The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro
study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum
lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs.
CON (all, p
< 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs.
CON (all, p
< 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs.
Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs.
CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
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