How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership?
AbstractIn this paper a segmented Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is presented for alternative vehicle technologies as well as its extension with external costs related to vehicle ownership and use. Adding external costs to the TCO extends the interpretation of individual ownership to a societal perspective by describing the effect of the technologies on the costs for the society. This extension, called “Total Cost for Society”, suggests that battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have a lower societal cost than petrol, diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles.
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De Clerck, Q.; Van Lier, T.; Lebeau, P.; Messagie, M.; Vanhaverbeke, L.; Macharis, C.; Van Mierlo, J. How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership? World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8, 742-753.
De Clerck Q, Van Lier T, Lebeau P, Messagie M, Vanhaverbeke L, Macharis C, Van Mierlo J. How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership? World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2016; 8(4):742-753.Chicago/Turabian Style
De Clerck, Quentin; Van Lier, Tom; Lebeau, Philippe; Messagie, Maarten; Vanhaverbeke, Lieselot; Macharis, Cathy; Van Mierlo, Joeri. 2016. "How Total is a Total Cost of Ownership?" World Electr. Veh. J. 8, no. 4: 742-753.