Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
|Most frequently drive to campus||43%||85%||90%|
|Travel 2–5 miles to campus||52%||51%||43%|
|Own electric cars||0%||3.60%||0.20%|
|Would like to reduce the cost of commute by using electric vehicles||73%||69%||58%|
|Are in favor of K-State installing SPCS||53%||82%||75%|
|Would like to own an electric vehicle||36%||52%||34%|
|Are more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if K-State has the infrastructure||26%||44%||26%|
|Believe SPCS on campus will encourage more people to purchase an electric vehicle||37%||47%||36%|
3. Values of Electric Vehicles
|Distance to Destination (miles)||Tesla||Nissan Leaf||Plug-in Toyota Prius||Ford Focus Electric||Chevrolet Volt||Average Gasoline Powered Car||Ford Focus (gas)|
|Electrical Efficiency (kWh/100 mi)||35||30||29||32||35||N/A||N/A|
|Miles per gallon||N/A||N/A||50||N/A||37||23||31|
|Battery Range (mi)||208||84||11||76||38||N/A||N/A|
4. Solar Powered Charging Stations
4.1. Benefits of SPCS
|It would be good for people with electric vehicles to charge their car||86%|
|It would be good for air quality and reducing air pollution||75%|
|It would encourage more electric vehicles||65%|
|It would fit with the 2025 K-State Sustainability Plan||64%|
|It would help the image of K-State||60%|
|It would provide more shaded parking||40%|
4.2. Design and Price Aspects
4.3. Financing SPCS
|Partnership with electric charging station company||57%|
|Income from user permits||55%|
|Power Purchase Agreement||51%|
|Partnership with Westar Energy Utility||51%|
|Donations to K-State Foundation||50%|
5. Electric Charge Station Infrastructure
|Location||Mean Score||Standard Deviation|
|Large lot, often with available spots for parking, but quite far from main buildings||5.48||2.57|
|Federal building on campus. SPCS would mainly be for federal employees but would support the new federal emissions rule *||4.75||2.68|
|A certain lot with a central location on campus, but not many buildings relatively close to the lot||4.62||2.49|
|Location near building respondent frequents most||4.54||2.77|
|Football Stadium at far end of campus||4.12||2.73|
|Central location on campus in general||3.97||2.46|
6. Business Models
6.1. University Non-Profit Organization Model Parameters
6.2.1. Single Business
6.2.2. Shopping Center
6.4. Public Parking Model
6.5. Federal and State Government Model
- Are you a student, faculty or staff?
- What is your age?
- 71 or more—1%
- How do you get to campus most frequently?
- Public transportation—0%
- How many miles do you travel one way to get to campus?
- 0–1 miles—13%
- 2–5 miles—44%
- 6–10 miles—15%
- 11–20 miles—10%
- 21–30 miles—7%
- 31–40 miles—5%
- 41–50 miles—2%
- 51–60 miles—2%
- 61 miles or more—2%
- Do you own or have use of a car?
- Do you have an electric car?
- What type of electric car do you drive?
- All electric plug-in—0%
- Plug-in vehicle that also uses gasoline—25%
- Gasoline vehicle that uses some battery, but is not a plug-in vehicle—75%
- Do you park a vehicle on campus or plan to in the next 9 months?
- Do you typically park a car or motorcycle on campus?
- What type of permit do you have?
- A permit to park in open parking lots—78%
- A permit to park in a reserved space in an open lot—4%
- A Reserved permit to park in the garage—4%
- A Preferred permit to park in the garage—8%
- I do not have a permit—6%
- Please help us understand why you park in the garage. You may select all answers that apply to you.
- The garage is a convenient location for me to park—86%
- The price seems reasonable—23%
- I value the ability to park in the shade—57%
- I value the shelter from rain, ice, and snow—77%
- I want the protection for my car, so it stays looking nice—31%
- I want the interior temperature of my car to not get too hot or too cold—38%
- I want to help pay for the garage—1%
- It is easier to find an open parking space in the garage—47%
- Why did you decide to not pay the additional cost to park in the garage? You may select all answers that apply to you.
- The garage is not a convenient location for me—65%
- The price does not seem reasonable—48%
- I don’t care much about the ability to park in the shade—14%
- I don’t care much about shelter from rain, ice, and snow—11%
- There is congestion entering and leaving at some times of the day—26%
- I don’t care much about the interior temperature of my car getting too hot or too cold—12%
- It is not my responsibility to help pay for the garage—12%
- It is just as easy to park elsewhere as it is to park in the garage—29%
- In general, which do you value more?
- Parking close to my destination, but having a more expensive permit—50%
- Parking farther from my destination, but having a less expensive permit—50%
- Independent of the electric car charging aspect, how much would you like to park in shaded parking spaces, rather than spaces exposed directly to the sun, rain, and snow? (Scale of 1 to 9 where 1 = I would not like to at all, 9 = I would like it very much)Mean = 6.40 Standard deviation = 2.45
- Think about how much you currently pay for a campus parking permit (or how much you would pay once you get one). How much more would you be willing to spend annually for shaded parking? (Scale of $0 to $200)
- Mean = $25.52 Standard deviation = 39.33
- Suppose you have an electric vehicle. You can reduce your cost to travel to and from campus (compared to a gasoline powered vehicle) by charging your vehicle on campus and at home. Would you like to be able to do this?
- Which parking permit system would you prefer?
- Parking permit prices vary depending on where the driver is allowed to park. People could pay the same amount as now, but have fewer parking spots to choose from. Other people would pay more for the ability to park in shaded spots or to use the solar electric charging stations.—77%
- Everyone pays the same parking permit price, which is a little bit more, and everyone can park in the shaded solar electric charging spaces and charge their car if they wish.—23%
- Which parking permit system do you think is most fair?
- Parking permit prices vary depending on where the driver is allowed to park. People could pay the same amount as now, but have fewer parking spots to choose from. Other people would pay more for the ability to park in shaded spots or to use the solar electric charging stations.—76%
- Everyone pays the same parking permit price, which is a little bit more, and everyone can park in the shaded solar electric charging spaces and charge their car if they wish.—24%
- What is your general feeling or opinion towards solar energy? (Scale of 1 to 9 where 1 = very negative opinion, 9 = very positive opinion)Mean = 6.48 Standard deviation = 2.39
- Are you in favor of K-State installing some solar powered charging stations for electric cars in parking lot(s)?
- Please mark all of the reasons why you favor having solar powered charging stations in K-State parking lots:
- It would help the image of K-state—60%
- It would be good for people who need to charge their electric vehicles—85%
- It would fit with the 2025 K-State Sustainability Plan—64%
- It would be good for air quality/reducing pollution—75%
- It would encourage more electric vehicles—65%
- It would provide more shaded parking—40%
- Please mark all of the reasons why you are not in favor of having solar powered charging stations in K-State parking lots:
- Presently the demand for charging stations is small—78%
- It would make parking more expensive—78%
- It would be a waste of money and time—50%
- It would be visually distracting—12%
- Parking spots with solar powered electrical charging stations are shaded. How much would you like to park at and use a shaded solar powered charging station while at the university? (Scale of 1 to 9 where 1 = I would not like it at all, 9 = I would like it very much)Mean = 3.91 Standard deviation = 2.77
- Would you like to own an electric vehicle?
- Would you be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if K-State had sufficient infrastructure for charging stations?
- Do you think installing solar powered charging stations on campus will encourage more people to purchase an electric vehicle?
- How should the solar powered charging stations be paid for? Select as many as you think apply.University funds
- Federal grant—22%
- Donations to K-State Foundation—73%
- Income from user permits—50%
- Power purchase agreement. [A private company pays for the installation and maintenance of the system, and sells electricity to the university at a specified rate. Once the contract expires, the university can buy the solar charging station system or renew the contract.]—54%
- Partnership with Westar Energy utility—51%
- Partnership with electric charging station company—58%
- Tax incentives—31%
- 28 Bill Snyder Family Football Stadium parking lot. These parking spots are far from the center of campus, but could be used for shade while tailgating before football games. Do you consider this a good location for some solar powered charging stations?Mean = 4.14 Standard deviation = 2.74
- 29 A central location on campus. These parking spots are convenient to many buildings, but there are limited spaces and they are rarely open to park in.Mean = 3.98 Standard deviation = 2.46
- 30 Multiple locations, so there is one near the building you frequent most. This would involve more expense because of the multiple locations, but the location would be most convenient.Mean = 4.93 Standard deviation = 2.77
- 31 West of the old stadium/alumni center. This lot is large and often has many available spots for parking, but the lot is quite far from the destinations of many students, staff, and faculty.Mean = 5.48 Standard deviation = 2.56
- 32 North of Call Hall. This has a central location on campus, but there are not main buildings relatively close to the lot.Mean = 4.62 Standard deviation = 2.48
- 33 K-State will be the location of a new federal building for the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility. Mainly federal employees will work in this building, but solar powered charging stations here would support Obama’s new plan to reduce the nation’s carbon emissions from electricity 30% below 2005 levels by 2030.Mean = 4.74 Standard deviation = 2.68
- 34 What is your opinion on the environmental sustainability of K-state?(Scale of 1 to 9 where 1 = A lot of need for improvement, 5 = some need for improvement, 9 = No need for improvement)For this question, “environmental sustainability” is defined as sustained efforts to reduce one’s carbon footprint, amount of pollution, consumption of resources such as water, and to engage in environmentally responsible activities such as recycling, composting, etc.Mean = 4.91 Standard deviation = 2.10
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© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Robinson, J.; Brase, G.; Griswold, W.; Jackson, C.; Erickson, L. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles. Sustainability 2014, 6, 7358-7387. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107358
Robinson J, Brase G, Griswold W, Jackson C, Erickson L. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles. Sustainability. 2014; 6(10):7358-7387. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107358Chicago/Turabian Style
Robinson, Jessica, Gary Brase, Wendy Griswold, Chad Jackson, and Larry Erickson. 2014. "Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles" Sustainability 6, no. 10: 7358-7387. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107358