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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership?

Quentin De Clerck (corresponding author), Research Group MOBI, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(4), 742-753;
Published: 30 December 2016
In this paper a segmented Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is presented for alternative vehicle technologies as well as its extension with external costs related to vehicle ownership and use. Adding external costs to the TCO extends the interpretation of individual ownership to a societal perspective by describing the effect of the technologies on the costs for the society. This extension, called “Total Cost for Society”, suggests that battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have a lower societal cost than petrol, diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles.
Keywords: passenger car; electric vehicle; cost passenger car; electric vehicle; cost
MDPI and ACS Style

De Clerck, Q.; Van Lier, T.; Lebeau, P.; Messagie, M.; Vanhaverbeke, L.; Macharis, C.; Van Mierlo, J. How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership? World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8, 742-753.

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