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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2016) , Pages 721-1027

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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of an Adjustable Target Modulation Index for a Variable DC Voltage Control in an Electric Delivery Truck
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 1020-1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8041020
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 236 | PDF Full-text (4048 KB)
Abstract
This paper introduces an alternative control strategy for the variable voltage control of an electric drivetrain for a Class 4 medium-duty delivery truck and compares the resulting vehicle energy consumption over standardized drive cycles. The baseline system, S1, uses a standard electric drivetrain [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an alternative control strategy for the variable voltage control of an electric drivetrain for a Class 4 medium-duty delivery truck and compares the resulting vehicle energy consumption over standardized drive cycles. The baseline system, S1, uses a standard electric drivetrain without a DC-DC and a battery at 460 V. The proposed system, S2, contains a DC-DC converter and a lower voltage battery with three voltage options being investigated: 200 V, 230 V, and 300 V. Previous work has shown that using a bi-directional DC-DC converter, the Fixed Target Modulation Index (FTMI) of the power electronics can be optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption across a drive cycle. In this study an Adjustable Target Modulation Index (ATMI) is proposed, which combines the best aspects of the fixed target modulation index control to attempt to improve efficiency even further. The new control strategy is shown to improve the energy consumption by up to 2.34% over a vehicle with a conventional electric drivetrain, depending on the required drive cycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Charging strategies – implications on the interaction between an electrified road infrastructure and the stationary electricity system
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 1008-1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8041008
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 329 | PDF Full-text (1126 KB)
Abstract
This study uses a vehicle model together with detailed traffic data of the European route 39 in western Norway to estimate how the electricity demand for an electric road system varies with time and location. The aim is to better understand the impact [...] Read more.
This study uses a vehicle model together with detailed traffic data of the European route 39 in western Norway to estimate how the electricity demand for an electric road system varies with time and location. The aim is to better understand the impact of an electric road system on the stationary electricity system. The results show that the electricity demand for an E39 electric road system is comparable to a larger industry, potentially increasing the peak power demand in the regional electricity system with only a few percent. Yet, if all main Norwegian roads are electrified, or if vehicles can also charge their batteries while driving, there will be a significant (>10%) addition of electricity demand to the current load. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quantifying the Societal Benefits of Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 996-1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040996
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 878 | PDF Full-text (389 KB)
Abstract
One of the barriers facing the electric vehicle market is the incremental cost of the vehicles. However, many of the benefits of electric vehicles are not well understood and are omitted from cost-benefit analyses. These benefits relate to human health, air quality and [...] Read more.
One of the barriers facing the electric vehicle market is the incremental cost of the vehicles. However, many of the benefits of electric vehicles are not well understood and are omitted from cost-benefit analyses. These benefits relate to human health, air quality and the environment, economic growth, and grid resilience. VEIC conducted a study to identify the broad range of benefits that electric vehicles provide and, where sufficient data exists, developed estimates to quantify these benefits. Assessing the value of these benefits provides guidance for policy-makers to determine incentive and investment levels that accurately reflect the full value of electric vehicles to society. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Projected Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Plug-in Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 987-995; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040987
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 413 | PDF Full-text (2992 KB)
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles propelled by stored electrical energy do not directly emit greenhouse gas emissions during operation, but indirect emissions can occur when electricity is generated to recharge the vehicle batteries. Determining the mix of power plants that would supply this electricity is [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles propelled by stored electrical energy do not directly emit greenhouse gas emissions during operation, but indirect emissions can occur when electricity is generated to recharge the vehicle batteries. Determining the mix of power plants that would supply this electricity is difficult due to the technical complexity inherent in grid modeling. This paper describes best practices for projecting future grid emissions and uses these best practices to forecast grid emissions in the United States. These projections indicate that plug-in electric vehicles can significantly reduce transportation sector emissions even when accounting for the emissions associated with vehicle electrification. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative life cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles used in Québec, Canada
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 983-986; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040983
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 412 | PDF Full-text (530 KB)
Abstract
This study evaluates the potential environmental benefits of using an electric over a conventional vehicle in the province of Québec, Canada; a province characterised with an electric grid mix mostly based on hydroelectricity. To do so, we applied an environmental life cycle assessment [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the potential environmental benefits of using an electric over a conventional vehicle in the province of Québec, Canada; a province characterised with an electric grid mix mostly based on hydroelectricity. To do so, we applied an environmental life cycle assessment approach whose results suggest that use of the electric vehicle should be promoted in the province of Québec but only if the vehicle lifetime is optimised. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicle Dealership Education & Training
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 974-982; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040974
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 348 | PDF Full-text (543 KB)
Abstract
A major hurdle in the adoption and optimization of electrical vehicles is the transfer of knowledge from the dealer to the consumer. The first point of contact for most electric vehicle consumers is the dealer sales staff. Often dealerships have high turnover in [...] Read more.
A major hurdle in the adoption and optimization of electrical vehicles is the transfer of knowledge from the dealer to the consumer. The first point of contact for most electric vehicle consumers is the dealer sales staff. Often dealerships have high turnover in sales staff and are driven to annual, quarterly and monthly sales. The majority of dealerships’ focus is on closing new car sales, service and accessories. Leviton will share insights and best practices from the deployment of electrical vehicle supply equipment with four major automakers across nearly 3,000 dealerships in North America. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A University E-Bike Sharing System used as a Real-Time Monitoring emissions tool under a smart city concept
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 963-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040963
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 388 | PDF Full-text (543 KB)
Abstract
This work intents to describe a new approach that would be able to combine the positive effects from the use of an E-Bike sharing system in a medium-large population urban city of Belgium demonstrated initially in case of the local University Campuses along [...] Read more.
This work intents to describe a new approach that would be able to combine the positive effects from the use of an E-Bike sharing system in a medium-large population urban city of Belgium demonstrated initially in case of the local University Campuses along with the use of the E-Bikes as environmental mobile sensing units. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Expanding the Fast Charging Network
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 955-962; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040955
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 329 | PDF Full-text (2479 KB)
Abstract
Oregon has more DC Fast Chargers (DCFC) for electric vehicles per capita than any other US region. This network has played a major role in making Oregon one of the strongest markets for electric vehicle sales in the US, despite the lack of [...] Read more.
Oregon has more DC Fast Chargers (DCFC) for electric vehicles per capita than any other US region. This network has played a major role in making Oregon one of the strongest markets for electric vehicle sales in the US, despite the lack of a state purchase incentive. This paper summarizes Oregon’s experience with fast charging, evaluates the impact of this network, proposes new ways of defining network “success,” and makes recommendations for cost effectively expanding the network. These findings and recommendations should help inform other regions that are just beginning to build out their fast charging networks. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Model for Public Fast Charging Infrastructure Needs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 943-954; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040943
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 375 | PDF Full-text (619 KB)
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles can reduce GHG emissions although the low availability of public charging infra-structure combined with short driving ranges prevents potential users from adoption. The rollout and opera-tion, especially of public fast charging infrastructure, is very costly. Therefore, policy makers, car manufac-turers [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles can reduce GHG emissions although the low availability of public charging infra-structure combined with short driving ranges prevents potential users from adoption. The rollout and opera-tion, especially of public fast charging infrastructure, is very costly. Therefore, policy makers, car manufac-turers and charging infrastructure providers are interested in determining a number of charging stations that is sufficient. Since most studies focus on the placement and not on the determination of the number of charging stations, this paper proposes a model for the quantification of public fast charging points.
We first analyze a large database of German driving profiles to obtain the viable share of plug-in electric vehicles in 2030 and determine the corresponding demand for fast charging events. Special focus lies on a general formalism of a queuing system for charging points. This approach allows us to quantify the capac-ity provided per charging point and the required quantity. Furthermore, we take a closer look on the sto-chastic occupancy rate of charging points for a certain service level and the distribution of the time users have to wait in the queue. When applying this model to Germany, we find about 15,000 fast charging points with 50 kW necessary in 2030 or ten fast charging point per 1,000 BEVs. When compared with existing charging data from Sweden, this is lower than the currently existing 36 fast charging points per 1,000 BEVs. Furthermore, we compare the models output of charging event distribution over the day with that of the real data and find a qualitatively similar load of the charging network, though with a small shift towards later in the day for the model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Workload Patterns of Fast Charging Stations Along the German Autobahn
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 936-942; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040936
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 466 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB)
Abstract
We analyze daily charging demand patterns of electric vehicles at DC fast charging stations along the German autobahn for an average week in 2020. For this we develop an agent based simulation tool based on current empirical mobility data. Our results show that [...] Read more.
We analyze daily charging demand patterns of electric vehicles at DC fast charging stations along the German autobahn for an average week in 2020. For this we develop an agent based simulation tool based on current empirical mobility data. Our results show that already in 2020 about 1,000 charging processes per charging location and day might be realistic. In order to avoid long waiting times these charging locations should be equipped with about 20 charging points. A utilization rate of up to 80% makes a profitable operation of these stations highly probable. A sensitivity analysis indicates main parameters which influence the throughput of electric vehicles significantly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-in Vehicle Behaviors: An analysis of charging and driving behavior of Ford plug-in electric vehicles in the real world
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 926-935; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040926
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 406 | PDF Full-text (477 KB)
Abstract
This paper analyzes the charging and driving behavior collected from thousands of North American Ford full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) whose owners utilize the MyFord Mobile smart phone app, thus enabling aggregated data for analysis. The trends [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the charging and driving behavior collected from thousands of North American Ford full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) whose owners utilize the MyFord Mobile smart phone app, thus enabling aggregated data for analysis. The trends investigated include charging frequency, electric vehicle miles travelled (eVMT), daily miles driven, and other factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Electric Circuit Business Model
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 923-925; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040923
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 460 | PDF Full-text (240 KB)
Abstract
The Electric Circuit’s unique business model is recognized around the world. It was designed around the network’s two types of charging stations: 240-V Level 2 standard and 400-V fast-charge stations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multi-objective optimization of an Autobahn BEV charging station supplied by renewable energy
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 911-922; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040911
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 352 | PDF Full-text (754 KB)
Abstract
In order to address battery electric vehicles’ future ability to travel long distance this paper analyzes a sample case study of supra-regional charging, an Autobahn battery electric vehicle (BEV) charging station supplied by renewable energy. A tri-objective optimization of a local renewable energy [...] Read more.
In order to address battery electric vehicles’ future ability to travel long distance this paper analyzes a sample case study of supra-regional charging, an Autobahn battery electric vehicle (BEV) charging station supplied by renewable energy. A tri-objective optimization of a local renewable energy system demonstrates how the charging station’s levelized cost of energy, life cycle emissions and stress on the electric grid can be reduced simultaneously by introducing a combination of partially curtailed photovoltaic generators and a battery electric storage system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The potential for a BEV in the two-car household
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 899-910; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040899
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (1423 KB)
Abstract
An optimization model was developed to estimate the potential for a BEV, when replacing one of the conventional cars, to viably contribute to the performance of the driving in the households. It uses data from 1 to 3 months of simultaneous GPS logging [...] Read more.
An optimization model was developed to estimate the potential for a BEV, when replacing one of the conventional cars, to viably contribute to the performance of the driving in the households. It uses data from 1 to 3 months of simultaneous GPS logging of the movement patterns for both cars in 64 commuting 2-car Swedish households. The results show that the BEV can potentially roughly double the driving and still decrease the unfulfilled driving in the household with a flexible car use strategy compared to a BEV substituting the 2nd car only, turning the BEV economics into a TCO gain. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Selected Results of the Scientific Accompanying Research of the E-Mobility Model Region “e-pendler in nieder¨osterreich” (AUSTRIA)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 888-898; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040888
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 313 | PDF Full-text (4985 KB)
Abstract
This paper describes selected results of the scientific accompanying research of the e-mobility model region “e-pendler in nieder¨osterreich” which is a co-financed model region of the Climate and Energy Fund in Austria and the province of Lower Austria. The purpose of the project [...] Read more.
This paper describes selected results of the scientific accompanying research of the e-mobility model region “e-pendler in nieder¨osterreich” which is a co-financed model region of the Climate and Energy Fund in Austria and the province of Lower Austria. The purpose of the project is to evaluate the usability of electric vehicles for commuters in Austria. For this, a group of thirty-seven participants were analyzed. With the derived charging profiles and traffic analysis important statements for future problems are possible.
The research is divided into three parts. First of all, the commuters’ behavior is considered. As second part specific charging profiles are analyzed and the effect of the charging power on the switching point (change from constant current phase to constant voltage phase) is shown. At last the impact of the EV's on the distribution grid is investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New York State EV Charging Station Deployment
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 877-887; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040877
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 590 | PDF Full-text (687 KB)
Abstract
Over 600 Level 2 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports have been installed to support New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’s Charge NY initiative, which is focused on supporting EV market development in New York State. These installations represent a wide range of business models [...] Read more.
Over 600 Level 2 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports have been installed to support New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’s Charge NY initiative, which is focused on supporting EV market development in New York State. These installations represent a wide range of business models and approaches for providing public charging to learn how different stations are used, including which types of locations are the most promising. EV charging station usage statistics based on various station attributes help determine where installing EV charging stations is a good investment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
REVving Up: Legal & Policy Changes to Support EV Uptake—Leader Jurisdictions
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 858-876; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040858
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 291 | PDF Full-text (346 KB)
Abstract
Even as many experts predict that zero emission vehicles including electric vehicles will become a dominant North American transportation technology, many buildings are still being constructed across North America without EV-ready parking areas, raising the possibility of significant retrofitting costs down the road [...] Read more.
Even as many experts predict that zero emission vehicles including electric vehicles will become a dominant North American transportation technology, many buildings are still being constructed across North America without EV-ready parking areas, raising the possibility of significant retrofitting costs down the road and likely delaying EV adoption for some residents.
This paper considers policy actions being taken by North American "leader jurisdictions" that have recognized the potential of EVs to reduce transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and improve local air quality. It examines (1) requirements targeting the development and renovation of the built environment (building code amendments and municipal by-laws), (2) requirements targeting rules governing condominiums and landlord-tenant relationships and (3) property tax financing schemes (known to many US readers as PACE financing). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Manufacturer Plug-In Electric Vehicle Incentives
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 846-857; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040846
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 522 | PDF Full-text (797 KB)
Abstract
Vehicle manufacturers offer incentives in an attempt to encourage consumers to purchase or lease new vehicles. Similarly federal and local governments offer incentives to help build and maintain a market for plug-in electric vehicles (1). This paper analyzes manufacturer cash rebates and special [...] Read more.
Vehicle manufacturers offer incentives in an attempt to encourage consumers to purchase or lease new vehicles. Similarly federal and local governments offer incentives to help build and maintain a market for plug-in electric vehicles (1). This paper analyzes manufacturer cash rebates and special lease offers and presents a comparison of plug-in electric vehicle incentives by manufacturer, technology, geographic area, and time period. How these manufacturer plug-in electric vehicle incentives relate to vehicle sales as well as state and federal government incentives is also investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
International Cooperation on Public Policies and Strategies for Hybrid & Electric Vehicles under the International Energy Agency
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 842-845; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040842
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 330 | PDF Full-text (86 KB)
Abstract
The International Energy Agency (IEA) established a Technology Collaboration Program (formerly called Implementing Agreement) on “Hybrid and Electric Vehicles” in 1994. Today there are 17 member countries that participate in 12 working groups related to electric vehicles, components, deployment, infrastructure, and environmental/economic issues. [...] Read more.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) established a Technology Collaboration Program (formerly called Implementing Agreement) on “Hybrid and Electric Vehicles” in 1994. Today there are 17 member countries that participate in 12 working groups related to electric vehicles, components, deployment, infrastructure, and environmental/economic issues. The current activities and recent key results from these working groups are described. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implications of Successes and Failures of BEV-Focused Incentive Support for PEVs in the U.S., Canada and Europe
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 831-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040831
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 341 | PDF Full-text (427 KB)
Abstract
An international comparative analysis of causes of variation of PEV sales rates per capita in selected U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and European Nations is conducted. 2014-15 light-duty PEV registrations/sales by make and model are examined, drawing heavily on 2014 data for aggregate comparisons. [...] Read more.
An international comparative analysis of causes of variation of PEV sales rates per capita in selected U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and European Nations is conducted. 2014-15 light-duty PEV registrations/sales by make and model are examined, drawing heavily on 2014 data for aggregate comparisons. States, provinces, and nations with PEV success, but with widely varying PEV purchase incentives and charging infrastructure installations are examined. The paper focuses particularly presence or absence of long daily distance charging options for PEVs. Four questions are addressed. (1) European evidence is that PHEV powertrains are a very marketable option for large family vehicles. For small BEVs BMW i3 sales patterns indicate that range extension beyond 120 km but less than 240 km via gasoline significantly increases market share. BEV inter-city functionality provided by aggressive installation of DC fast charging was critical to overall PEV success in Norway. Norway, like Northern Europe and Canada has a utility network that is winter peaking, which allows provision of peak summer BEV long-distance charging needs without difficulty. This is not the case for the U.S., which is summer peaking. The reviewed states, provinces, and nations vary considerably in seasonal peak temperature extremes. These climate differences have a significant bearing on the local viability of PHEVs vs. BEVs. The long distance DC fast charging infrastructure investments needed to support BEV market success are not as large when PHEVs are preferred by consumers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Causes of PEV Success Across U.S. Metro Areas
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 818-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040818
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 295 | PDF Full-text (814 KB)
Abstract
Using 2014 U.S. light duty PEV registrations by make and model, this paper assesses the causes of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) success across U.S. states focusing on areas that had incentive and utility programs supporting PEV adoption. Market segments investigated were (1) luxury/performance [...] Read more.
Using 2014 U.S. light duty PEV registrations by make and model, this paper assesses the causes of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) success across U.S. states focusing on areas that had incentive and utility programs supporting PEV adoption. Market segments investigated were (1) luxury/performance (>$60,000 list price), (2) mid-market ($40-50,000), (3) mass market (<$40.000), and (4) total. States with either exclusive or preferential BEV incentives are a focus. BEV-biased incentives proved to be very effective in promoting mass market BEVs. After controlling for these attributes, case studies for several utility service areas were conducted to gauge whether PEVs were more or less successfully implemented via outreach by those utilities. These investigations suggest ways that utilities can successfully increase PEV registrations, after taking local climate and state incentives into consideration. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Switched On Scotland: Implementing Scotland’s Roadmap to Widespread Adoption of Plug-in Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 808-817; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040808
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 301 | PDF Full-text (1796 KB)
Abstract
This paper explains the insights and lessons learned from developing the Scottish Government’s Roadmap to Widespread Adoption of Plug-in Vehicles. This strategy drew on best practice from the fields of electric mobility and technology roadmapping to establish a comprehensive framework to guide future [...] Read more.
This paper explains the insights and lessons learned from developing the Scottish Government’s Roadmap to Widespread Adoption of Plug-in Vehicles. This strategy drew on best practice from the fields of electric mobility and technology roadmapping to establish a comprehensive framework to guide future progress. This paper reviews the progress achieved to date in implementing this roadmap and explains the next steps to further advance the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles in Scotland. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Saxony as a Model Region in Germany for connected electric mobility
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 798-807; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040798
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB)
Abstract
Saxony as a Model Region for electric mobility and intelligent transport systems has extensive experiences which ranges from the operation of hybrid and full electric buses including fast charging infrastructure, electric car fleets in companies and municipal institutions, eCarsharing and long distance mobility [...] Read more.
Saxony as a Model Region for electric mobility and intelligent transport systems has extensive experiences which ranges from the operation of hybrid and full electric buses including fast charging infrastructure, electric car fleets in companies and municipal institutions, eCarsharing and long distance mobility as well as in connected electric mobility. The paper describes the objectives and lessons learned of some of the noteworthy projects relating to electric public transport and multimodality as well as the perspective to establish Saxony as a pioneer in the field of intelligent transport systems and connected mobility. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Can policy measures foster plug-in electric vehicle market diffusion?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 789-797; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040789
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 333 | PDF Full-text (291 KB)
Abstract
Plug-in Electric vehicles (PEV), both as battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) have noteworthy potential to reduce global and local emissions. Governments around the world have implemented monetary and non-monetary policy measures to foster PEV market diffusion. However, empirical estimates [...] Read more.
Plug-in Electric vehicles (PEV), both as battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) have noteworthy potential to reduce global and local emissions. Governments around the world have implemented monetary and non-monetary policy measures to foster PEV market diffusion. However, empirical estimates of their effectiveness are scarce. Here, we analyse data on PEV sales from Europe and the US with the policy measures active in these countries, e.g., direct subsidies, tax rebates, and public charging infrastructure. The aim of the present paper is to contribute empirical evidence to the discussion of policy aided market evolution of electric vehicles. We find income, gasoline prices and both direct and indirect subsidies to positively influence PEV adoption. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Key Findings of German Showcase Region for Electric Mobility: E-Mobility Works! Economic Feasibility and Legal Frameworks as Main Challenges
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 783-788; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040783
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (127 KB)
Abstract
The Showcase Region for Electric Mobility LivingLab BWe mobil takes place in the two largest cities of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the south-west of Germany. The results of large-scale regional government-funded demonstration projects are described in this paper. Electric mobility works in various use [...] Read more.
The Showcase Region for Electric Mobility LivingLab BWe mobil takes place in the two largest cities of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the south-west of Germany. The results of large-scale regional government-funded demonstration projects are described in this paper. Electric mobility works in various use cases and different types of vehicles, but economic feasibility is still a challenge in some use cases. For this reason continuous R&D activities are needed and appropriated legal frameworks help to overcome obstacles and offer incentives. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of electromobility in France: Causes, facts and figures
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 772-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040772
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 348 | PDF Full-text (907 KB)
Abstract
With more than 65 000 electric vehicles on the road, France is one of the most dynamic markets in the world. The paper aims at explaining how French authorities and industry managed to develop electric mobility in the country and to review the [...] Read more.
With more than 65 000 electric vehicles on the road, France is one of the most dynamic markets in the world. The paper aims at explaining how French authorities and industry managed to develop electric mobility in the country and to review the growth of electric vehicle uses. The paper will make a specific focus on the evolution of charging infrastructures networks and public subsidies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Benchmarking Charging Infrastructure Utilization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 754-771; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040754
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 444 | PDF Full-text (1078 KB)
Abstract
Since 2012 the Dutch metropolitan area (The metropole region of Amsterdam, the city of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht ) cooperate in finding the best way to stimulate electric mobility through the implementation of a public charging infrastructure. With more than 5600 charge [...] Read more.
Since 2012 the Dutch metropolitan area (The metropole region of Amsterdam, the city of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht ) cooperate in finding the best way to stimulate electric mobility through the implementation of a public charging infrastructure. With more than 5600 charge points and 1.6 million charge sessions in the last two years this is one of the most extensively used public charging infrastructure available worldwide. In this paper a benchmark study is carried out to identify different charge patterns between these 5 leading areas with an extensive public charging infrastructure to establish whether and how charge behaviour (e.g. charged volume, capacity utilization, unique users) differs between cities. Based on the results first explanations for possible differences in charge patterns between cities will be provided. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the utilization of public charging infrastructure in a metropolitan area existing of four city centres and the Amsterdam metropolitan area and to provide input for policy makers to prepare a public charging infrastructure ready for the projected growth of electric mobility in the next five years. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 742-753; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040742
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 382 | PDF Full-text (724 KB)
Abstract
In this paper a segmented Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is presented for alternative vehicle technologies as well as its extension with external costs related to vehicle ownership and use. Adding external costs to the TCO extends the interpretation of individual ownership [...] Read more.
In this paper a segmented Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is presented for alternative vehicle technologies as well as its extension with external costs related to vehicle ownership and use. Adding external costs to the TCO extends the interpretation of individual ownership to a societal perspective by describing the effect of the technologies on the costs for the society. This extension, called “Total Cost for Society”, suggests that battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have a lower societal cost than petrol, diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Key Performance Indicators of Charging infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 733-741; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040733
Published: 30 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 392 | PDF Full-text (236 KB)
Abstract
The Netherlands are one of the frontrunners in stimulating electric mobility in Europe when it comes to the charging infrastructure density and electric vehicle adoption. Municipalities play an instrumental role in the rollout of public charging infrastructure while they have little insight in [...] Read more.
The Netherlands are one of the frontrunners in stimulating electric mobility in Europe when it comes to the charging infrastructure density and electric vehicle adoption. Municipalities play an instrumental role in the rollout of public charging infrastructure while they have little insight in the relevant key performance indicators of the charging infrastructure as a means to support effective decision making. This paper aims to contribute to providing a more thorough understanding of relevant key performance indicators for public charging infrastructure. An approach is presented that explores result and performance indicators to support policy makers optimizing the roll out of and improvement of the business case for charging infrastructure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Plug-in Electric Vehicle System from Technologies to Consumers
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 721-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8040721
Published: 30 December 2016
Viewed by 330 | PDF Full-text (260 KB)
Abstract
This paper discusses the recent National Academies’ study Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. The study committee concluded that, if policy makers continue to pursue PEV deployment, continuing federal funding for battery research and purchase tax credits is important to [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the recent National Academies’ study Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. The study committee concluded that, if policy makers continue to pursue PEV deployment, continuing federal funding for battery research and purchase tax credits is important to reduce vehicle cost. The committee also considered federal investments in deploying charging infrastructure. It recommended further study to understand the relationship between infrastructure and vehicle deployment and use before additional direct federal investment in charging infrastructure installation. Full article
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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