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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2015)

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Open AccessReview A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8227-8250; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095389
Received: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2648 | PDF Full-text (1478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan
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One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Open AccessReview Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8199-8226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095388
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 7808 | PDF Full-text (745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein
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Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8189-8198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095390
Received: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3281 | PDF Full-text (94 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of
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Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8170-8188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095386
Received: 23 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3080 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60
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Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI) status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat) was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Rutin Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis with AMPK Activation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8152-8169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095385
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3812 | PDF Full-text (1469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decreased mitochondrial number and dysfunction in skeletal muscle are associated with obesity and the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The specific aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of rutin on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese
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Decreased mitochondrial number and dysfunction in skeletal muscle are associated with obesity and the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The specific aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of rutin on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Supplementation with rutin reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, despite equivalent energy intake (p < 0.05). Rutin significantly increased mitochondrial size and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as well as gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), transcription factor A (Tfam), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, sirtulin1 (SIRT1) in skeletal muscle (p < 0.05). Moreover, rutin consumption increased muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by 40% (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggested at least partial involvement of muscle mitochondria and AMPK activation in the rutin-mediated beneficial effect on obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function by Vitamin D
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8127-8151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095383
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3561 | PDF Full-text (942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies over the last two decades have revealed profound immunomodulatory aspects of vitamin D on various aspects of the immune system. This review will provide an overview of Vitamin D metabolism, a description of dendritic cell subsets, and highlight recent advances on the
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Studies over the last two decades have revealed profound immunomodulatory aspects of vitamin D on various aspects of the immune system. This review will provide an overview of Vitamin D metabolism, a description of dendritic cell subsets, and highlight recent advances on the effects of vitamin D on dendritic cell function, maturation, cytokine production and antigen presentation. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, has important immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Specifically, the 1,25(OH)2D3-Vitamin D3 complex can affect the maturation and migration of many dendritic cell subsets, conferring a special immunoregulatory role as well as tolerogenic properties affecting cytokine and chemokine production. Furthermore, there have been many recent studies demonstrating the effects of Vitamin D on allergic disease and autoimmunity. A clear understanding of the effects of the various forms of Vitamin D will provide new opportunities to improve human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
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Open AccessArticle Duality of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Mcp-1 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle: A Potential Role of 4-Hydroxy Hexenal
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8112-8126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095381
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2335 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have protective effects against atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 is a major inflammatory mediator in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the regulation of MCP-1 by DHA
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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have protective effects against atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 is a major inflammatory mediator in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the regulation of MCP-1 by DHA and EPA in vessels and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we compared the effect of DHA and EPA on the expression of Mcp-1 in rat arterial strips and rat VSMCs. DHA, but not EPA, suppressed Mcp-1 expression in arterial strips. Furthermore, DHA generated 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), an end product of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in arterial strips as measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed Mcp-1 expression in arterial strips, suggesting 4-HHE derived from DHA may be involved in the mechanism of this phenomenon. In contrast, Mcp-1 expression was stimulated by DHA, EPA and 4-HHE through p38 kinase and the Keap1-Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway in VSMCs. In conclusion, there is a dual effect of n-3 PUFAs on the regulation of Mcp-1 expression. Further study is necessary to elucidate the pathological role of this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8090-8111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095384
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3182 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now
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The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
Open AccessArticle Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8072-8089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095382
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2226 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study
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Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8058-8071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095378
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2144 | PDF Full-text (126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods,
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Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Behaviours, Impulsivity and Food Involvement: Identification of Three Consumer Segments
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8036-8057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095379
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2522 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was
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This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was 49.2 ± 16.6 years, and 27% were tertiary educated. Two-stage cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments; “impulsive, involved” (33.4%), “rational, health conscious” (39.2%), and “uninvolved” (27.4%). The “impulsive, involved” segment was characterised by higher levels of impulsivity and food involvement (importance of food) compared to the other two segments. This segment also reported significantly more frequent consumption of fast foods, takeaways, convenience meals, salted snacks and use of ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking compared to the “rational, health conscious” consumers. They also reported higher frequency of preparing meals at home, cooking from scratch, using ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking and higher vegetable consumption compared to the “uninvolved” consumers. The findings show the need for customised approaches to the communication and promotion of healthy eating habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
Open AccessReview Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8020-8035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095380
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 9631 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and
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Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance: Biology, Genetics and Dietary Management)
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Open AccessArticle A Modelling Approach to Estimate the Impact of Sodium Reduction in Soups on Cardiovascular Health in the Netherlands
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 8010-8019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095375
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2545 | PDF Full-text (95 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as
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Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, which could be lowered by reducing dietary sodium. The potential health impact of a product reformulation in the Netherlands was modelled, selecting packaged soups containing on average 25% less sodium as an example of an achievable product reformulation when implemented gradually. First, the blood pressure lowering resulting from sodium intake reduction was modelled. Second, the predicted blood pressure lowering was translated into potentially preventable incidence and mortality cases from stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina pectoris, and heart failure (HF) implementing one year salt reduction. Finally, the potentially preventable subsequent lifetime Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated. The sodium reduction in soups might potentially reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke by approximately 0.5%, AMI and angina by 0.3%, and HF by 0.2%. The related burden of disease could be reduced by approximately 800 lifetime DALYs. This modelling approach can be used to provide insight into the potential public health impact of sodium reduction in specific food products. The data demonstrate that an achievable food product reformulation to reduce sodium can potentially benefit public health, albeit modest. When implemented across multiple product categories and countries, a significant health impact could be achieved. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Patterns and the Indicators of Obesity among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7995-8009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095376
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2396 | PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of
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No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, east China. In this cross-sectional study of 2560 subjects aged 45–60 years, dietary intakes were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). All anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. The partial correlation analysis was performed to assess the associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and obesity, with adjustment for potential confounders. Four major dietary patterns were extracted by means of factor analysis: animal food, traditional Chinese, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. The animal food pattern was positively associated with BMI (r = 0.082, 0.144, respectively, p < 0.05) and WC (r = 0.102, 0.132, respectively, p < 0.01), and the traditional Chinese pattern was inversely associated with BMI (r = −0.047, −0.116, respectively, p < 0.05) and WC (r = −0.067, −0.113, respectively, p < 0.05) in both genders. After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater odds ratio for abdominal obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.188–2.340; p < 0.01), in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern, the highest quartile had a lower odds ratio for abdominal obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.441–0.901, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the animal food pattern was associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity, while the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a lower risk of abdominal obesity. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7978-7994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095377
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4591 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75) versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day
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Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75) versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons. Full article
Open AccessReview Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7965-7977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095374
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3105 | PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and,
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The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be diminished. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis)
Open AccessReview Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7925-7964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095371
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4148 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food
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The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7914-7924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095373
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
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Abstract
Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database
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Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7889-7913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095372
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3100 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus,
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Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Evaluation of A Priori Dietary Indexes
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7863-7888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095367
Received: 11 July 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects
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The aim of this paper is to analyze the a priori dietary indexes used in the studies that have evaluated the role of the Mediterranean Diet in influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. All the studies show that this dietary pattern protects against cardiovascular disease, but studies show quite different effects on specific conditions such as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. A priori dietary indexes used to measure dietary exposure imply quantitative and/or qualitative divergences from the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, and, therefore, it is very difficult to compare the results of different studies. Based on real cultural heritage and traditions, we believe that the a priori indexes used to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet should consider classifying whole grains and refined grains, olive oil and monounsaturated fats, and wine and alcohol differently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7842-7862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095370
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2862 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived
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The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Zingiber Zerumbet Rhizome Extracts Protects against the Breakdown of the Blood-Retinal Barrier and Retinal Inflammation Induced by Diabetes
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7821-7841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095369
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2438 | PDF Full-text (4213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day) for
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The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day) for three months. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and increased vascular permeability were found in diabetic rats, with downregulation of occludin, and claudin-5. ZZRext treatment effectively preserved the expression of occludin, and claudin-5, leading to less BRB breakdown and less vascular permeability. Retinal histopathological observation showed that the disarrangement and reduction in thickness of retinal layers were reversed in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Retinal gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were all decreased in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, ZZRext treatment not only inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, but also downregulated the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in diabetic retina. In conclusion, the results suggest that the retinal protective effects of ZZRext occur through improved retinal structural change and inhibiting retinal inflammation. The antiretinopathy property of ZZRext might be related to the downregulation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signal transduction induced by diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids, Inflammation and Immune System)
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Open AccessReview The Relationship between Serum Zinc Level and Preeclampsia: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7806-7820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095366
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2350 | PDF Full-text (1353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The association between serum zinc level and preeclampsia (PE) remains controversial. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English from January 1990 to April 2015. Observational
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The association between serum zinc level and preeclampsia (PE) remains controversial. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English from January 1990 to April 2015. Observational studies evaluating the association between serum zinc level and PE were included. The I2 was used to assess heterogeneity and the random effect model (REM) was adopted as the pooling method. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the association between serum zinc level and PE. Seventeen observational studies were included. Compared with healthy pregnancy controls, PE patients have lower serum zinc level in 14 studies about total PE (SMD (95% CI): −0.587 (−0.963, −0.212), Z = 3.06, p for Z = 0.002; I2 = 88.4%, p for I2 < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, a lower serum zinc level in PE patients compared with healthy pregnancy controls was observed in studies conducted in Asia, studies with zinc level measured in serum, and studies involving fasting participants. The SMD did not differ significantly between studies with healthy pregnancy controls matched by individual age (yes or no), and by individual gestational age (yes or no), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that serum zinc level in PE patients is significantly lower than that in healthy pregnancy controls. A moderate amount of zinc supplementation during pregnancy is advocated to reduce the incidence of PE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cutaneous Manifestations of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: Clinical Histological and Immunopathological Features
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7798-7805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095368
Received: 14 June 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3232 | PDF Full-text (91 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: The dermatological manifestations associated with intestinal diseases are becoming more frequent, especially now when new clinical entities, such as Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS), are identified. The existence of this new entity is still debated. However, many patients with diagnosed NCGS that present
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Background: The dermatological manifestations associated with intestinal diseases are becoming more frequent, especially now when new clinical entities, such as Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS), are identified. The existence of this new entity is still debated. However, many patients with diagnosed NCGS that present intestinal manifestations have skin lesions that need appropriate characterization. Methods: We involved 17 patients affected by NCGS with non-specific cutaneous manifestations who got much better after a gluten free diet. For a histopathological and immunopathological evaluation, two skin samples from each patient and their clinical data were collected. Results: The median age of the 17 enrolled patients affected by NCGS was 36 years and 76% of them were females. On the extensor surfaces of upper and lower limbs in particular, they all presented very itchy dermatological manifestations morphologically similar to eczema, psoriasis or dermatitis herpetiformis. This similarity was also confirmed histologically, but the immunopathological analysis showed the prevalence of deposits of C3 along the dermo-epidermal junction with a microgranular/granular pattern (82%). Conclusions: The exact characterization of new clinical entities such as Cutaneous Gluten Sensitivity and NCGS is an important objective both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, since these are patients who actually benefit from a GFD (Gluten Free Diet) and who do not adopt it only for fashion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7781-7797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095364
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2463 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between
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Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
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Open AccessArticle Antihyperglycemic Effect of Methanol Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight.) Leaf in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7764-7780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095365
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3604 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum), a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of
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Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum), a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME) of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs) by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7749-7763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095363
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5961 | PDF Full-text (2205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until
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Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7729-7748; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095359
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 26 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4474 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural
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Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. Full article
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Open AccessReview Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7708-7728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095361
Received: 21 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract
The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal
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The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7691-7707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095360
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract
Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C)
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Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. Full article
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