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Open AccessArticle

Association between Haem and Non-Haem Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin in Healthy Young Women

Nutrition and Dietetics Group, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Faculty of Health Science, Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW 2414, Australia
Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2113, Australia
School of Exercise Science, Sport and Health, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia
Academic Department of Adolescent Medicine, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
Sydney Medical School, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
Metabolism and Obesity Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 81;
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy young (18–35 years) women (n = 299) to determine the association between both haem iron (HI) and non-haem iron (NHI) intakes and serum ferritin (SF). Dietary restraint and possible inflammation secondary to obesity were also measured and accounted for, and energy intake was adjusted for using the residuals method. Independent samples t-tests and chi-squared tests were performed, and factors found to be significantly different between iron replete (IR) and ID/IDA participants were analysed using general linear modelling. ID/IDA participants consumed significantly lower total energy than iron replete (IR) (p = 0.003). Lower energy intake was also associated with higher levels of dietary restraint (p = 0.001). Both HI and NHI were positively associated with SF with HI was found to be a stronger predictor (β = 0.128, p = 0.009) than NHI (β = 0.037, p = 0.028). The study demonstrates that intake of both HI and NHI, as well as adequate dietary energy, are associated with normal iron status levels in young women, and that restrained eaters may be at greater risk of low iron status. View Full-Text
Keywords: haem iron; non-haem iron; iron deficiency; young women; serum ferritin haem iron; non-haem iron; iron deficiency; young women; serum ferritin
MDPI and ACS Style

Young, I.; Parker, H.M.; Rangan, A.; Prvan, T.; Cook, R.L.; Donges, C.E.; Steinbeck, K.S.; O’Dwyer, N.J.; Cheng, H.L.; Franklin, J.L.; O’Connor, H.T. Association between Haem and Non-Haem Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin in Healthy Young Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 81.

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