Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 6488-7481

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-52
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7466-7481; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107466
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based
[...] Read more.
The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Limits—Urban Density and Mobility Networks in West Berlin during the Period of Containment
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7452-7465; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107452
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint
[...] Read more.
If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint of built-up land in urban areas forces this particular resource (space) to be used more efficiently—in a sense, compelling it to be more creative and productive. These spatial constraints on urban areas generate different kinds of densification processes within the existing city, propagating densification, and with it new patterns and uses in urban development, as well as novel approaches to mitigating the hazards of dense urban environments. This paper examines the case of how spatial containment in West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) produced such outcomes. West Berlin during this period can be considered a unique case of spatial containment, where a relatively large and vibrant modern city had to work around a clear and indelible limit to its physical expansion. This paper will discuss ways in which the containment influenced patterns of development in West Berlin toward densification and connectivity, focusing on the expansion of its infrastructural networks, and discuss the development of a new building culture around transformation and densification, including hybrid architectures and mitigation devices to deal with difficult sites produced by the densification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Density and Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7433-7451; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107433
Received: 24 August 2014 / Revised: 3 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise) due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper
[...] Read more.
Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise) due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP) or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1) the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2) administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3) the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4) planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Exploring the Impact of Complementary Assets on the Environmental Performance in Manufacturing SMEs
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7412-7432; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107412
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) on the environment increases, there is a need for effective environmental policies to sustain their development. Under this condition, SMEs implement innovation to meet environmental regulations and to achieve environmental competitiveness in sustainability. We
[...] Read more.
As the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) on the environment increases, there is a need for effective environmental policies to sustain their development. Under this condition, SMEs implement innovation to meet environmental regulations and to achieve environmental competitiveness in sustainability. We examine the impact of environmental innovation on labor productivity in SME manufacturers. The literature shows that complementary assets help SMEs to increase their performance in environmental innovation. Therefore, we study the interactive effects of the SMEs’ business-group affiliation and the listing status on the relationship between environmental innovation and labor productivity. We add these interaction terms to multivariate regressions by using the 2010 Korea Innovation Survey. The results show that SMEs are able to use environmental innovation as a business strategy for green growth with improved labor productivity. Also, the results highlight that the business-group affiliation and the listing status as the complementary assets positively moderate the performance of the environmental innovation of the SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Civil Society in Hybrid Governance: Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Legitimacy in Mediating Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Supply Chains in Honduras
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7388-7411; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107388
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As
[...] Read more.
This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As a result, NGOs’ service provision role has expanded to include market facilitation, often necessitating NGOs act as market intermediaries. This paper explores how this new role may jeopardize NGOs’ organizational legitimacy in the eyes of their constituents, other development organizations, and supermarket partners, and therefore ultimately affect their ability to represent civil society in hybrid governance arrangements. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the Central American country of Honduras, this paper focuses on NGOs’ role organizing producer associations to facilitate access to Wal-Mart supermarkets. Findings suggest that a lack of supply chain transparency, NGOs’ negotiation between commercial and aid-oriented goals, and the potential to exclude producers from development projects threaten NGOs’ legitimacy. These findings illustrate the difficulties of embedding philanthropic activities in market-based systems, and demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaborations may be influenced more by commercial priorities than the elements of a partnership. Ultimately, development NGOs are products of neoliberal, hybrid governance, even as their activities are expected to ease the transition of small-scale producers into this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agricultural Governance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7358-7387; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107358
Received: 3 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the
[...] Read more.
Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS). These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7334-7357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107334
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (19863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this
[...] Read more.
This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al.) ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Borderland Studies and Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7311-7333; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107311
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS)
[...] Read more.
Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS) with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cooperation or Competition? Channel Choice for a Remanufacturing Fashion Supply Chain with Government Subsidy
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7292-7310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107292
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 5 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1) provide the remanufactured products to a
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1) provide the remanufactured products to a manufacturer, then the manufacturer sells both new products and the remanufactured products to customers, and (2) sell the remanufactured products directly to customers. Because of the relatively low acceptance of remanufactured products and environment consciousness of customers in developing countries like China, we model the two scenarios as decentralized remanufacturing supply chains, with the manufacturer being the Stackelberg leader and the government offering subsidy to the remanufacturer to incentivize remanufacturing activities. We find that the subsidy can incentivize remanufacturing activity regardless of the remanufacturer’s channel choice. A “too high” or “too low” subsidy makes the remanufacturer compete with the manufacturer, and an intermediate subsidy results in cooperation between the two members of the remanufacturing supply chain. Meanwhile, if the customers’ acceptance for remanufactured products is higher, the remanufacturer will be more likely to compete with the manufacturer. However, the remanufacturer’s optimal channel choice may be inefficient in the sense of social welfare and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Initial Study on Triaxiality of Human Settlements—In the Case of 10 Districts (Counties) of Dalian
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7276-7291; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107276
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For a long time, the traditional pattern of urban-rural human settlements has been shaped in reference to the existence of the urban-rural dual structure. In this paper, we put forward the notion of triaxiality of human settlements, and used the standards conversion entropy
[...] Read more.
For a long time, the traditional pattern of urban-rural human settlements has been shaped in reference to the existence of the urban-rural dual structure. In this paper, we put forward the notion of triaxiality of human settlements, and used the standards conversion entropy weight method to measure and calculate degrees of livability of human settlements, so as to prove the existence of triaxiality of human settlements within the same unit at the micro-scale level, and conduct an empirical study on the spatial-temporal evolution, system attributes and formation mechanisms of the triaxiality of human settlements in 10 districts (counties) of Dalian (Years 2002–2011). Results showed that: (1) Spatial evolution of human settlements presents triaxiality. Administrative divisions do not play a full and predominant role in the unit division of human settlements. The number of distribution districts (counties) within different units of human settlements tends to be balanced, there is spatial variation of tertiary units in the human settlements of Dalian, and the transition area of human settlements occupies the leading position in the unit division of human settlements; (2) Human settlements also exhibit triaxiality at different development stages during the period of evolution. The fluctuation changes of degrees of livability of the human settlements of Dalian within the past 10 years have been relatively stable, with a trend of small scale decline and obvious manifestations of stage differences; (3) The system attributive characters of human settlements presents triaxiality. There also exists differentiations of system and area in human settlements within the same unit; (4) Industrialization and urbanization have led to the collapse of part of the urban-rural dual structure, while the differentiation of ternary structure of the economic and social structure, and living environment and life style leads to the triaxiality of human settlements. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wireless Sensor Network Powered by a Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell as a Sustainable Land Monitoring Energy System
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7263-7275; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107263
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims at investigating the possibility of a wireless sensor network powered by an energy harvesting technology, such as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). An MFC is a bioreactor that transforms energy stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds into electrical energy.
[...] Read more.
This work aims at investigating the possibility of a wireless sensor network powered by an energy harvesting technology, such as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). An MFC is a bioreactor that transforms energy stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds into electrical energy. This process takes place through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. An anode chamber together with a cathode chamber composes a conventional MFC reactor. The protons generated in the anode chamber are then transferred into the cathode chamber through a proton exchange membrane (PEM). A possible option is to use the soil itself as the membrane. In this case, we are referring to, more properly, a terrestrial microbial fuel cell (TMFC). This research examines the sustainability of a wireless sensor network powered by TMFC for land monitoring and precision agriculture. Acting on several factors, such as pH, temperature, humidity and type of soil used, we obtained minimum performance requirements in terms of the output power of the TMFC. In order to identify some of the different network node configurations and to compare the resulting performance, we investigated the energy consumption of the core components of a node, e.g., the transceiver and microcontroller, looking for the best performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Is There Any Evidence on the Existence of an Environmental Taxation Kuznets Curve? The Case of European Countries under Their Rule of Law Enforcement
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7242-7262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107242
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper gives new insights into the environmental taxation policy, demonstrating the existence of an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental taxation and income in European countries. Our findings reveal this relationship to be influenced by enforcement of the rule of law, which contributes
[...] Read more.
The paper gives new insights into the environmental taxation policy, demonstrating the existence of an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental taxation and income in European countries. Our findings reveal this relationship to be influenced by enforcement of the rule of law, which contributes to shifting the turning point on the curve to lower income levels. We show that former transition economies have not reached the turning point due to weak institutions. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the European Environment Agency’s Environmental Taxation Reform, proposing to shift taxation from “goods” to “bads”, should be accompanied by effective enforcement or the rule of law. The heterogeneity found between market-based and former transition European countries demonstrates the existence of problems at the EU-level in the coordination of environmental policies and enforcing the rule of law. In addition, the analysis of the determinants of environmental taxation points to the importance of factors related to consumption and production, governance, environmental quality, oil price shocks and the shift of environmental policy in European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7224-7241; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107224
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods.
[...] Read more.
Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Chinese Public Willingness to Pay to Avoid Having Nuclear Power Plants in the Neighborhood
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7197-7223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107197
Received: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of the decreasing share of nuclear power all over the world, China resumed the approval of large-scale construction of nuclear power plants in 2012. However, influenced by the worldwide spreading anti-nuclear attitudes, people who live near nuclear power plants showed increasing
[...] Read more.
In spite of the decreasing share of nuclear power all over the world, China resumed the approval of large-scale construction of nuclear power plants in 2012. However, influenced by the worldwide spreading anti-nuclear attitudes, people who live near nuclear power plants showed increasing concerns about nuclear risks. Consequently, the Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) syndrome of nuclear power plants should be evaluated prudently to support the healthy development of nuclear power in China. Based on the face-to-face survey data, this study estimates Chinese public willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid having nuclear power plants in the neighborhood. The respondents include both residents who currently live near and those who would live near nuclear power plants in the future. Considering the possible presence of the sample selection bias caused by protest responses, this paper constructs a two-step sample selection model with the protest responses and the double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) questions. Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), we measure the effects of influencing factors of public WTP and study the decay of WTP with longer distances from nuclear power plants. The results suggest that most people are willing to pay higher electricity prices to avoid having nuclear power plants in the neighborhood. Comparing the WTP to avoid having nuclear power plants nearby with the current electricity price, we find that there is an increase of 56.7% and 69.1% of respondents’ WTP for a nuclear power plant located 80 km and 30 km, respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7181-7196; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107181
Received: 13 July 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the
[...] Read more.
Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), village councils (VCs), professional organizations (POs) and forest products enterprises (FPEs) located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7155-7180; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107155
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of
[...] Read more.
Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Increasing the Effectiveness of the “Great Green Wall” as an Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change and Desertification in the Sahel
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7142-7154; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107142
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Great Green Wall (GGW) has been advocated as a means of reducing desertification in the Sahel through the planting of a broad continuous band of trees from Senegal to Djibouti. Initially proposed in the 1980s, the plan has received renewed impetus in
[...] Read more.
The Great Green Wall (GGW) has been advocated as a means of reducing desertification in the Sahel through the planting of a broad continuous band of trees from Senegal to Djibouti. Initially proposed in the 1980s, the plan has received renewed impetus in light of the potential of climate change to accelerate desertification, although the implementation has been lacking in all but two of 11 countries in the region. In this paper, we argue that the GGW needs modifying if it is to be effective, obtain the support of local communities and leverage international support. Specifically, we propose a shift from planting trees in the GGW to utilizing shrubs (e.g., Leptospermum scoparium, Boscia senegalensis, Grewia flava, Euclea undulata or Diospyros lycioides), which would have multiple benefits, including having a faster growth rate and proving the basis for silvo-pastoral livelihoods based on bee-keeping and honey production. Full article
Open AccessArticle Regional Informatization and Economic Growth in Japan: An Empirical Study Based on Spatial Econometric Analysis
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7121-7141; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107121
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research opinion on informatization is divided between two opposite poles—that it promotes or inhibits the spillover of regional economies. These conflicting viewpoints are called “the paradoxical geographies of the digital economy”. Information-based investment and diffusion of informatization contribute to breaking the economic space
[...] Read more.
Research opinion on informatization is divided between two opposite poles—that it promotes or inhibits the spillover of regional economies. These conflicting viewpoints are called “the paradoxical geographies of the digital economy”. Information-based investment and diffusion of informatization contribute to breaking the economic space constraints caused by distance, leading to interregional spillover effects, according to the results of the Durbin model of spatial lag applied to Japanese regional data. Clearly, the local direct effects and the perimeter region’s indirect effects of informatization are both positive. This proves the existence of network externality, which causes increasing returns to scale. Extensive diffusion of information technology plays a significant role in the process, in addition to rapid accumulation and infiltration of information resources, which strengthens the information-based investment spillover effect. In this empirical analysis, evidence seems to support the view that informatization promotes economic development in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7107-7120; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107107
Received: 26 June 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an
[...] Read more.
Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Development Modes of Border Ports in China
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7089-7106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107089
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Border ports play a substantial role in socio-economic exchanges, which reflect the diplomatic relations between neighboring countries. This paper maps and analyzes the evolution process of border ports in China since the 1930s, in terms of the spatial distribution, transport modes, cargo and
[...] Read more.
Border ports play a substantial role in socio-economic exchanges, which reflect the diplomatic relations between neighboring countries. This paper maps and analyzes the evolution process of border ports in China since the 1930s, in terms of the spatial distribution, transport modes, cargo and flows of people. Four development modes of border ports and cities are summarized based on the functions and development level of border ports and their proximity to urban core areas. The four modes include: (1) Port-Port mode; (2) City-Port-Port-City mode; (3) City (Port)-Port-City mode; (4) City (Port)-City (Port) mode, which also reflect the spatio-temporal evolution process of certain border ports and cities. The results show that the development of border ports is closely related to the bilateral relations with neighboring countries and their complementarities of natural resources and economic development, national foreign policies, as well as the physical, historical and cultural context. The findings of this study are helpful to promote the sustainable development of the border port system which is crucial for win-win reciprocity between China and its neighboring countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Borderland Studies and Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7063-7088; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107063
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 27 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products.
[...] Read more.
The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal), the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing) and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects) are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Barriers and Factors Affecting the Reverse Logistics of Waste Management Practice: A Case Study in Thailand
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7048-7062; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107048
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic growth in developing countries accelerated waste generation, and Thailand also is experiencing issues related to increased waste generation and improper waste management. The country’s domestic waste utilization is only 20%–26%. Efficient waste management and increased quantity of waste utilization is possible only
[...] Read more.
Economic growth in developing countries accelerated waste generation, and Thailand also is experiencing issues related to increased waste generation and improper waste management. The country’s domestic waste utilization is only 20%–26%. Efficient waste management and increased quantity of waste utilization is possible only by overcoming problems and constraints in reverse logistics (RL) systems in Thailand. To address these issues and constraints, this study aims to focus the investigation on the current practices in the RL systems. The study was conducted in Bangkok and its vicinity. An integrated approach of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to investigate the systems’ and stakeholders’ characteristics and to explore the factors influencing and constraining RL practices. Data were gathered through: (1) existing literature and in-depth interviews of key stakeholders involved in RL; and (2) a questionnaire survey of 98 managers of separation centers (SCs) probing their practices and studying the factors influencing those practices. The findings showed that RL systems can be separated into three levels, i.e., downstream, middle stream and upstream. SCs are key stakeholders in RL of waste management, and they collect waste from downstream, manage waste in a systematic way and send it upstream. The factors influencing and the barriers in the flow of recyclable waste are related to environmental, economic and social aspects. The analysis shows that waste managed by a cooperative-like franchise of SCs perceived that their practices were more efficient than those of a non-franchise practices. Additionally, these SCs have more bargaining power with waste buyers and sellers to set prices in the RL system. The constraints in RL practice are related to finance, market, labor, management/technology and legal issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7030-7047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107030
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using
[...] Read more.
Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Mitigation Effects of Urban Heat Islands in a Historical Small Center with the ENVI-Met® Climate Model
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7013-7029; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107013
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (10896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The purpose of this work
[...] Read more.
Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The purpose of this work is the study of the possible formation of an UHI and the evaluation of its magnitude, in the context of a small city, carried out with the ENVI-met® software. For this purpose, a simulation was needed, and this simulation is preparatory for a monitoring campaign on site, which will be held in the immediate future. ENVI-met® simulates the temporal evolution of several thermodynamics parameters on a micro-scale range, creating a 3D, non-hydrostatic model of the interactions between building-atmosphere-vegetation. The weather conditions applied simulate a typical Italian summer heat wave. Three different case-studies have been analyzed: Base Case, Cool Case and Green Case. Analysis of the actual state in the Base Case shows how even in an area with average building density, such as the old town center of a small city, fully developed UHI may rise with strong thermal gradients between built areas and open zones with plenty of vegetation. These gradients arise in a really tiny space (few hundreds of meters), showing that the influence of urban geometry can be decisive in the characterization of local microclimate. Simulations, carried out considering the application of green or cool roofs, showed small relevant effects as they become evident only in large areas heavily built up (metropolis) subject to more intense climate conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle UASB followed by Sub-Surface Horizontal Flow Phytodepuration for the Treatment of the Sewage Generated by a Small Rural Community
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6998-7012; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106998
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 1 October 2014 / Published: 9 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents the results of an experimental process designed for the treatment of the sewage generated by a rural community located in the north-east of Brazil. The process consists of a preliminary mechanical treatment adopting coarse screens and grit traps, followed by
[...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of an experimental process designed for the treatment of the sewage generated by a rural community located in the north-east of Brazil. The process consists of a preliminary mechanical treatment adopting coarse screens and grit traps, followed by a biological treatment in a UASB reactor and a sub-surface horizontal flow phytodepuration step. The use of a UASB reactor equipped with a top cover, as well as of the phytodepuration process employing a porous medium, showed to present important health advantages. In particular, there were no significant odor emissions and there was no evidence of the proliferation of insects and other disease vectors. The plant achieved the following mean abatement efficiencies: 92.9% for BOD5, 79.2% for COD and 94% for Suspended Solids. With regard to fecal indicators average efficiencies of 98.8% for fecal coliforms and 97.9% for fecal enterococci were achieved. The UASB reactor showed an important role in achieving this result. The research was also aimed at evaluating the optimal operating conditions for the UASB reactor in terms of hydraulic load and organic volumetric loading. The achieved results hence indicated that the process may be highly effective for small rural communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of Low-Phosphorous Fertilizers on Tea Plantations as a Novel Best Management Practice
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6985-6997; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106985
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 7 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Taipei Feitsui Reservoir supplies drinking water to more than five million citizens in northern Taiwan. The Feitsui Reservoir Administration and Tea Research and Extension Station have implemented a new pollution control measure for the use of low-phosphorous (low-P) fertilizers to prevent eutrophication. In
[...] Read more.
Taipei Feitsui Reservoir supplies drinking water to more than five million citizens in northern Taiwan. The Feitsui Reservoir Administration and Tea Research and Extension Station have implemented a new pollution control measure for the use of low-phosphorous (low-P) fertilizers to prevent eutrophication. In this study, we compared the quality of the soil, effluent and tea from two test fields. Low-P fertilizer was applied to one of the fields, and regular phosphorous fertilizer (regular-P) was applied to the other. The study period covered spring and winter seasons. The results showed that the investigated soil chemical properties were not influenced by either the low-P or regular-P fertilizers. The effluent quality was influenced by the precondition of the soil, which resulted in a larger average total phosphorous (TP) concentration in the low-P field. However, there was a decreasing trend in P concentration that amounted to approximately half of the average TP concentration in the regular-P field. The growth characteristics and yields were not significantly different between the two fields, but the taste and aroma of the tea from the low-P field was rated as superior to that of the regular-P field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6973-6984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106973
Received: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 6 October 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social
[...] Read more.
Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO) model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS) within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI) using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gendered Morality and Development Narratives: The Case of Female Labor Migration from Indonesia
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6949-6972; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106949
Received: 6 July 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 3 October 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites,
[...] Read more.
This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites, I argue that representations of migrants as victims do not undermine representations of migrants as heroes of development. Instead, in Indonesian public discourses about migrant women, various institutions and actors often evoke similar gendered moral assumptions of what makes a “good” or “bad” Indonesian woman and worker. These assumptions serve narratives that imply which migrant workers are heroes who deserve media attention; which migrants are unfairly abused and deserve state protection; and which migrants partly deserve their tragic fates. I term these assumptions gendered moral hierarchies, which distinguish between “tolerable” and “illegitimate” violence. Gendered moral hierarchies in representations of migrants downplay the responsibility of states and institutions for migrant safety, labor protection, and aspects of social welfare, by emphasizing individual moral responsibility and blame. More attention to gendered moral assumptions behind migrants’ narratives of development and victimhood can illuminate how they experience the risks and promises of transnational labor migration in gendered and culturally specific ways. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6925-6948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106925
Received: 5 July 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 2 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant
[...] Read more.
The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Recycled Urban Wastewater for Irrigation of Jatropha curcas L. in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Land
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6902-6924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6106902
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 1 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel,
[...] Read more.
In a global context in which obtaining new energy sources is of paramount importance, the production of biodiesel from plant crops is a potentially viable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Among the species used to produce the raw material for biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) has enjoyed increased popularity in recent years, due partly to its ability to grow in degraded zones and under arid and semi-arid conditions. The present study evaluates the potential for JCL production under irrigation with non-conventional water resources in abandoned agricultural soils of the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain), which is one of the most arid parts of the European Union. JCL growth and productivity are compared during the first 39 months of cultivation in two soil types (clay-loam and sandy-loam) and with two irrigation water qualities: recycled urban wastewater (RWW) and desalinated brackish water (DBW). The results indicate that JCL growth (in terms of plant height and stem diameter) was significantly influenced both by soil type and water quality, with better development observed in the sandy-loam soil under RWW irrigation. Productivity, measured as cumulative seed production, was not affected by soil type but was affected by water quality. Production under RWW irrigation was approximately seven times greater than with DBW (mean ~2142 vs. 322 kg·ha−1). The higher nutrient content, especially P, K and Mg, and lower B content of the RWW were found to be key factors in the greater productivity observed under irrigation with this type of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top