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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients

1
Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic, 16132 Genova, Italy
2
Pneumology Unit, IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic, 16132 Genova, Italy
3
Endocrinology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic, 16132 Genova, Italy
4
Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, VIB Inflammation Research Centre Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Carsten Carlberg
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030717
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Background and aim: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to correlate the 25OH-Vitamin D serum concentrations with clinical parameters of lung involvement, in elderly patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive COVID-19 patients (mean age 76 ± 13 years) and sixty-five sex- and age-matched control subjects (CNT) were analyzed. The following clinical parameters, including comorbidities, were collected at admission: type of pulmonary involvement, respiratory parameters (PaO2, SO2, PaCO2, PaO2/FiO2), laboratory parameters (including 25OH-vitamin D, D-dimer, C-reactive protein). Results: Significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in COVID-19 patients than in CNT (median 7.9 vs. 16.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Interestingly, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between vitamin D serum levels and PaO2 (p = 0.03), SO2 (p = 0.05), PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.02), while a statistically significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D serum levels and D-dimer (p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (p = 0.04) and percentage of O2 in a venturi mask (p = 0.04). A negative correlation was also observed between vitamin D serum levels and severity of radiologic pulmonary involvement, evaluated by computed tomography: in particular, vitamin D was found significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with either multiple lung consolidations (p = 0.0001) or diffuse/severe interstitial lung involvement than in those with mild involvement (p = 0.05). Finally, significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in the elderly COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization, compared to those who survived (median 3.0 vs. 8.4 ng/mL, p = 0.046). Conclusions: This study confirms that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. The detection of low vitamin D levels also in younger COVID-19 patients with less comorbidities further suggests vitamin D deficiency as crucial risk factor at any age. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; COVID-19; lung involvement; SARS-CoV-2; disease severity vitamin D; COVID-19; lung involvement; SARS-CoV-2; disease severity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sulli, A.; Gotelli, E.; Casabella, A.; Paolino, S.; Pizzorni, C.; Alessandri, E.; Grosso, M.; Ferone, D.; Smith, V.; Cutolo, M. Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients 2021, 13, 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030717

AMA Style

Sulli A, Gotelli E, Casabella A, Paolino S, Pizzorni C, Alessandri E, Grosso M, Ferone D, Smith V, Cutolo M. Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):717. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030717

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sulli, Alberto; Gotelli, Emanuele; Casabella, Andrea; Paolino, Sabrina; Pizzorni, Carmen; Alessandri, Elisa; Grosso, Marco; Ferone, Diego; Smith, Vanessa; Cutolo, Maurizio. 2021. "Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030717

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