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Open AccessArticle

Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

1
Food Science Program, Division of Food Systems and Bioengineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, School of Medicine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8700-8711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105421
Received: 26 July 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; satiety; beverage; gel; food intake. whey protein; satiety; beverage; gel; food intake.
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Zhang, S.; Leidy, H.J.; Vardhanabhuti, B. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8700-8711.

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