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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2013) , Pages 819-1158

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Open AccessArticle
Synergies between electric vehicles and solar electricity penetrations in Portugal
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1151-1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041151 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The aim of this research is to evaluate the complementarity between the electric vehicle (EV) penetration and large scale grid integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) in Portugal in the following decades. The Portuguese electricity system in 2050 is simulated with and without EV [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to evaluate the complementarity between the electric vehicle (EV) penetration and large scale grid integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) in Portugal in the following decades. The Portuguese electricity system in 2050 is simulated with and without EV incorporation. Different EV charging scenarios are considered, allowing the determination of the maximum PV penetration feasible for the different EV charging profiles. Results show that EPIA PV scenarios can only be achieved by mid-day EV charging. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Interdependencies of Home Energy Storage between Electric Vehicle and Stationary Battery
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1144-1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041144 - 27 Dec 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 238
Abstract
Decentralized power generation in private homes, especially by photovoltaic systems, is already common in Germany. The developments of batteries, both for electric vehicles (EV) and for stationary storage might lead to a mass market for those batteries. In this paper we evaluate the [...] Read more.
Decentralized power generation in private homes, especially by photovoltaic systems, is already common in Germany. The developments of batteries, both for electric vehicles (EV) and for stationary storage might lead to a mass market for those batteries. In this paper we evaluate the economy of stationary battery storage with photovoltaic system at home in the context of available EV and its integration level into the home. Therefore, we use an optimization model with one year detailed operation planning and maximize the net present value of the storage investment. We integrate restriction functions for the technical parameters of the storage systems and limit EV availability and usage on the basis of German mobility studies for single vehicles. The results show, that an investment in a stationary battery system in combination with a photovoltaic system is profitable in Germany under the assumptions considered. The observed high numbers of battery cycles lead to strong requirements for battery lifetime, i. e. cycle stability and long calendar life time. Therewith, Li-ion batteries are a promising technology. In combination with an EV, the net present value of the stationary battery system is smaller when the EV is integrated into the home by controlled charging or the vehicle to home (V2H) concept, which allows discharging into the home system. The size of the EV battery, the availability at daytime and the load curve of the home are the main influencing factors for the profitability of the battery system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1136-1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041136 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 197
Abstract
This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental [...] Read more.
This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings during postconversion usage. It was found that conversion would reduce the life cycle energy consumed and emissions produced of a typical motorcycle by 72% and 45% respectively. These findings have important considerations for the current global transportation landscape. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Communication Solutions for a Cloud-Based Charging Management System for a Fleet of Shared-Use Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1125-1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041125 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 218
Abstract
The paper proposes a system architecture for charging infrastructure that serves the requirements of future fleets of shared-use electric vehicles in urban scenarios. The focus of the development is on the interfaces to central stakeholders such as mobility service providers, distribution network operators [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a system architecture for charging infrastructure that serves the requirements of future fleets of shared-use electric vehicles in urban scenarios. The focus of the development is on the interfaces to central stakeholders such as mobility service providers, distribution network operators and utilities. The main concept of the proposed system is the adherence to a stringent resource-oriented design approach, following the design principles of the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural software style for distributed systems. This design approach is used from the cloud-based services down to the implementation of the charging infrastructure’s control algorithms. Focusing on the resources of the various entities simplifies the implementation of their interactions, compared to the explicit declaration of services that are available. The system design ensures that the charging infrastructure is open to all users and generates a benefit beyond basic charging operations. Integration in emerging smart markets is done via open web-based interfaces. These allow for the generation of an added value of concrete services for shared-use electric mobility. A link to the field of grid operation is proposed using the ISO/IEC 61850 telecontrol standard. The smart meter capabilities of the charging stations can be used to gain additional information on the current state of the distribution grid. As an exemplary service a load management service for a fleet of shared-use electric vehicles is going to be implemented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Smart Grid to the Electric Vehicle Ecosystem From a Privacy and Security Perspective
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1115-1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041115 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 241
Abstract
In intelligent transport systems, connectivity of vehicle is the main feature for improving services to the driver and passengers. In Electric Vehicle domain, permanent connectivity is paramount in order to compensate both the limited range and to achieve an effective grid inclusion enabling [...] Read more.
In intelligent transport systems, connectivity of vehicle is the main feature for improving services to the driver and passengers. In Electric Vehicle domain, permanent connectivity is paramount in order to compensate both the limited range and to achieve an effective grid inclusion enabling the availability of electric energy everywhere anytime. The objective of this paper is to present the risk on privacy due to the continuous connectivity between EVs and a smart grid. Privacy is composed of different viewpoints such as technical but also legal and socio-ethical. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Setup to Explore the Drives of Battery Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1109-1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041109 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 211
Abstract
This paper describes an experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of battery-fed electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper, durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers. Multiple experiments [...] Read more.
This paper describes an experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of battery-fed electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper, durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers. Multiple experiments are performed in the form of steady-state system exploring, acceleration programs, multi-step tests (speed control, torque control), load collectives or close-to-reality driving tests (driving simulation). Main focus of the functional testing is on the measurements of power and energy efficiency and investigations in driving simulation mode, which are used for application purposes. In order to enable the examination of the drive trains beyond standard modes of operation, different other parameters can be studied also. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Living Lab Electric vehicles Flanders (Belgium): The influence of testing an EV on the general appreciation of electric mobility
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1102-1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041102 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Numerous studies have already demonstrated the benefits and social relevance of electric vehicles. But why EVs are not yet visible in our streets? To provide an answer to this question the Flemish government has set up five living labs for the deployment of [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have already demonstrated the benefits and social relevance of electric vehicles. But why EVs are not yet visible in our streets? To provide an answer to this question the Flemish government has set up five living labs for the deployment of electric vehicles in 2011. Several studies presented in literature are focused on the consumer and his/her perception, but rarely take into account whether the consumer actually drove an EV. Therefor the iMove- and EVA-platform, as part of The Living Labs, form the ideal environment to investigate the perception of test users. Test drivers were asked to fill-in a same questionnaire before and after the test. Questions included inter alia judging the possible advantages and disadvantages, purchase potential. Many people were interested to test an electric car, although there basic knowledge about EVs was poor. Consumers confirm that the lower cost per kilometer is an important advantage, although it became less crucial after testing. Charging at home is perceived as an important advantage. The limited electric range still remains the main disadvantage, followed by the high purchase price. Consumers clearly underestimated the effect of a limited range. The willingness to purchase an EV within the future is related to the consumer’s idea of when an EV will be a full alternative. The majority consider buying an electric car in the near future (within 4 years). Related to this, one-third of the test population is willing to pay more for an electric car. Full article
Open AccessArticle
CROME: the French and German Field Demonstration of the Interoperable Mobility with EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1094-1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041094 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The project CROME – cross-border mobility for electric vehicles – is the first European field demonstration introducing a standardised and interoperable cross-border charging infrastructure network in the French- German Upper Rhine region. The main aim of the project, funded by different Ministries on [...] Read more.
The project CROME – cross-border mobility for electric vehicles – is the first European field demonstration introducing a standardised and interoperable cross-border charging infrastructure network in the French- German Upper Rhine region. The main aim of the project, funded by different Ministries on both sides of the border, is to create and test a safe, seamless, user-friendly and reliable mobility with electric vehicles between France and Germany. Fully public interoperable charging stations have been implemented ensuring easy access and charging of EVs all over the French and German CROME area. Solutions are developed and tested about charging services enabling simplified authentication, identification, billing as well as charging spot availability and reservation. The achieved CROME market place enables data exchanges and roaming between different operators ICT back-end systems based on the Bosch service brokering platform. Feedback on customer acceptance of e-mobility and user needs with regard to charging is carried out. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Review of Electric Vehicle Technologies Progress and Development Prospect in China
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1086-1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041086 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. In past 15 years, the EVs technologies have improved greatly, and in public [...] Read more.
Developing electric vehicles (EVs) has been chosen as national strategy as solution to energy security and urban air pollution by China. China has invested much to develop electric vehicle technologies. In past 15 years, the EVs technologies have improved greatly, and in public serving field, the electric vehicle were used in large-scale. The traction battery and electric motor technologies were improved distinguished. By the EVs demonstration programs, the mainstream technology roadmap in line with China’s national conditions is becoming gradually clear. In this paper, the progress of China EVs technologies breakthrough and industrialization, pushing policies (government and local government) were summarized. The progress on EVs demonstration program was reviewed and the effectiveness was evaluated. The technology roadmap of traction battery, fuel cell, and electric motor for EVs in past years was concluded. The different technological roadmaps were evaluated by effects in demonstration program. Based on the review of the progress of China EVs R&D and demonstration program, the existing problems and future challenges in EV development were put forth. And the future electric transportation in China was proposed, including electric powertrain technologies roadmap, electric car model strategy, EV industrialization strategy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effective public policies for EV-dissemination
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1079-1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041079 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 169
Abstract
In the Netherlands local governments have great influence on the dissemination of electric cars, on top of the national governments policies. Local governments use several instruments to stimulate EV’s in their municipalities. To determine the effectiveness of the individual instruments, a research has [...] Read more.
In the Netherlands local governments have great influence on the dissemination of electric cars, on top of the national governments policies. Local governments use several instruments to stimulate EV’s in their municipalities. To determine the effectiveness of the individual instruments, a research has been executed amongst 74 municipalities in the Netherlands. The effect of the different instruments on the number of both FEV’s and REEV’s have been researched. The most effective instruments were: the implementation of charging infrastructure, the municipality as launching customer and an investment subsidy for buyers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1068-1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041068 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 188
Abstract
This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in [...] Read more.
This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission’s White Paper. The required target levels are found to depend strongly on the contribution that passenger cars need to make to reaching the overall target, on the assumed growth of passenger car mobility, and on the extent to which biofuels could be available for fuelling passenger cars. To what extent electric vehicles and other low emission vehicles such as plug-in hybrids and fuel cell electric vehicles are needed to meet the post-2020 targets depends on the target level and on the minimum CO2 emissions that can be reached in conventional vehicles. Almost all assessed scenarios, require significant amounts of low emission vehicles to be sold from 2030 or 2035 onwards. Electric and plug-in vehicles are in the early stage of market introduction now, but developments are fragile could end up in a “valley of death”. Defining a sufficiently low passenger car CO2 target for 2025 may be an effective instrument to motivate manufacturers to continue their efforts in the marketing and further development of these vehicles. This is important for maintaining the momentum of the transition towards large-scale application of low CO2 emitting vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Understanding the automotive industry: German OEM behaviour during the last 20 years and its implications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1054-1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041054 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 209
Abstract
This work presents a study of how the automotive industry has responded in the last 20 years to pressures driven by economic and environmental issues, and by the transition towards electric mobility. Timelines for the major German automotive OEMs are presented to understand [...] Read more.
This work presents a study of how the automotive industry has responded in the last 20 years to pressures driven by economic and environmental issues, and by the transition towards electric mobility. Timelines for the major German automotive OEMs are presented to understand the industry’s behaviour in the past in order to design suitable policies that are appropriate to reach future goals around the electrification of road transport. Based upon a comparison of the pressures arising in the automotive sector and the companies’ behaviour with regard to technology choice and R&D, a set of hypotheses concerning this behaviour is then presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
California’s ZEV Action Plan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1048-1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041048 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Accelerating the market for zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) is a cornerstone of California’s long-term transportation strategy to reduce localized pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, save consumers money, and enable continued economic growth. In addition to promoting these vehicle technologies, the state supports the development [...] Read more.
Accelerating the market for zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) is a cornerstone of California’s long-term transportation strategy to reduce localized pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, save consumers money, and enable continued economic growth. In addition to promoting these vehicle technologies, the state supports the development and use of low carbon fuels, as well as planning more environmentally sustainable communities that reduce unnecessary vehicle travel and congestion. In March 2012 Governor Brown signed an Executive Order calling for 1.5 million ZEVs by 2025. To identify specific actions that the State can take to reach this goal, the Governor’s Office with the input from a Governor’s Office Interagency Working Group developed the 2013 ZEV Action Plan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Recycling Efficiency of Li-ion EV batteries according to the European Commission Regulation, and the relation with the End-of-Life Vehicles Directive recycling rate
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1039-1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041039 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 302
Abstract
In Europe, batteries from electric vehicles are subject to the EC Directive 2006/66/EC (Batteries Directive). This Directive regulates the end-of-life management and sets targets on the recycling efficiency. The concept of battery recycling efficiency goes beyond the recycling target of the End-of-Life Vehicles [...] Read more.
In Europe, batteries from electric vehicles are subject to the EC Directive 2006/66/EC (Batteries Directive). This Directive regulates the end-of-life management and sets targets on the recycling efficiency. The concept of battery recycling efficiency goes beyond the recycling target of the End-of-Life Vehicles directive. The paper describes the meaning of the recycling efficiency and illustrates how it is calculated in the case of Li-ion battery recycling according to the Umicore battery recycling process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EV Market Development Pathways – An Application of System Dynamics for Policy Simulation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1030-1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041030 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 254
Abstract
The transport sector, in particular road transport, is a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, contributing to climate change. There is increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars (e.g. in the EU, the [...] Read more.
The transport sector, in particular road transport, is a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, contributing to climate change. There is increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars (e.g. in the EU, the Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 sets the limit of CO2 emissions of new passenger cars to 95 g of CO2 from 2020 [1]). Today, the global vehicle stock has more than 1 billion units and relies almost entirely on oil-based energy. According to various projections, the global vehicle fleet could double or even triple by 2050. The energy and environmental implications of such increase would not be negligible. In this context, it is argued that the electrification of the global vehicle fleet emerges as a desirable goal. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to help meet key energy and environmental goals, leading to a decrease in oil imports, an increase in energy independency and to a decrease in CO2 emissions. This paper focuses on the EV market penetration in key OECD countries as well as in China and India, considering various vehicle technologies for passenger light-duty vehicles (PLDVs). In particular, the paper investigates the impacts of EVs on oil demand and CO2 emissions in the countries of interest under various scenarios until 2050. For this purpose, a System Dynamics (SD) model is developed and the results of various simulations assessed. The output of the model includes possible future market shares of EVs as well as their specific energy and environmental impacts. Our results show to what extent EVs can potentially contribute to reduce oil dependency and CO2 emissions in the countries analysed beyond 2030. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Conflicting interests in defining an 'optimal' battery size when introducing the PHEV?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1021-1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041021 - 27 Dec 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 213
Abstract
The PHEV is an interesting option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport or to increase energy security without losing performance in car operation. However finding an optimal battery size is of great importance for the overall economic and environmental performance of the [...] Read more.
The PHEV is an interesting option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport or to increase energy security without losing performance in car operation. However finding an optimal battery size is of great importance for the overall economic and environmental performance of the PHEVs. This study investigates the resulting vehicle design, and fleet composition and performance when optimising the PHEV battery with respect to different objective functions possibly reflecting different actors’ interest: number of PHEVs, cumulative cost savings and share of electric driving respectively under various assumptions concerning policies and costs. A recently available data set of car movements, containing 445 privately driven Swedish cars that have been measured with GPS-equipment for 1-2 months each is utilized to get a representative car fleet. We find that the battery size and fleet performance are heavily influenced by not only the choice of objective function for the optimization but also by its interaction with the cost structure and performance requirement in the transition from an energy efficient fuel-driven car to a PHEV. The effect of different policies may also vary depending on these conditions and may favour various actors’ interests differently. We conclude that these aspects are important to consider both when designing vehicles and when formulating policies for the introduction of PHEVs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Promotion of Freight Mobility in Milan: Environmental, Energy and Economical Aspects
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1014-1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041014 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 195
Abstract
In order to improve air quality in the Controlled Traffic Zone “Area C” of Milan, in addition to the rules already in force, two topics now under consideration by the municipality are the increase of car-sharing and measures to stimulate the use of [...] Read more.
In order to improve air quality in the Controlled Traffic Zone “Area C” of Milan, in addition to the rules already in force, two topics now under consideration by the municipality are the increase of car-sharing and measures to stimulate the use of electric vehicles, including their adoption for the last-mile delivery of goods. The paper presents the evaluation of the potential benefits of electric vehicles, in particular for the case of goods delivery. Comparisons to present i.c.e. based vehicles are presented in terms of economical aspects (from the point of view of the end user and of the Country), energy consumption and pollution impact (both local and global). Also the contribution to costs and pollution of two-wheels motor vehicles is taken into consideration in order to give a more complete overview of the different traffic segments. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The EV Everywhere Grand Challenge
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 1008-1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6041008 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 262
Abstract
In March 2012, President Obama announced the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge—to produce plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) as affordable and convenient for the American family as gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. The U.S. Department of Energy developed a framing document and conducted a series of [...] Read more.
In March 2012, President Obama announced the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge—to produce plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) as affordable and convenient for the American family as gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. The U.S. Department of Energy developed a framing document and conducted a series of public workshops to obtain input on the plan, leading to an EV Everywhere Blueprint issued in January 2013. DOE released a funding opportunity announcement for up to $50 million of R&D to support EV Everywhere in March 2013. The solicitation sought projects on advanced batteries, electric motors and power electronics for electric drive systems, vehicle lightweighting, climate control technologies, and charging infrastructure. This paper describes the specific technical targets set forth and describes the areas of research to be undertaken to achieve the targets and goals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How expensive are electric vehicles? A total cost of ownership analysis.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 996-1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040996 - 27 Dec 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 277
Abstract
This paper presents a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for three different car segments. The goal is to investigate the cost efficiency of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. All costs that occur during the expected vehicle’s lifespan are included: purchase cost, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for three different car segments. The goal is to investigate the cost efficiency of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. All costs that occur during the expected vehicle’s lifespan are included: purchase cost, registration tax, vehicle road tax, maintenance, tires and technical control cost, insurance cost, battery leasing cost, battery replacement cost and fuel or electricity cost. Results are shown per vehicle segment and illustrate the share of all cost components. We find that current electric vehicles are only cost attractive within the premium car segment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Using dynamic scenario analyses to evaluate how market factors could shape San Diego California New Car buyer’s interest in purchasing a Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 986-995; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040986 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 220
Abstract
This analysis creates three temporally sequential hypothetical future time periods for a PEV market. In these scenarios, we present six factors which are likely to influence PEV ownership. These factors are the incremental cost of PEVs, the size of vehicles available for purchase, [...] Read more.
This analysis creates three temporally sequential hypothetical future time periods for a PEV market. In these scenarios, we present six factors which are likely to influence PEV ownership. These factors are the incremental cost of PEVs, the size of vehicles available for purchase, the vehicle manufacturers producing PEVs, vehicle turnover, the cost to install home charging infrastructure and the authority to install charging infrastructure at a primary residence. In each time period the characteristics of the vehicle and consumer market change to capture the dynamics of vehicle supply and new car buyers. Results from a mixed-method questionnaire of 470 San Diego California residents is matched with the hypothetical scenarios created for this analysis, which provides a baseline measure of how interest in PEVs might evolve over time for San Diego CA new car buyers. Incremental changes from the baseline conditions in each of the factors illustrate how different strategies such as: price reduction, larger vehicles offered for sale, introduction of new makes producing PEVs, and workplace charging infrastructure, might play a role in changing the pool of San Diego CA new car buyers who are interested in purchasing a PEV. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Market potential for electric vehicles in the German commercial passenger transport sector
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 976-985; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040976 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Commercial transport is often referred to as an early market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In comparison to private transport, commercial transport with passenger cars is characterized by higher vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) forming an important factor for a quick pay-off of PEVs. [...] Read more.
Commercial transport is often referred to as an early market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In comparison to private transport, commercial transport with passenger cars is characterized by higher vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) forming an important factor for a quick pay-off of PEVs. In this paper, we analyze multi-day driving profiles of German passenger cars and light-duty commercial vehicles from the commercial transport sector. These commercial vehicles amount to almost two thirds of the annual vehicle registrations in Germany and thus form an important market segment. Our analysis shows that about 30 % of German commercial vehicles could be economically operated as PEVs in 2020. However, it becomes apparent that energy and battery prices have a high impact on the future market share of plug-in electric vehicles in this segment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lessons Learned from the Danish EV Living Lab
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 969-975; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040969 - 27 Dec 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 189
Abstract
The success of EVs in the marketplace will highly depend on the end-user acceptance. Insero E-Mobility has examined the user acceptance of EVs through a living lab study, where 80 Danish families used EVs for a period of 8-10 weeks as their only [...] Read more.
The success of EVs in the marketplace will highly depend on the end-user acceptance. Insero E-Mobility has examined the user acceptance of EVs through a living lab study, where 80 Danish families used EVs for a period of 8-10 weeks as their only car. The study included a general test and identification of problems faced during usage as well as positive features of the EVs. Fleet potentials were additionally investigated with two trials in departments in Danish municipalities for 14 days. The living lab approach was used to reveal actual and latent needs as well as to facilitate innovation processes with the purpose of rendering input for product and business model development that will increase chance of end-user acceptance of EVs in the future. Long term public user trials has also in the case of the Danish EV Living Lab proven to provide comprehensive and rich amount of information on end customer needs and perceptions that can be used to define value across a range of attributes considered in vehicle purchasing decisions. Key conclusions are that 90% of families found that an EV could fulfil their demands but that range is an important issue even though it is mostly a psychological barrier. For fleets the EVs make sense to an extent depending on the predictability of driving behaviour and available infrastructure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
GPS measurement of Swedish car movements for assessment of possible electrification
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 955-968; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040955 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 193
Abstract
To enhance the transition to electrified vehicles, such as PHEVs, the use patterns of cars need to be well understood and thus information about individual vehicle’s movements over longer time periods is needed. This is of major importance for instance for optimal powertrain [...] Read more.
To enhance the transition to electrified vehicles, such as PHEVs, the use patterns of cars need to be well understood and thus information about individual vehicle’s movements over longer time periods is needed. This is of major importance for instance for optimal powertrain and battery design, estimation of consumer viability and potential for PHEVs and for assessment of policies for shifting energy use in transport sector from fuel to electricity. Good and publicly available data of this kind is today unfortunately lacking. The aim of this project has been to gather a larger amount of data on the characteristics and distribution of individual movements for privately driven cars in Sweden by measurement with GPS equipment. The logging was performed with commercial equipment containing a GPS unit, including a roof-mounted antenna, and a gprs communication unit. Data logged (2.5 Hz) were: time, position, velocity, and number and id of used satellites. The measurements started in June 2010 and ended in September 2012. The target has been to accomplish good quality measurements of at least 30 days for about 500 representative vehicles. The paper includes a description of the project, an analysis of its representativeness and some car movement statistics for the full results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric versus conventional vehicles for logistics: A total cost of ownership
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 945-954; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040945 - 27 Dec 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 307
Abstract
Today, different measures are investigated to solve the challenge of a sustainable urban freight transport. Among them, electric vehicles are often viewed as an interesting solution but the purchase cost of these vehicles is commonly seen as a barrier to their adoption. However [...] Read more.
Today, different measures are investigated to solve the challenge of a sustainable urban freight transport. Among them, electric vehicles are often viewed as an interesting solution but the purchase cost of these vehicles is commonly seen as a barrier to their adoption. However the different cost structure between electric and conventional vehicles makes an analysis of every cost particularly needed if fleet managers want to assess the real competitiveness of the vehicles. As a result, we developed a total cost of ownership model to assess the competitiveness of light commercial vehicles in the Brussels-Capital Region. This paper presents the results of the total cost of ownership analysis on 8 battery electric vehicles, 5 diesel vehicles and 2 petrol vehicles. The results of a sensitivity analysis of the model are also presented. The electric vehicles were found to be competitive with conventional vehicles in the category of the quadricycles and the light commercial vehicles with a payload lower than 1,000kg: five out of six battery electric vehicles had a cost lower than the conventional vehicles of their category. The situation is inverted for the battery electric vehicles with a payload above 1,000kg where the costs are always higher than the conventional vehicles because of the expensive purchase and battery costs. Since battery electric vehicles are found to be a viable solution for some parts of the logistics, the next challenge should be to convince the fleet managers of the benefits of battery electric vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modelling customer choice and market development for future automotive powertrain technologies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 935-944; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040935 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The paper introduces an innovative utility-based approach to model customer choice for alternative powertrain technologies within a dynamic scenario tool. The study covers a wide portfolio of different powertrain concepts from conventional combustion engines to advanced hybrid and electric cars. The assessment of [...] Read more.
The paper introduces an innovative utility-based approach to model customer choice for alternative powertrain technologies within a dynamic scenario tool. The study covers a wide portfolio of different powertrain concepts from conventional combustion engines to advanced hybrid and electric cars. The assessment of their economic and technical attributes builds on a large set of vehicle simulation data and detailed cost models. In contrast to previous cost-based studies the applied methodology maps the observed diversity of user characteristics more realistically. Therefore, the driving behaviour and preferences of car buyers are analysed empirically based on major representative surveys and the resulting distribution functions are integrated in the model. After testing and validation with historic data the model is applied to the German vehicle market and a potential scenario for the prospective composition of the new passenger car fleet by 2030 is presented. The scenario simulation shows that a significant reduction of CO2 emissions is feasible especially by the introduction of plug-in hybrids and range extended electric vehicles. However, the growing technical complexity and the additional effort for efficiency improvements also result in increasing total costs of ownership for the customer. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How well can early adopters of electric vehicles be identified?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 928-934; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040928 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Electric vehicles have recently been introduced to market in Europe. Policy makers as well as car manufacturers have great interest to understand the first group of electric vehicle users, the so-called ‘early adopters’. Several studies have tried to determine the potential early adopters [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have recently been introduced to market in Europe. Policy makers as well as car manufacturers have great interest to understand the first group of electric vehicle users, the so-called ‘early adopters’. Several studies have tried to determine the potential early adopters of electric vehicles from different angles. However, the number of available studies is limited and little is known about the actual statistical significance of characteristics for this important user group. Here we characterize the potential first users of electric vehicles from an economic perspective and ask which driving profiles make an electric vehicle cost-effective. To this end, we analyze a large database of German driving profiles and find the share of potential first users from different city sizes and statuses of employment. We first find the potential and in a second step study the statistical significance and robustness of the result by (1) performing Chi-square tests of the differences between potential early adopters and other vehicle owners and (2) varying important input parameters of our estimates. We find our characterization of the early adopters to be robust if battery prices and consumption costs are sufficiently favorable for a not too small group of users. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The business case of electric vehicle quick charging – no more chicken or egg problem
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 921-927; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040921 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 210
Abstract
One of the major problems slowing down electrical vehicle (EV) adoption is the lack of sufficient infrastructure. We can often hear of the chicken or egg problem. But the charging infrastructure problem is smaller than generally thought. By analysing the economics of EV [...] Read more.
One of the major problems slowing down electrical vehicle (EV) adoption is the lack of sufficient infrastructure. We can often hear of the chicken or egg problem. But the charging infrastructure problem is smaller than generally thought. By analysing the economics of EV quick charging stations it can be shown that building and sustaining adequate EV charging network does not require massive investments, and on the other hand, profitability of a single charging station can be achieved with a moderate number of EVs due to high polarisation of customer needs, leading to daily charging needs of certain user groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle
NextEnergy Center’s Highlights on Global Lithium Ion Battery Supply Chain Dynamics and Domestic Opportunities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 909-920; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040909 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Lithium ion batteries are utilized in a range of applications including grid support and powering consumer electronics, medical devices, and electric vehicles. Advocacy for, as well as public and private investment in hybrid cars and electric vehicles has resulted in a surge in [...] Read more.
Lithium ion batteries are utilized in a range of applications including grid support and powering consumer electronics, medical devices, and electric vehicles. Advocacy for, as well as public and private investment in hybrid cars and electric vehicles has resulted in a surge in research and development (R&D) to create more powerful and cost effective lithium ion batteries. This high level of interest has also led to rapid expansion of battery manufacture capacity and has resulted in the over-capacity and fragmentation of the industry. Due to the disjointed quality of the lithium-ion battery industry, opportunities for collaboration and growth, resulting from numerous innovations throughout the supply chain, are overlooked. [1] Although range anxiety is often portrayed as the primary reason electric vehicle adoption is not growing more rapidly by the general population, the cost of vehicles is actually the larger issue. At present, the battery pack is the highest cost component driving the price of EVs. A year-long study was conducted by NextEnergy to obtain a better understanding of the size, scope, and supply chain dynamics of the lithium ion battery and next-generation energy storage systems industries. One major objective of the study was to better understand and define areas of opportunity for cost reduction, the results of which are presented in this paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Global Service Provider for Electric Vehicle Roaming
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 898-908; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040898 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Due to the rising number of electromobility business entities (electric vehicle supply equipment operators and electromobility service providers), electric vehicle users are faced with a growing complexity in the use of public charging infrastructure, especially on a greater geographical scale. The development of [...] Read more.
Due to the rising number of electromobility business entities (electric vehicle supply equipment operators and electromobility service providers), electric vehicle users are faced with a growing complexity in the use of public charging infrastructure, especially on a greater geographical scale. The development of electromobility calls for interoperability between all electromobility entities in order to enable roaming of EV users and remove the present barriers in EV users’ access to the public charging infrastructure. The paper describes the elementary processes related to EV charging (charging, reservation of charging spot, billing of charging service fee), the roles of electromobility entities in these processes, and their importance for the development of the roaming system. ETREL has developed an integrated roaming solution introducing a new entity, the global service provider, which mediates between the electromobility entities to enable roaming. The paper discusses the architecture and functionalities of the roaming scheme which comprises the global service provider. The paper also describes individual elements of the global service provider’s ICT system. The EV charging processes are explained again, this time in relation to roaming and with a focus on global service provider’s role in the processes. The final section of the paper proposes further steps to expand the roaming scheme functionalities and its geographical scope, where standardization or at least an agreement on ICT interfaces, application level protocols, and software services plays the key role. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Having a Cutting Point - Testing and Development Environment at TU Dortmund University
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 893-897; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6040893 - 27 Dec 2013
Viewed by 312
Abstract
This paper presents the technology and testing platform for interoperable e-mobility, infrastructure and power grids at TU Dortmund University. That environment allows to emulate several power grid states and to analyse the behaviour of charging station and EV regarding to both electrical and [...] Read more.
This paper presents the technology and testing platform for interoperable e-mobility, infrastructure and power grids at TU Dortmund University. That environment allows to emulate several power grid states and to analyse the behaviour of charging station and EV regarding to both electrical and ICT aspects. Using this technology platform we developed an alternative method for Residual Current Detection with DC components in electrical vehicle charging. Standard methods are not very well suited for these requirements, because they are very expensive and need a manual reset. The method which is presented in this paper detects the fault current by using an AC/DC summation current transformer in the electric vehicle. The fault current is announced by a fault state. A control unit in the charging station detects the fault state which is transmitted by using the control pilot. The cut-off is done by the already existing charging contactor which is included in the charging station. The fault state is transmitted by using the control pilot. The here presented protection method has a comparable security level to typically used protection devices. It allows cost savings by a factor up to 50. It can be used also for cut-off by detecting an isolation failure. Full article
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