimed to determine the impact of postmenopausal-induced NAFLD (PM-NAFLD) in an ovariectomized rat model. Sixteen six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into two groups (eight per [...] Read more.
Postmenopausal women are particularly at increased risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we aimed to determine the impact of postmenopausal-induced NAFLD (PM-NAFLD) in an ovariectomized rat model. Sixteen six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into two groups (eight per group), for sham-operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx). Four months after surgery, indices of liver damage and liver histomorphometry were measured. Both serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranferease (ALT) levels were significantly higher in the Ovx than Sham group. We performed quantitative LC-MS/MS-based proteomic profiling of livers from rats with PM-NAFLD to provide baseline knowledge of the PM-NAFLD proteome and to investigate proteins involved in PM-NAFLD by ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) to provide corroborative evidence for differential regulation of molecular and cellular functions affecting metabolic processes. Of the 586 identified proteins, the levels of 59 (10.0%) and 48 (8.2%) were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the Ovx group compared to the Sham group. In conclusion, the changes in regulation of proteins implicated in PM-NAFLD may affect other vital biological processes in the body apart from causing postmenopause-mediated liver dysfunction. Our quantitative proteomics analysis may also suggest potential biomarkers and further clinical applications for PM-NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Spectrum of Differences between Childhood and Adulthood Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8733-8751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105426 - 22 Oct 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6308
Abstract
An old saying states that ‘’children are not little adults” and this certainly holds true for celiac disease, as there are many peculiar aspects regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentations, associated diseases, and response to treatment in pediatric compared to adult populations, to [...] Read more.
An old saying states that ‘’children are not little adults” and this certainly holds true for celiac disease, as there are many peculiar aspects regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentations, associated diseases, and response to treatment in pediatric compared to adult populations, to such an extent that it merits a description of its own. In fact, contrary to the past when it was thought that celiac disease was a disorder predominantly affecting childhood and characterized by a malabsorption syndrome, nowadays it is well recognized that it affects also adult and elderly people with an impressive variability of clinical presentation. In general, the clinical guidelines for diagnosis recommend starting with specific serologic testing in all suspected subjects, including those suffering from extraintestinal related conditions, and performing upper endoscopy with appropriate biopsy sampling of duodenal mucosa in case of positivity. The latter may be omitted in young patients showing high titers of anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The subsequent management of a celiac patient differs substantially depending on the age at diagnosis and should be based on the important consideration that this is a lifelong condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8723-8732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105428 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of [...] Read more.
Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8716-8722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105429 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3715
Abstract
The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the [...] Read more.
The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditorial
Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8712-8715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105424 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the [...] Read more.
In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8700-8711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105421 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8685-8699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105420 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6708
Abstract
The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not [...] Read more.
The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
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Open AccessArticle
The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8670-8684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105423 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8657-8669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105422 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated [...] Read more.
Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8645-8656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105425 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2606
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8633-8644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105418 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4123
Abstract
Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association [...] Read more.
Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8615-8632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105417 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3577
Abstract
In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption [...] Read more.
In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8602-8614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105413 - 19 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet [...] Read more.
Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8592-8601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105416 - 19 Oct 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Medication [...] Read more.
Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41). Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02). PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95). PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021) over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8577-8591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105415 - 19 Oct 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8565-8576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105414 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5589
Abstract
An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to [...] Read more.
An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media “television”, mass media “internet”, home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Association of a Mediterranean-Style Diet Pattern with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Status in a Community Cohort Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8553-8564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105419 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6140
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women. While lifestyle management is first-line treatment in PCOS, the dietary intake of women with PCOS is unclear and there is no research assessing dietary patterns of women with and without PCOS. The [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women. While lifestyle management is first-line treatment in PCOS, the dietary intake of women with PCOS is unclear and there is no research assessing dietary patterns of women with and without PCOS. The aim of this study was to examine dietary patterns in a large cohort of women with and without PCOS. Data were from 7569 participants in the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health population assessed at 2009 (Survey 5) (n = 414 PCOS, n = 7155 non-PCOS). Dietary patterns were evaluated using factor analysis and multiple logistic regressions assessed their associations with PCOS status. Three dietary patterns were identified that explained 27% of the variance in food intake between women with and without PCOS: Non-core foods; Meats and take-away and Mediterranean-style. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern was independently associated with PCOS status. On adjusted analysis for each 1 SD increase in the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, there was a 26% greater likelihood that women had PCOS. This may indicate an improvement in the quality of dietary intake following a diagnosis of PCOS. Future research should examine the contribution of dietary patterns to the incidence and severity of PCOS and the potential for modification of dietary patterns in the lifestyle management of PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Predictors of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency in Mothers and Newborns in Uganda
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8545-8552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105408 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers [...] Read more.
Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy is a serious but preventable cause of mortality or permanent disability. Lack of epidemiologic data for VKDB in sub-Saharan Africa hinders development and implementation of effective prevention strategies. We used convenience sampling to consecutively enroll mothers delivering in a southwestern Uganda Hospital. We collected socio-demographic and dietary information, and paired samples of maternal venous and neonatal cord blood for the immunoassay of undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II), a sensitive marker of functional vitamin K (VK) insufficiency. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to identify predictors of VK insufficiency. We detected PIVKA-II of ≥0.2 AU (Arbitrary Units per mL)/mL (indicative of VK insufficiency) in 33.3% (47/141) of mothers and 66% (93/141) of newborns. Importantly, 22% of babies had PIVKA-II concentrations ≥5.0 AU/mL, likely to be associated with abnormal coagulation indices. We found no significant predictors of newborn VK insufficiency, including infant weight (AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 1.85, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.15–22.49), gender (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26–1.11), term birth (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.20–2.62), maternal VK-rich diet (AOR 1.13, 95% CI 0.55–2.35) or maternal VK insufficiency (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.47–2.10). VK insufficiency is common among mothers and newborn babies in southwestern Uganda, which in one fifth of babies nears overt deficiency. Lack of identifiable predictors of newborn VK insufficiency support strategies for universal VK prophylaxis to newborns to prevent VKDB. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8532-8544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105411 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3935
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8518-8531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105412 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Leaf Extract on Staphylococcal Adhesion and Invasion in Bovine Udder Epidermal Tissue Model
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8503-8517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105410 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
Bovine mastitis is one of the most important infectious diseases in dairy herds, and staphylococci are the most important etiologic agents of this disease. Antibiotics and chemical agents used in livestock for prevention and cure of the disease can accumulate in milk and [...] Read more.
Bovine mastitis is one of the most important infectious diseases in dairy herds, and staphylococci are the most important etiologic agents of this disease. Antibiotics and chemical agents used in livestock for prevention and cure of the disease can accumulate in milk and give rise to food safety concerns. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract was studied as an alternative approach to reduce the bacterial infections. The ethanolic extract of this plant demonstrated antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 16–64 μg/mL against staphylococcal isolates. In addition, the extract had an effect on the bacterial cell surface properties by increasing its hydrophobicity in a concentration dependent manner. To further extend the antibacterial efficacy, silver nanoparticles synthesized with the extract, a pure rhodomyrtone, and liposomal encapsulated rhodomyrtone were applied and their inhibitory effects on bacterial adhesion and invasion were determined by ex vivo study in a bovine udder epidermal tissue model. These agents exerted remarkable antibacterial activity against staphylococci and decreased the adhesion of the bacterial cells to the tissues. These results supported that R. tomentosa ethanolic extract could be applied as an alternative agent for bovine udder care in dairy farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8491-8502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105407 - 14 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized [...] Read more.
Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Full article
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