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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2014) , Pages 4640-5391

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Open AccessReview
Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5370-5391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115370
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3117 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutritional pathology. Moving forward, the reader should be able to incorporate some of the findings in this review into their own practice, research, teaching efforts or other interests in the fields of nutrition, diabetes, and/or bariatric (weight) management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
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Open AccessReview
Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Insights into Diabetes Etiopathogenesis
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5338-5369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115338
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6050 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene interactions at different levels, genetic predisposition and dietary factors appear to be involved. Nutritional genomics studies generally focus on dietary patterns according to genetic variations, the role of gene-nutrient interactions, gene-diet-phenotype interactions and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients; these studies will facilitate an understanding of the early molecular events that occur in DM and will contribute to the identification of better biomarkers and diagnostics tools. In particular, this approach will help to develop tailored diets that maximize the use of nutrients and other functional ingredients present in food, which will aid in the prevention and delay of DM and its complications. This review discusses the current state of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenomics research on DM. Here, we provide an overview of the role of gene variants and nutrient interactions, the importance of nutrients and dietary patterns on gene expression, how epigenetic changes and micro RNAs (miRNAs) can alter cellular signaling in response to nutrients and the dietary interventions that may help to prevent the onset of DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5327-5337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115327
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2778 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were [...] Read more.
Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control) and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively). Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food Addiction and Its Impact on Weight-Based Stigma and the Treatment of Obese Individuals in the U.S. and Australia
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5312-5326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115312
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3528 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is argued that food addiction explanations of obesity may reduce the significant stigma levelled at obese and overweight individuals. We surveyed 479 adults to determine the prevalence of food addiction in the U.S. (n = 215) and, for the first time, [...] Read more.
It is argued that food addiction explanations of obesity may reduce the significant stigma levelled at obese and overweight individuals. We surveyed 479 adults to determine the prevalence of food addiction in the U.S. (n = 215) and, for the first time, in Australia (n = 264) using the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). We also assessed the level of weight-based stigma in this population. The prevalence of food addiction in our Australian sample was 11%, similar to U.S. participants and consistent with previous studies. Those who met criteria for diagnosis had a larger mean BMI (33.8 kg/m2) than those who did not (26.5 kg/m2). Overall, the level of stigma towards others was low and differed significantly based on BMI, predominately among normal weight and obese participants (p = 0.0036). Obese individuals scored higher on certain measures of stigma, possibly reflecting individual experiences of stigma rather than negative attitudes towards other obese individuals (p = 0.0091). Despite significant support for a “food addiction” explanation of obesity, participants still valued personal responsibility in overcoming obesity and did not support coercive approaches to treat their “addiction”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
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Open AccessReview
Microbiome Associations of Therapeutic Enteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5298-5311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115298
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3237 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as “exclusive enteral nutrition” (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel [...] Read more.
One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as “exclusive enteral nutrition” (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN’s mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literature on the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and CD patients is reviewed with respect to EEN therapy. Further investigations in this field are needed to better understand the role and potential for EEN in chronic human disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5280-5297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115280
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3465 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced [...] Read more.
The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Fruit Fractions in Vitro, Mediated through Toll-Like Receptor 4 and 2 in the Context of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5265-5279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115265
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2533 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are important in detecting and responding to stress and bacterial stimuli. Defect or damage in the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways can lead to sustained inflammation, characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). [...] Read more.
Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) are important in detecting and responding to stress and bacterial stimuli. Defect or damage in the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways can lead to sustained inflammation, characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to identify fruit fractions that can be tested further to develop them as complementary therapies for IBD. In order to do this, we identified fruit fractions that mediate their anti-inflammatory response through the TLR4 and TLR2 pathway. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK)-hTLR4 and hTLR2 cells were stimulated with their respective ligands to induce inflammation. These cells were treated with one of the 12 fractionated fruits and the inflammatory effect measured. 10 of the fruits came up as anti-inflammatory in the hTLR4 assay and nine in the hTLR2 assays. Many of the fruit fractions mediated their anti-inflammatory actions either mainly in their hydrophobic fractions (such as elderberry) or hydrophilic fractions (such as red raspberry), or both. The strongest anti-inflammatory effects were seen for feijoa and blackberry. This study shows that fruits can have multiple fractions eliciting anti-inflammatory effects in a pathway specific manner. This suggests that the compounds found in fruits can act together to produce health benefits by way of reducing inflammation. Exploiting this property of fruits can help develop complimentary therapies for inflammatory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nitrate Ingestion: A Review of the Health and Physical Performance Effects
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5224-5264; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115224
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 6191 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the current literature and scientific evidence surrounding inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation and its potential for improving human health and physical performance. As indicative of the ever-expanding organic and natural food consumer market, athletes and [...] Read more.
This paper provides an overview of the current literature and scientific evidence surrounding inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation and its potential for improving human health and physical performance. As indicative of the ever-expanding organic and natural food consumer market, athletes and health enthusiasts alike are constantly searching for ingredient-specific “super foods” and dietary supplements capable of eliciting health and performance benefits. Evidence suggests that NO3 is the viable active component within beetroot juice (BRJ) and other vegetables, responsible for health-promoting and ergogenic effects. Indeed, multiple studies support NO3 supplementation as an effective method to improve exercise performance. NO3 supplementation (either as BRJ or sodium nitrate [NaNO3]) has also demonstrated modest benefits pertaining to cardiovascular health, such as reducing blood pressure (BP), enhancing blood flow, and elevating the driving pressure of O2 in the microcirculation to areas of hypoxia or exercising tissue. These findings are important to cardiovascular medicine/exercise physiology and suggest a possible role for NO3 supplementation: (1) as a low-cost prevention and treatment intervention for patients suffering from blood flow disorders; and (2) an effective, natural ergogenic aid for athletes. Benefits have been noted following a single bolus, as well as daily supplementation of NO3. While results are promising, additional research is needed to determine the impact of NO3 supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance, to identify principle relationships between isolated nitrate and other ingredients found in nitrate-rich vegetables (e.g., vitamin C, polyphenols, fatty acids, thiocyanate), to explore the specific dose-response relationships needed to elicit health and ergogenic benefits, to prolong the supplementation period beyond a relatively short period (i.e., >15 days), to determine if more robust effects can be observed with longer-term treatment, and to fully examine the safety of chronic NO3 supplementation, as this continues to be a concern of some. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5184-5223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115184
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 3943 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5153-5183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115153
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 7127 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for [...] Read more.
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
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Open AccessReview
Evaluation of the Role of Enteral Nutrition in Managing Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5142-5152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115142
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4112 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed. The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and globally partly due to lack of physical activities, poor dietary regimes and genetic susceptibility. The development of diabetes often leads to complications such as stroke, which may require enteral nutritional support. The provision of enteral feeds comes with its complications including hyperglycaemia which if not managed can have profound consequences for the patients in terms of clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed with respect to the type and composition of the feed. This is a systematic review of published peer reviewed articles. EBSCOhost Research, PubMed and SwetsWise databases were searched. Reference lists of identified articles were reviewed. Randomised controlled trials comparing enteral nutrition diabetes specific formulas with standard formulas were included. The studies which compared diabetes specific formulas (DSF) with standard formulas showed that DSF was more effective in controlling glucose profiles including postprandial glucose, HbA1c and insulinemic response. The use of DSF appears to be effective in managing patients with diabetes on enteral feed compared with standard feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5117-5141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115117
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4027 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or [...] Read more.
Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5103-5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115103
Received: 17 August 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4064 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students [...] Read more.
Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5079-5102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115079
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2818 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of [...] Read more.
Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Health: A Public Health Issue)
Open AccessArticle
Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Serum Selenium Concentrations Predict WHO Stages 3, 4 or Death but not Virologic Failure Post-Antiretroviral Therapy
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5061-5078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115061
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 13 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2812 | PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression after ART initiation. [...] Read more.
A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression after ART initiation. Cases were HIV-1 infected adults with either clinical failure (incident World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3, 4 or death by 96 weeks) or virologic failure by 24 months. Risk factors for serum selenium deficiency (<85 μg/L) pre-ART and its association with outcomes were examined. Median serum selenium concentration was 82.04 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR): 57.28–99.89) and serum selenium deficiency was 53%, varying widely by country from 0% to 100%. In multivariable models, risk factors for serum selenium deficiency were country, previous tuberculosis, anemia, and elevated C-reactive protein. Serum selenium deficiency was not associated with either clinical failure or virologic failure in multivariable models. However, relative to people in the third quartile (74.86–95.10 μg/L) of serum selenium, we observed increased hazards (adjusted hazards ratio (HR): 3.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.30–9.42) of clinical failure but not virologic failure for people in the highest quartile. If future studies confirm this relationship of high serum selenium with increased clinical failure, a cautious approach to selenium supplementation might be needed, especially in HIV-infected populations with sufficient or unknown levels of selenium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5051-5060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115051
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3551 | PDF Full-text (1305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed [...] Read more.
Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Fortification and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Interactions between C-Reactive Protein Genotypes with Markers of Nutritional Status in Relation to Inflammation
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5034-5050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115034
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2801 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single [...] Read more.
Inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations (CRP), is a risk factor for chronic diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors affect susceptibility to inflammation. As dietary interventions can influence inflammatory status, we hypothesized that dietary effects could be influenced by interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene. We determined 12 CRP SNPs, as well as various nutrition status markers in 2010 black South Africans and analyzed their effect on CRP. Interactions were observed for several genotypes with obesity in determining CRP. Lipid intake modulated the pro-inflammatory effects of some SNPs, i.e., an increase in both saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid intake in those homozygous for the polymorphic allele at rs2808630 was associated with a larger increase in CRP. Those harboring the minor alleles at rs3093058 and rs3093062 presented with significantly higher CRP in the presence of increased triglyceride or cholesterol intake. When harboring the minor allele of these SNPs, a high omega-6 to -3 ratio was, however, found to be anti-inflammatory. Carbohydrate intake also modulated CRP SNPs, as HbA1C and fasting glucose levels interacted with some SNPs to influence the CRP. This investigation highlights the impact that nutritional status can have on reducing the inherent genetic susceptibility to a heightened systemic inflammatory state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5018-5033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6115018
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5825 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated [...] Read more.
Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation in human observational and intervention studies. Overall, it would seem that total calorie consumption, rather than dietary fat composition, is an important factor in the development of fatty liver disease in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin A Deficiency and Alterations in the Extracellular Matrix
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4984-5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114984
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5048 | PDF Full-text (4779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for [...] Read more.
Vitamin A or retinol which is the natural precursor of several biologically active metabolites can be considered the most multifunctional vitamin in mammals. Its deficiency is currently, along with protein malnutrition, the most serious and common nutritional disorder worldwide. It is necessary for normal embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis, and exerts important effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These actions are produced mainly by regulating the expression of a variety of proteins through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Extracellular matrix proteins are among those whose synthesis is known to be modulated by vitamin A. Retinoic acid, the main biologically active form of vitamin A, influences the expression of collagens, laminins, entactin, fibronectin, elastin and proteoglycans, which are the major components of the extracellular matrix. Consequently, the structure and macromolecular composition of this extracellular compartment is profoundly altered as a result of vitamin A deficiency. As cell behavior, differentiation and apoptosis, and tissue mechanics are influenced by the extracellular matrix, its modifications potentially compromise organ function and may lead to disease. This review focuses on the effects of lack of vitamin A in the extracellular matrix of several organs and discusses possible molecular mechanisms and pathologic implications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Annatto Tocotrienol Improves Indices of Bone Static Histomorphometry in Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency in Rats
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4974-4983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114974
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 18 October 2014 / Accepted: 22 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3593 | PDF Full-text (108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on indices of bone static histomorphometry in orchidectomized rats. Forty male rats were randomized into baseline (BL), sham (SH), orchidectomized (ORX), annatto tocotrienol-treated (AnTT) and testosterone enanthate-treated (TE) groups. The BL group was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on indices of bone static histomorphometry in orchidectomized rats. Forty male rats were randomized into baseline (BL), sham (SH), orchidectomized (ORX), annatto tocotrienol-treated (AnTT) and testosterone enanthate-treated (TE) groups. The BL group was sacrificed upon receipt. All rats except the SH group underwent bilateral orchidectomy. Annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily to the AnTT group for eight weeks. Testosterone enanthate at 7 mg/kg body weight was administered intramuscularly once weekly for eight weeks to the TE group. The rat femurs were collected for static histomorphometric analysis upon necropsy. The results indicated that the ORX group had significantly higher osteoclast surface and eroded surface, and significantly lower osteoblast surface, osteoid surface and osteoid volume compared to the SH group (p < 0.05). Annatto tocotrienol and testosterone enanthate intervention prevented all these changes (p < 0.05). The efficacy of annatto tocotrienol was on par with testosterone enanthate. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg can prevent the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by increased osteoclast and bone resorption, and decreased osteoblast and bone formation. This serves as a basis for the application of annatto tocotrienol in hypogonadal men as an antiosteoporotic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4961-4973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114961
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2903 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31–0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36–1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15–0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39–1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status. Full article
Open AccessReview
Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4935-4960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114935
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4722 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide [...] Read more.
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4918-4934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114918
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3041 | PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA [...] Read more.
Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical Validation of the Older Australian’s Food Frequency Questionnaire Using Carotenoids and Vitamin E
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4906-4917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114906
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2996 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is important, as inaccurate and imprecise information may affect the association between dietary exposure and health outcomes. Objective: This study assessed the validity of the Older Australian’s FFQ against plasma carotenoids and Vitamin E. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is important, as inaccurate and imprecise information may affect the association between dietary exposure and health outcomes. Objective: This study assessed the validity of the Older Australian’s FFQ against plasma carotenoids and Vitamin E. Methods: A random subsample (n = 150) of 2420 participants in the Hunter Community Study, aged 55–85 years, were included. Correlations between crude and energy-adjusted FFQ estimates of carotenoids, Vitamin E, and fruit and vegetables with corresponding biomarkers were determined. Percentages of participants correctly classified in the same quartile, and in the same ± 1 quartile, by the two methods were calculated. Results: Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for α-carotene (r = 0.26–0.28), β-carotene (r = 0.21–0.25), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.21–0.23). Intakes of fruits and vegetables also showed similar correlations with these plasma carotenoids. Lycopene was only significantly correlated with fruit and vegetable intakes (r = 0.19–0.23). Weak correlations were observed for lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.12–0.16). For Vitamin E, significant correlation was observed for energy-adjusted FFQ estimate and biomarker (r = 0.20). More than 68% of individuals were correctly classified within the same or adjacent quartile, except for lutein + zeaxanthin. Conclusion: With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, the Older Australian’s FFQ provides reasonable rankings for individuals according to their carotenoids, Vitamin E, fruit and vegetable intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Differences in Exercise Dependence and Eating Disorders in Young Adults: A Path Analysis of a Conceptual Model
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4895-4905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114895
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3347 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating disorders. In females we observed significant direct effect between exercise behavior (r = −0.17, p = 0.009) and EXD (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed an indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.16) through EXD (r = 0.48, r2 = 0.23, p < 0.001). In females the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 9%. In males we observed a direct effect between EXD (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) on eating pathology. We also observed indirect effect of exercise behavior on eating pathology (r = 0.11) through EXD (r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24, p < 0.001). In males the total variance of eating pathology explained by the SEM model was 5%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antihypertensive Potential of Combined Extracts of Olive Leaf, Green Coffee Bean and Beetroot: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4881-4894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114881
Received: 19 September 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3585 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind [...] Read more.
Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis), blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Emirati Subjects
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4872-4880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114872
Received: 2 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2454 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are [...] Read more.
Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation and/or increased oxidative stress. A hundred diabetic patients who were part of a randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements had their baseline characteristics assessed from anthropometric and clinical data following informed written consent. We used WHO figures to classify general and central obesity. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of antioxidants and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation. We found that increased adiposity measured by both body mass index and waist circumference was associated with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and decreased vitamin C after adjusting for age, duration and treatment of diabetes (p < 0.05). Although there is a clear trend of increased inflammatory markers, notably CRP, and decreased antioxidants with increased BMI and waist circumference in both men and women, the results are statistically significant for women only. CRP were also inversely associated with HDL. Overall, we found that BMI underestimates the rates of obesity compared to waist circumference and that increased adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and decreased HDL and antioxidant status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycyrrhizic Acid Can Attenuate Metabolic Deviations Caused by a High-Sucrose Diet without Causing Water Retention in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4856-4871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114856
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 17 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2919 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without [...] Read more.
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without causing edema in rats fed on a high-sucrose diet. Groups of eight male rats were fed on one of three diets for 28 days: normal diet, a high-sucrose diet, or a high-sucrose diet supplemented with GA. Rats were then culled and renal 11β-HSD2 activity, as well as serum sodium, potassium, angiotensin II and leptin levels were determined. Histological analyses were performed to assess changes in adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous depots, as well as hepatic and renal tissue morphology. This dosing paradigm of GA attenuated the increases in serum leptin levels and visceral, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size caused by the high-sucrose diet. Although GA decreased renal 11β-HSD2 activity, it did not affect serum electrolyte or angiotensin II levels, indicating no onset of edema. Furthermore, there were no apparent morphological changes in the liver or kidney, indicating no toxicity. In conclusion, it is possible to reap metabolic benefits of GA without edema using the current dosage and treatment time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Proliferative Effects of Enterolactone in Prostate Cancer Cells: Evidence for the Role of DNA Licencing Genes, mi-R106b Cluster Expression, and PTEN Dosage
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4839-4855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114839
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3241 | PDF Full-text (876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mammalian lignan, enterolactone, has been shown to reduce the proliferation of the earlier stages of prostate cancer at physiological concentrations in vitro. However, efficacy in the later stages of the disease occurs at concentrations difficult to achieve through dietary modification. We [...] Read more.
The mammalian lignan, enterolactone, has been shown to reduce the proliferation of the earlier stages of prostate cancer at physiological concentrations in vitro. However, efficacy in the later stages of the disease occurs at concentrations difficult to achieve through dietary modification. We have therefore investigated what concentration(s) of enterolactone can restrict proliferation in multiple stages of prostate cancer using an in vitro model system of prostate disease. We determined that enterolactone at 20 μM significantly restricted the proliferation of mid and late stage models of prostate disease. These effects were strongly associated with changes in the expression of the DNA licencing genes (GMNN, CDT1, MCM2 and 7), in reduced expression of the miR-106b cluster (miR-106b, miR-93, and miR-25), and in increased expression of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene. We have shown anti-proliferative effects of enterolactone in earlier stages of prostate disease than previously reported and that these effects are mediated, in part, by microRNA-mediated regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4822-4838; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6114822
Received: 12 August 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 15644 | PDF Full-text (149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to [...] Read more.
This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan diets and Human health)
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