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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 9, Issue 1 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The green promise offered by Battery electric vehicles and Fuel Cell electric vehicles, goes hand [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCase Report
Application of Driverless Electric Automated Shuttles for Public Transport in Villages: The Case of Appelscha
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010015 - 21 Jun 2018
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
This paper reports on the application of electric automated vehicles in the city of Appelscha, The Netherlands. Appelscha is challenged with a predicted decline of inhabitants and an already shrinking public transport network. To preserve the region’s accessibility, the municipality started a pilot [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the application of electric automated vehicles in the city of Appelscha, The Netherlands. Appelscha is challenged with a predicted decline of inhabitants and an already shrinking public transport network. To preserve the region’s accessibility, the municipality started a pilot with electric automated vehicles. These vehicles drove on a separate cycle lane for six weeks in 2016. This pilot has shown that a pilot is possible, with little infrastructural changes. Even though the maximum speed of 15 km/h might suggest that automated vehicles are suitable to share the road with cyclists, the cycle lane in Appelscha was not sufficient due to the width of the cycle lane. No accidents occurred during the pilot. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Usage Potential of Fast-Charging Locations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010014 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Fast-charging infrastructure with charging time of 20–30 min can help minimizing current perceived limitations of electric vehicles, especially considering the unbalanced and incomprehensive distribution of charging options combined with a long perceived charging time. Positioned on optimal location from user and business perspective, [...] Read more.
Fast-charging infrastructure with charging time of 20–30 min can help minimizing current perceived limitations of electric vehicles, especially considering the unbalanced and incomprehensive distribution of charging options combined with a long perceived charging time. Positioned on optimal location from user and business perspective, the technology is assumed to help increasing the usage of an electric vehicle (EV). Considering the user perspectives, current and potential EV users were interviewed in two different surveys about optimal fast-charging locations depending on travel purposes and relevant location criteria. The obtained results show that customers prefer to rather charge at origins and destinations than during the trip. For longer distances, charging locations on axes with attractive points of interest are also considered as optimal. From the business model point of view, fast-charging stations at destinations are controversial. The expensive infrastructure and the therefore needed large number of charging sessions are in conflict with the comparatively time consuming stay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast-Charge Life Cycle Test on a Lithium-Ion Battery Module
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010013 - 16 Jun 2018
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
This study addresses the effects of fast charge on a lithium-ion battery module made by four lithium-iron-phosphate cells connected in series, submitted to a test profile which included a fast-charge step at a current rate of 3 C. This test profile simulated the [...] Read more.
This study addresses the effects of fast charge on a lithium-ion battery module made by four lithium-iron-phosphate cells connected in series, submitted to a test profile which included a fast-charge step at a current rate of 3 C. This test profile simulated the real working profile requested by the batteries of an electric bus to perform a particular service of local public transportation, with the batteries recharging at the end of line. More than 3000 shallow cycles were performed. The battery module did not show a significant reduction in performance in terms of capacity and energy; however, a relevant increase in resistance was observed. Due to this change, the autonomy of the electric bus was reduced correspondingly. By fixing a minimum value for the autonomy, a life estimate of the battery module was made. Finally, on the base of this result, a cost estimate and comparison between slow and fast charge was made, under the same service conditions throughout the vehicle’s lifespan, for a real case of a minibus equipped with a battery system sized for fast charge at the end of line, and a larger battery system sized for slow charge at the end of a working day. This comparison proved that, in the case study considered, the solution using fast charge was cheaper, and fast charge can be a valid approach to solve the problem of short autonomy of electric vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model-Based Optimization of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Powertrain with Multimode Transmission
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010012 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are developed in order to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. Besides the series, parallel and power split configurations are commonly used for conventional hybrid electric vehicles, and multimode transmissions are used for plug-in hybrid [...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are developed in order to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide. Besides the series, parallel and power split configurations are commonly used for conventional hybrid electric vehicles, and multimode transmissions are used for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which are able to switch between different modes like parallel or series operation of the combustion engine and electric motor. Several concepts have already been discussed and presented. These concepts comprise novel structures and multi-speed operation for the combustion engine and the electric motor, respectively. For improving the fuel and energy consumption, model-based optimizations of multimode transmissions are performed. In the first step of the optimization, the optimal number of gears and transmission ratios, as well as the corresponding fuel and energy savings, are estimated. Based on these results, a new multimode transmission concept with two-speed transmissions for the combustion engine and the electric motor has been developed. The knowledge of the concrete concept enables the further optimizations of the transmission ratios and the transmission control. In order to prove the benefit of the new and optimized transmission concept, powertrain simulations have been carried out. The new powertrain concept is compared to a powertrain concept with single-speed transmissions for the internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric motor operation. The new transmission concept enables a significant improvement of the fuel consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Powertrain Design through a Virtual Development Process
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010011 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
The ever more stringent global CO2 and pollutant emission regulations imply that the optimization of conventional powertrains can only provide partial reductions in fleet emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are therefore responding by increasing the electrification of their powertrain portfolios. This in turn, results [...] Read more.
The ever more stringent global CO2 and pollutant emission regulations imply that the optimization of conventional powertrains can only provide partial reductions in fleet emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are therefore responding by increasing the electrification of their powertrain portfolios. This in turn, results in higher levels of electrification of the individual powertrain units. The increase in electric power leads to a comprehensive range of possible technologies—from 48 V mild hybrids to pure electric concepts. The powertrain topology and the configuration of the electrical components of a hybrid powertrain play a decisive role in determining the overall efficiency when considering the individual market requirements. Different hybrid functions as well as performance and customer requirements are determined from statutory cycles and in customer operation. A virtual development chain that is based on MATLAB/Simulink then represents the steps for the identification, configuration, and evaluation of new electrified powertrains. The tool chain presented supports powertrain development through automated conceptualization, design, and evaluation of powertrain systems and their components. The outcome of the entire tool chain is a robust concept decision for future powertrains. Using this methodical and reproducible approach, future electrified powertrain concepts are identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Roads: Analyzing the Societal Cost of Electrifying All Danish Road Transport
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010009 - 07 Jun 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Electric Road Systems (ERS) have emerged as an alternative to deal with the main drawbacks that battery electric vehicles present (i.e., higher cost, short driving range, long charging times, etc.). This paper analyses the societal cost of electrifying all road transport in Denmark [...] Read more.
Electric Road Systems (ERS) have emerged as an alternative to deal with the main drawbacks that battery electric vehicles present (i.e., higher cost, short driving range, long charging times, etc.). This paper analyses the societal cost of electrifying all road transport in Denmark under four different scenarios. The first scenario considered in this study is based on today’s approach of having electric vehicles with high battery capacity and fast charging stations, the remaining scenarios study the cost of implementing different ERS at a national level. The results clearly show the benefits of implementing road bound electric road solutions that can be used both by commercial and passenger vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling and Evaluation of Battery Packs with Different Numbers of Paralleled Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010008 - 07 Jun 2018
Viewed by 844
Abstract
To better evaluate the configuration of battery packs in electric vehicles (EV) in the early design phase, this paper proposes a mathematic model for the simulation of battery packs based on the elementwise calculations of matrices. This model is compatible with the different [...] Read more.
To better evaluate the configuration of battery packs in electric vehicles (EV) in the early design phase, this paper proposes a mathematic model for the simulation of battery packs based on the elementwise calculations of matrices. This model is compatible with the different battery models and has a fast simulation speed. An experimental platform is built for the verification. Based on the proposed model and the statistic features of battery cells, the influence of the number of paralleled cells in a battery pack is evaluated in Monte-Carlo experiments. The simulation results obtained from Monte-Carlo experiments show that the parallel number is able to influence the total energy loss inside the cells, the energy loss caused by the balancing of the battery management system (BMS) and the degradation of the battery pack. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Operating Point Adaptation for NVH-Optimization of Induction Machines
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010010 - 07 Jun 2018
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Inverter-fed drive systems are mostly optimized to operate at the best efficiency, neglecting the possibility of acoustic optimization. The chosen operating point can lead to undesired harmonics involving vibrations and noises of the electrical drive. In order to optimize the system with respect [...] Read more.
Inverter-fed drive systems are mostly optimized to operate at the best efficiency, neglecting the possibility of acoustic optimization. The chosen operating point can lead to undesired harmonics involving vibrations and noises of the electrical drive. In order to optimize the system with respect to acoustics, the given operating point for best efficiency is left and a noise, vibration and harshness (NVH)-optimized operating point is chosen. This paper shows the influence of the operating point on NVH, describes an NVH-optimized control and draws a comparison between simulation and measurement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of a Power Converter with Multiple Operating Modes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010007 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
In order to achieve DC voltage matching, on-board charging, and DC/AC power inversion, three independent power converters are often needed in traditional Distributed Power Converter (DPC) systems of electric vehicles (EVs): bidirectional DC/DC (Bi-DC/DC), AC/DC, and DC/AC. The requirement of electronic devices such [...] Read more.
In order to achieve DC voltage matching, on-board charging, and DC/AC power inversion, three independent power converters are often needed in traditional Distributed Power Converter (DPC) systems of electric vehicles (EVs): bidirectional DC/DC (Bi-DC/DC), AC/DC, and DC/AC. The requirement of electronic devices such as power switches, inductors, and capacitors make the converter costly and complicated in structure. In this paper, a power converter with multi-operating mode (PCMM) is presented. The proposed PCMM can work in Bi-DC/DC, AC/DC, and DC/AC modes. The state-space averaging model of PCMM considering resistance of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and the inductor is presented. Based on this model, the transfer function of the system is derived and the controller is designed. The simulation and experimental results show that PCMM can meet the design target and verify the feasibility of the model. The measurement results show that the weight of PCMM proposed in this paper is reduced by 51.2% compared with the traditional structure. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Analysis of a Fictive Active e-Trailer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010006 - 04 Jun 2018
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Trucks consume an enormous amount of diesel annually and contribute significantly to the total CO2 emissions around the world. Electrification of these freight vehicles would lead to a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Trailers, as part of heavy freight [...] Read more.
Trucks consume an enormous amount of diesel annually and contribute significantly to the total CO2 emissions around the world. Electrification of these freight vehicles would lead to a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Trailers, as part of heavy freight vehicles, are a great opportunity for innovative change. Electrifying the trailer would allow the combustion engine of the truck to cooperate with the electric motors in the trailer. The trailer would be able to regenerate energy using the electric motors built into the rear axis of the trailer. The energy that is regenerated could be stored in a battery power pack for later use. Using the principle of peak shaving, the combustion engine would be assisted by the active e-trailer. Peak shaving would occur when the calculated load on the combustion engine is highly above average, for example, during acceleration, climbing a hill, or during high speed. Energy from the power pack could be routed to the electric motors, adding propulsive force. This analysis of a fictive active e-trailer has focused on reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The energy consumption of the trailer and the energy regeneration were studied. For this analysis, two vehicle configurations were simulated within the MATLAB Simulink: one truck–trailer combination without the e-trailer application and one truck–trailer combination with the e-trailer application. Differences between the two simulated vehicle combinations have been analyzed and documented. The whole system would be self-sustaining by using the regenerating energy from braking and adjusting its assisting function according to the energy level of the power pack. However, better results would be achieved by charging the power pack periodically. By doing so, the reduction of fuel cost and emissions could be significantly improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Holistic Testing Strategies for Electrified Vehicle Powertrains in Product Development Process
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010005 - 30 May 2018
Viewed by 981
Abstract
In the field of powertrain engineering, longstanding knowledge was gained for testing conventional vehicle powertrains. The hitherto used test strategies here were more focused on the subsystems of the powertrain than on the powertrain as an integrated system. Through the electrification of the [...] Read more.
In the field of powertrain engineering, longstanding knowledge was gained for testing conventional vehicle powertrains. The hitherto used test strategies here were more focused on the subsystems of the powertrain than on the powertrain as an integrated system. Through the electrification of the powertrain, the topology and the range of functions have changed. This leads to new challenges for the validation and requires not only adjustments of the test strategies for electric vehicle powertrains but establish and develop integrative tests for the powertrain as an integrated system in order to meet the increased complexity. This paper presents a method to develop a holistic test strategy for a hybrid and electrical vehicle powertrain. In order to avoid misunderstandings of the used terms, it is necessary to create a standard understanding of them. Therefore, a nomenclature is defined and described. Furthermore, a definition of a holistic test strategy is provided. The focus of this present study is on the powertrain and not on its single subsystems. Subsequently, the four steps of the method are introduced and the current results are presented. Finally, a new developed test element within the holistic test strategy is introduced. The findings of this study support the integrative testing for powertrains. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Development, Implementation (Pilot) and Evaluation of a Demand-Responsive Transport System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010004 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
This paper presents the partial results of the first phases of the BOOLEAN (Bürgerorientierte Optimierung der Leistungsfähigkeit, Effizienz und Attraktivität im Nahverkehr) research project. The demand-responsive transport and operating systems as well as virtual vehicle concepts are developed in a “real-world laboratory” in [...] Read more.
This paper presents the partial results of the first phases of the BOOLEAN (Bürgerorientierte Optimierung der Leistungsfähigkeit, Effizienz und Attraktivität im Nahverkehr) research project. The demand-responsive transport and operating systems as well as virtual vehicle concepts are developed in a “real-world laboratory” in Schorndorf. The demand-responsive transport system is implemented as a part of the existing public transport system and will be tested for nine months. The paper focuses on the derivation of system requirements for the operating system and vehicle concepts. The virtual vehicle concepts developed within the project are specifically designed according to the needs of demand-responsive transport systems and are based on automation technologies and electric propulsion. An inter- and transdisciplinary approach integrates perspectives from the social, technical and computer sciences and various local stakeholders (operators, municipality, politics and citizens of a medium sized town in Southern Germany). Transformative processes are induced, supported and scrutinized during and beyond the pilot phase. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010003 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
This work presents a detailed breakdown of the energy conversion chains from intermittent electricity to a vehicle, considering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The traditional well-to-wheel analysis is adapted to a grid to mobility approach by introducing the [...] Read more.
This work presents a detailed breakdown of the energy conversion chains from intermittent electricity to a vehicle, considering battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The traditional well-to-wheel analysis is adapted to a grid to mobility approach by introducing the intermediate steps of useful electricity, energy carrier and on-board storage. Specific attention is given to an effective coupling with renewable electricity sources and associated storage needs. Actual market data show that, compared to FCEVs, BEVs and their infrastructure are twice as efficient in the conversion of renewable electricity to a mobility service. A much larger difference between BEVs and FCEVs is usually reported in the literature. Focusing on recharging events, this work additionally shows that the infrastructure efficiencies of both electric vehicle (EV) types are very close, with 57% from grid to on-board storage for hydrogen refilling stations and 66% for fast chargers coupled with battery storage. The transfer from the energy carrier at the station to on-board storage in the vehicle accounts for 9% and 12% of the total energy losses of these two modes, respectively. Slow charging modes can achieve a charging infrastructure efficiency of 78% with residential energy storage systems coupled with AC chargers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME): Vehicle and Hydrogen Refuelling Station Deployment Results
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010002 - 19 May 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME, 2015–2022) is the largest European Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (EU FCH JU)-funded hydrogen light vehicle and infrastructure demonstration. Up until April 2017, the 40 Daimler passenger car fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and 62 Symbio Fuel Cell-Range [...] Read more.
Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME, 2015–2022) is the largest European Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (EU FCH JU)-funded hydrogen light vehicle and infrastructure demonstration. Up until April 2017, the 40 Daimler passenger car fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and 62 Symbio Fuel Cell-Range Extended Electric Vans (FC-REEV)-vans deployed by the project drove 625,300 km and consumed a total of 7900 kg of hydrogen with no safety incidents. During its first year of operation (to April 2017), the NEL Hydrogen Fueling HRS (hydrogen refuelling station) in Kolding, Denmark dispensed 900 kg of hydrogen, and demonstrated excellent reliability (98.2% availability) with no safety incidents. The average hydrogen refuelling time for passenger cars is comparable to that for conventional vehicles (2–3 min). Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The World Electric Vehicle Journal, The Open Access Journal for the e-Mobility Scene
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010001 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
The World Electric Vehicle Journal is the first peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. The gaining interest in e-mobility and related fast developments in electric vehicles has been leading to the [...] Read more.
The World Electric Vehicle Journal is the first peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. The gaining interest in e-mobility and related fast developments in electric vehicles has been leading to the need for the academic and industrial world, as well as the societal stakeholders, to have their own open-access journal in which they can share the latest developments and knowledge about electric vehicles. The journal accepts papers from all different disciplines, from new battery technologies, over propulsion system, and charging infrastructure to market developments and consumer behaviour. The World Electric Vehicle Journal is the primary scientific journal serving the interests of the international electric vehicle community. The World Electric Vehicle Journal has been managed by the World Electric Vehicle Association for the 10 years, with support from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and we have decided to further improve our professional approach by setting up the cooperation with MDPI as our professional publisher. Do you want to be inspired by e-mobility? Read more in the article below. Full article
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