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Open AccessArticle

Dairy-Derived Emulsifiers in Infant Formula Show Marginal Effects on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Brain Structure in Preterm Piglets Relative to Soy Lecithin

1
Comparative Pediatrics and Nutrition, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlægevej 68, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
2
Physiological Pharmaceutics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
3
Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Universitetsbyen 3, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
4
VILLUM Center for Bioanalytical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark
5
Arla Foods Ingredients, Sønderhøj 10-12, 8260 Viby J, Denmark
6
Bioneer:FARMA, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jordi Julvez
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030718
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 24 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Lipid Nutrients on Brain Function)
Breastfed infants have higher intestinal lipid absorption and neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to formula-fed infants, which may relate to a different surface layer structure of fat globules in infant formula. This study investigated if dairy-derived emulsifiers increased lipid absorption and neurodevelopment relative to soy lecithin in newborn preterm piglets. Piglets received a formula diet containing soy lecithin (SL) or whey protein concentrate enriched in extracellular vesicles (WPC-A-EV) or phospholipids (WPC-PL) for 19 days. Both WPC-A-EV and WPC-PL emulsions, but not the intact diets, increased in vitro lipolysis compared to SL. The main differences of plasma lipidomics analysis were increased levels of some sphingolipids, and lipid molecules with odd-chain (17:1, 19:1, 19:3) as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (16:1, 20:1, 20:3) in the WPC-A-EV and WPC-PL groups and increased 18:2 fatty acyls in the SL group. Indirect monitoring of intestinal triacylglycerol absorption showed no differences between groups. Diffusor tensor imaging measurements of mean diffusivity in the hippocampus were lower for WPC-A-EV and WPC-PL groups compared to SL indicating improved hippocampal maturation. No differences in hippocampal lipid composition or short-term memory were observed between groups. In conclusion, emulsification of fat globules in infant formula with dairy-derived emulsifiers altered the plasma lipid profile and hippocampal tissue diffusivity but had limited effects on other absorptive and learning abilities relative to SL in preterm piglets. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine whey phospholipids; polar lipids; neurodevelopment; brain; preterm; piglet; infant formula; emulsification; milk fat globule membrane; extracellular vesicles bovine whey phospholipids; polar lipids; neurodevelopment; brain; preterm; piglet; infant formula; emulsification; milk fat globule membrane; extracellular vesicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Henriksen, N.L.; Aasmul-Olsen, K.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Nygaard, M.K.E.; Sprenger, R.R.; Heckmann, A.B.; Ostenfeld, M.S.; Ejsing, C.S.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Müllertz, A.; Sangild, P.T.; Bering, S.B.; Thymann, T. Dairy-Derived Emulsifiers in Infant Formula Show Marginal Effects on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Brain Structure in Preterm Piglets Relative to Soy Lecithin. Nutrients 2021, 13, 718. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030718

AMA Style

Henriksen NL, Aasmul-Olsen K, Venkatasubramanian R, Nygaard MKE, Sprenger RR, Heckmann AB, Ostenfeld MS, Ejsing CS, Eskildsen SF, Müllertz A, Sangild PT, Bering SB, Thymann T. Dairy-Derived Emulsifiers in Infant Formula Show Marginal Effects on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Brain Structure in Preterm Piglets Relative to Soy Lecithin. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):718. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030718

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henriksen, Nicole L.; Aasmul-Olsen, Karoline; Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Nygaard, Mikkel K.E.; Sprenger, Richard R.; Heckmann, Anne B.; Ostenfeld, Marie S.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Müllertz, Anette; Sangild, Per T.; Bering, Stine B.; Thymann, Thomas. 2021. "Dairy-Derived Emulsifiers in Infant Formula Show Marginal Effects on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Brain Structure in Preterm Piglets Relative to Soy Lecithin" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 718. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030718

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