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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2009) – 23 articles , Pages 1-208

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2048 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of PHEVs Fuel Efficiency and Cost Using Monte Carlo Analysis
by Gregoire Faron, Sylvain Pagerit and Aymeric Rousseau
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 196-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010196 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) offer a great opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The potential fuel displacement is influenced by several parameters, including powertrain configuration, component technology, drive cycle, distance… The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of component [...] Read more.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) offer a great opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The potential fuel displacement is influenced by several parameters, including powertrain configuration, component technology, drive cycle, distance… The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of component assumptions on fuel efficiency using Monte Carlo analysis. When providing simulation results, researchers agree that a single value cannot be used due to large amount of uncertainties. In previous papers, we have used triangular distribution, but assuming that all inputs were correlated lead to improper results. Monte Carlo allows users to properly evaluate uncertainties while taking dependencies into account. To do so, uncertainties are defined for several inputs, including efficiency, mass and cost. For each assumption, an uncertainty distribution will be defined to evaluate the fuel efficiency and cost of a particular vehicle with a determined probability. Full article
1231 KiB  
Article
Impact of Real World Drive Cycles on PHEV Fuel Efficiency and Cost for Different Powertrain and Battery Characteristics
by Ayman Moawad, Gurhari Singh, Simeon Hagspiel, Mohamed Fellah and Aymeric Rousseau
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 186-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010186 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
For the past couple of years, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce petroleum consumptions. However, more than any other vehicle powertrain, their benefits are dependent on the driving cycles from both an aggressiveness and distance point of view. [...] Read more.
For the past couple of years, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce petroleum consumptions. However, more than any other vehicle powertrain, their benefits are dependent on the driving cycles from both an aggressiveness and distance point of view. In this paper, two powertrain configurations will be defined. A power split configuration will be used for low battery energy and a series configuration for high battery energy. For each vehicle we will evaluate several control strategies, including electrical dominant and blended, on real world drive cycles. A conventional vehicle will be defined to use as a baseline. The trade-off between fuel displacement and cost will be evaluated for each option. Full article
1324 KiB  
Article
Electric vehicles – A model based assessment of future market prospects and environmental impacts
by Peter Mock, Dirk Hülsebusch, Jörg Ungethüm and Stephan A. Schmid
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 172-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010172 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Assessing future market prospects and environmental impacts of electric vehicles requires taking into account the competitive situation with regard to established conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. The Modelica library AlternativeVehicles is used to analyse energy consumption of battery (BEV), extended range electric (EREV) as [...] Read more.
Assessing future market prospects and environmental impacts of electric vehicles requires taking into account the competitive situation with regard to established conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. The Modelica library AlternativeVehicles is used to analyse energy consumption of battery (BEV), extended range electric (EREV) as well as fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV). Costs of technical measures for enhancing conventional vehicles, as well as cost curves for batteries and fuel cells are assessed. Using a newly developed model, VECTOR21, customer purchase decision is modeled to derive future market shares of propulsion technologies and fuels, taking into account energy consumption, energy prices and taxation as relevant influencing factors. Two different scenarios demonstrate the dependency of future market prospects on a set of general conditions. With electricity and hydrogen being produced from renewable energy sources, as well as implementation of strict regulations regarding CO2, BEV and FCHEV could achieve a market share of up to approx. 65 % on the German new passenger car market by 2030. CO2 emissions of the vehicle stock could be reduced by approx. 65 % in this scenario. In a less ambitious scenario a market share of approx. 20 % is seen for BEV, with no application of FCHEV in the long run. CO2 emissions of the vehicle stock could be reduced by approx. 40 % in this scenario. Full article
3681 KiB  
Article
New technologies demonstrated at Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy 2008
by Giampiero Brusaglino, Giuseppe Buja, Massimiliana Carello, Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Christopher H. Onder and Monica Razzetti
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 160-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010160 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
From 1 to 3 October 2008 the Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy took place in the Safety Testing Center of Fiat Group Automobiles in Orbassano (TO), Italy. This fourth edition of Formula EHI, an international competitive demonstration of research outcomes from university student [...] Read more.
From 1 to 3 October 2008 the Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy took place in the Safety Testing Center of Fiat Group Automobiles in Orbassano (TO), Italy. This fourth edition of Formula EHI, an international competitive demonstration of research outcomes from university student teams, has brought to the attention of the public and of the industry new technologies and innovative applications in the area of the systems addressing the ecological mobility. Teams from five European countries were the protagonists of the event. Several projects, components, systems and concept have been presented, related to advanced technologies for battery electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. New technology hybrid, fuel cell and electric vehicles took part to the dynamic test on track for the evaluation of energy efficiency performance and dynamic behaviour. The 2008 event was a further step of the editions of Formula TECH held in the previous years and offered a benchmarking overview of the progress of the technology in the field of electrically propelled vehicles. Full article
931 KiB  
Article
Developing applicable driving cycle for retrofitted Plug-In Hybrid ElectricVehicles (PHEVs): environmental impact assessment
by V. Wynen, F.-S. Boureima, J. Matheys, P. Van den Bossche and J. Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 147-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010147 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
According to estimates by two market research companies [1], the proportion of hybrid vehicles in world vehicle registrations will increase from about 1.25 percent in 2010 to a maximum of 18 percent in 2020. A recent EURELECTRIC report [2] calls the plug-in hybrid [...] Read more.
According to estimates by two market research companies [1], the proportion of hybrid vehicles in world vehicle registrations will increase from about 1.25 percent in 2010 to a maximum of 18 percent in 2020. A recent EURELECTRIC report [2] calls the plug-in hybrid “a logical development of the hybrid vehicle,” and envisions a potential PHEV market share in Europe of 8 to 20 percent by 2030. The global market for PHEVs is estimated to reach 130,000 vehicles by 2015 [3]. In light of this trend, standardization is needed. The primary objective of standardization is to lower development and production costs and ensure consistent quality, while at the same time satisfying all the demands of practical vehicle operation [4]. Adequate standards for measuring the performance or fuel consumption as well as the emission measurement standards do satisfy customer demand for comparable figures between hybrid models and conventional vehicles. The main objective of this paper is to provide a new adapted type approval test procedure for homologation purposes to better reflect the real environmental benefits of this type of vehicles. The driving cycle is based on the New European Driving Cycle. The environmental assessment together with the new Ecoscores [5] of retrofitted large family cars and SUV’s are evaluated. Full article
884 KiB  
Article
Charging Stations for Urban Settings the design of a product platform for electric vehicle infrastructure in Dutch cities
by C.E. Hatton, S.K. Beella, J.C. Brezet and Y.C. Wijnia
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 134-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010134 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
This paper reflects the essential role of supportive infrastructure in the mass implementation of electric drive vehicle technology. A focus is placed on the development of comprehensive systems that provide efficient and diverse recharging solutions for vehicle drivers. Mass adoption of electric mobility [...] Read more.
This paper reflects the essential role of supportive infrastructure in the mass implementation of electric drive vehicle technology. A focus is placed on the development of comprehensive systems that provide efficient and diverse recharging solutions for vehicle drivers. Mass adoption of electric mobility will reflect advances in the vehicles themselves, their infrastructural networks, and their position in the automotive market. Progress in these areas is highly related, and mandates coordinated design efforts. This paper discusses current problem areas, ongoing developments, and future trends in the design and development of charging systems for battery electric vehicles. The application of infrastructures that are simple, familiar, and context-sensitive is essential to promote consumer confidence and thereby enable successful market penetration. Specific requirements and conditions for the design of infrastructure systems for electric mobility are presented. Full article
828 KiB  
Article
Capacity Measurements of Li-Ion Batteries using AC Impedance Spectroscopy
by J.L. Jespersen, A.E. Tønnesen, K. Nørregaard, L. Overgaard and F. Elefsen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 127-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010127 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
This work presents AC impedance measurements (EIS) on a Li-Tec 40 Ah Li-Ion battery cell, including measurements in a climate chamber at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to provide a preliminary basis for estimating the potential of using EIS as [...] Read more.
This work presents AC impedance measurements (EIS) on a Li-Tec 40 Ah Li-Ion battery cell, including measurements in a climate chamber at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to provide a preliminary basis for estimating the potential of using EIS as a diagnostic tool for battery capacity measurements. In order to estimate the feasibility a Li-Ion battery cell is characterized by several EIS measurement, including measurements in a controlled temperature environment. From the measurements it can be seen that the impedance spectrum indeed changes as a function of State-of-Charge (SOC). However, measurements also show that the same spectrum is also strongly temperature dependent. Is is however concluded that EIS can potentially be used as a capacity diagnostic tool if a non-isothermal battery model based on EIS input data can be developed. The climate chamber measurements also features temperature data of the battery temperature compared to surrounding temperature, this data shows that a battery voltage drop will invoke a battery temperature increase. As the impedance measurements presented in this work are carried out on flexible low-cost Labview platform using conventional data acquisition equipment, suggestions have been presented on how EIS, as a diagnostic tool, preferably can be embedded in the battery management system. Full article
690 KiB  
Article
Research and Development Work on Lithium-ion Batteries for Enviromental Vehicles
by Takaaki Abe, Kazuki Miyatake, Yoshio Shimoida and Hideaki Horie
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 119-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010119 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
In the first stage of our research and development work on high-performance lithium-ion batteries from the early to the mid-1990s, a high-energy-capacity battery was investigated with the aim of applying it to electric vehicles (EVs). The second stage of our program concerned studies [...] Read more.
In the first stage of our research and development work on high-performance lithium-ion batteries from the early to the mid-1990s, a high-energy-capacity battery was investigated with the aim of applying it to electric vehicles (EVs). The second stage of our program concerned studies of a lithium-ion battery for application to series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs), and the third stage was mainly focused on a high- power lithium-ion battery for use on parallel hybrids (PHEVs). The results of those studies demonstrated that lithium-ion batteries are the best battery systems for use on these environmental vehicles. A battery simulation program was also constructed concurrently with those investigations for use as a tool in verifying the superiority of lithium-ion batteries. This simulation program takes into account the electrochemical phenomena that occur inside the battery, especially the effect of lithium-ion diffusion on power output characteristics. In the present study, battery simulations were performed to quantify the flow of ions inside the battery. This paper presents the results of sensitivity analyses concerning the electrode structural parameters influencing the long-duration power output characteristic that is required of batteries for use on EVs and SHEVs. Full article
616 KiB  
Article
Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Considering Magnetic saturation
by Jae-Woo Jung, Jeong-Jong Lee, Soon-O Kwon, Jung-Pyo Hong, Senior Member and IEEE Ki-Nam Kim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 114-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010114 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Generally, design of the parts of an automobile is restricted by space especially components assembled in the engine room. Therefore traction motor for hybrid electric vehicle is designed by interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The IPMSM has high power density and efficiency [...] Read more.
Generally, design of the parts of an automobile is restricted by space especially components assembled in the engine room. Therefore traction motor for hybrid electric vehicle is designed by interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The IPMSM has high power density and efficiency because it generates not only magnetic torque but also reluctance torque. However, IPMSM is difficult to design due to magnetic saturation and lots of analysis methods are required. Equivalent circuit analysis (ECA) is one of the design methods of IPMSM and it is generally used for characteristics analysis. Using the ECA, we can calculate the characteristics quickly. However, ECA can not estimate line current exactly because of saturation of magnetic core and flux weakening control. In order to perform the ECA exactly, calculation of parameters such as phase resistance, d- and q-axis inductance and no-load linkage flux are important. The phase resistance is simply calculated by using linear equation which is geometrical problem. However, dand q-axis inductance is nonlinear problem which is varied with current level and current angle. Therefore, nonlinear finite element analysis is necessary. Conventional ECA is considered only d- and q-axis inductance profile but no-load linkage flux is considered as constant value. However, no-load linkage flux of IPMSM is also varied according to current level and current angle similar with d- and q-axis inductance profile. Therefore, no-load linkage flux profile which is calculated case of current level and current angle should be considered in the ECA. In this paper, the calculation method of no-load linkage flux profile is introduced firstly and then characteristic of specific model is analyzed with proposed method. The result of line current from improved ECA is compared with experimental result and result of conventional ECA. Full article
1231 KiB  
Article
Building a hydrogen infrastructure in Norway
by Christoph Stiller, Ann Mari Svensson, Eva Rosenberg, Steffen Møller-Holst and Ulrich Bünger
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 104-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010104 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Hydrogen is expected to become an integral part of the Norwegian energy system in the future, primarily as a fuel for transportation. The NorWays project aims at providing decision support for introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system by modelling the energy [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is expected to become an integral part of the Norwegian energy system in the future, primarily as a fuel for transportation. The NorWays project aims at providing decision support for introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system by modelling the energy system and hydrogen infrastructure build-up at various spatial levels. GIS-based regional hydrogen demand scenarios and hydrogen refuelling station networks have been generated, considering organic growth of regional hydrogen deployment and increasing density of hydrogen users over time. A regional model was used to optimise supply scenarios for these hydrogen refuelling station networks, including choice of production technology (biomass gasification, NG SMR, electrolysis, by-product hydrogen) and delivery (pipeline, truck, and onsite schemes) as well as integrated hydrogen delivery networks by truck and pipeline. The sensitivity to variations in energy price and GHG emission constraint scenarios on hydrogen production and delivery mix and average hydrogen costs was assessed, and conclusions on the effectiveness of policy measures were drawn. Full article
1010 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of 12 Electrically Assisted Bicycles
by Jean-Marc Timmermans, Julien Matheys, Philippe Lataire, Joeri Van Mierlo and Jan Cappelle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 93-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010093 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
A sample of 12 electric bicycles offered on the Belgian and Italian markets was the subject of a comparative quality and performance study. This sample contains electric bicycles of different price categories and with different drive technologies. This paper describes the test program [...] Read more.
A sample of 12 electric bicycles offered on the Belgian and Italian markets was the subject of a comparative quality and performance study. This sample contains electric bicycles of different price categories and with different drive technologies. This paper describes the test program that was used for the study and reveals the differences that were observed between the test samples. The electric bicycles were tested on the road in the Brussels region. An appreciation of the electric traction offered by the bicycle in different situations was given: electrical assistance at start, on a flat road, when riding uphill and when decelerating or braking with the bicycle. The vehicle’s driving range under real driving conditions, was determined for the different electric bicycles. Also the electricity consumption when recharging the traction battery was measured and allowed to make an analysis of the cost for driving an electric bicycle. An environmental analysis (well-to-wheel) was made of the electric bicycles and put against the environmental impact of a thermal moped and an electric scooter. Full article
968 KiB  
Article
Potential reductions of CO2 emissions due to the landside accessibility of Brussels Airport through adapted policy measures and use of electric vehicles
by J. Matheys, N. Sergeant, J.-M. Timmermans, F.-S. Boureima, V. Wynen and J. Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 79-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010079 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Besides its airborne operations, the landside accessibility of an airport also induces a burden on the environment. In this paper, the current environmental situation of the passenger and employee transport to and from Brussels Airport is analyzed. The different landside access modes to [...] Read more.
Besides its airborne operations, the landside accessibility of an airport also induces a burden on the environment. In this paper, the current environmental situation of the passenger and employee transport to and from Brussels Airport is analyzed. The different landside access modes to the airport are inventoried and their shares of traffic and emissions are illustrated. To reduce CO2 and other emissions, a cluster of measures (consisting of a transition towards hybrid and battery electric vehicles, a modal shift away from internal combustion engine passenger cars and some accompanying political interventions) needs to take place. An estimation of the current CO2 emissions related to the landside accessibility of the airport is performed and a set of potential improvements, including the introduction of hybrid and battery electric vehicles, are described. It appears that, especially when they are combined, the suggested measures can save over 30% percent of the CO2 emissions due to the landside mobility of the airport. Full article
705 KiB  
Article
Silent operating range of military electric hybrid vehicle using electric power splitter and different electric energy storage
by Šešovský Z., Šundev D. and Mindl P.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 73-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010073 - 27 Mar 2009
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Paper deals with operating range of hybrid car using electric power splitter and battery or super capacitor under special military condition. Special attention is paid to military vehicles having a duty to move in defined territory without using the combustion engine. Reason of [...] Read more.
Paper deals with operating range of hybrid car using electric power splitter and battery or super capacitor under special military condition. Special attention is paid to military vehicles having a duty to move in defined territory without using the combustion engine. Reason of this demand is to move without doing noise. It is reasonable to use under this condition only the electric drive and energy stored in the battery or super capacitor. The paper simulates in the given terrain and on basis of the given driving cycle that is velocity against time the ability of different storage systems to fulfil these demands. Mass of the vehicle is 2000kg. Mass of the battery respectively mass of the super capacitor is the same 70kg. The energy density in the battery is 150Wh/kg and the energy density in the super capacitor is 25Wh/kg. That means that energy stored in the battery is 10.5kWh at chosen rated voltage 240V. Energy stored in the super capacitor is 1.75kWh at maximum rated voltage also 240V. The 80% energy from battery or 75% energy from the super capacitor can be used for traction. The power of internal combustion engine (ICE) is controlled by a special program taking in account good efficiency of the engine, instantaneous acceleration, instantaneous power flow from the energy sources to vehicle wheels taking in account losses and instantaneous energy stored in battery or super-capacitor. The ICE is controlled in modus “stop and go”. In “dangerous” region it is stopped totally. The traction power is taken partially from the ICE and partially from the battery or super capacitor. Sharing of these two power sources is controlled by the program. The lowest energy level in the battery may be 2,1 kWh and in super capacitor 0,55kWh. Full article
465 KiB  
Article
Promotion Strategy of Electric Scooters in Taiwan
by Bing-Ming Lin, Shiow-Huey Suen and Jason Shian-Ching Jang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 69-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010069 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Owing to the GHG emission and fossil fuel consumption made by the vast amount of motorcycles, Taiwan Government raised the strategy to promote a hundred thousand electric scooters on road in four years. Electric scooter nowadays becomes much acceptable and marketable than ever [...] Read more.
Owing to the GHG emission and fossil fuel consumption made by the vast amount of motorcycles, Taiwan Government raised the strategy to promote a hundred thousand electric scooters on road in four years. Electric scooter nowadays becomes much acceptable and marketable than ever by adopting detachable lithium-ion battery pack which makes the vehicle lighter to handle, and not necessarily rely on charging infrastructure. However, due to the safety issue of lithium-ion battery, the IDB (Industrial Development Bureau) of MOEA in Taiwan draws up a subsidization program that the detachable lithium-ion battery pack is mandatory required and need to pass safety test of TES-0B-01-01 (Lithium-ion battery pack test method of Taiwan Electric Scooter, based on BATSO-01) which includes electrical, mechanical and environmental tests. In parallel, the performance shall also meet target value set for different categories of vehicle. Full article
996 KiB  
Article
Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries – the Way forward for Low-Cost Micro and Mild Hybrid Vehicles
by A Cooper and P Moseley
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 61-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010061 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
The Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium has been researching into VRLA batteries since 1992, initially for electric vehicle (EV) applications, where it achieved significant life extension in deep cycle duty. More recently it has focussed its work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications [...] Read more.
The Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium has been researching into VRLA batteries since 1992, initially for electric vehicle (EV) applications, where it achieved significant life extension in deep cycle duty. More recently it has focussed its work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications where the battery has to operate in High-Rate Partial State-of-Charge (HRPSoC) conditions. Whereas in EV operation failure occurs in the positive plate, in HEV duty, failure is due to negative plate sulfation, resulting in rapid loss of capacity. Ways of overcoming this have been investigated successfully and the ALABC is undertaking vehicle demonstration programmes to publicise this work. Full article
932 KiB  
Article
DEVELOPMENT OF HONDA FCX
by Jun Takano, Hayato Kaji, Hiromichi Yoshida and Kentaro Nagoshi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 55-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010055 - 27 Mar 2009
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Honda has been researching and developing fuel cell to resolve issues we face such as air pollution and energy conservation. In October 2003, Honda announced the original fuel cell stack, and in November 2004 delivered the Honda FCX to New York State. In [...] Read more.
Honda has been researching and developing fuel cell to resolve issues we face such as air pollution and energy conservation. In October 2003, Honda announced the original fuel cell stack, and in November 2004 delivered the Honda FCX to New York State. In addition, Honda developed FCX CLARITY that is applied with technology of next generation fuel cell system and the body. And we started to deliver the FCX CLARITY for an individual user as a lease sale in July 2008.Honda could get various knowledge and experience about fuel cell stack by running FCX at the various regions, and it becomes clear about some problems of durability. This paper describes the durability of the FCX fuel cell stack. Full article
847 KiB  
Article
Development of Electric Scooter Driven by Sensorless Motor Using D-State-Observer
by Ichiro Aoshima, Masaaki Yoshikawa, Nobuhito Ohnuma and Shinji Shinnaka
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 48-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010048 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
This paper presents a newly developed sensorless electric scooter, whose traction motor (IPMSM of nonsinusoidal magnetization) is controlled by a sensorless vector control method using the “D-state-observer.” Through an actual development, this paper verifies that sensorless electric scooters can be realizable, and re-verifies [...] Read more.
This paper presents a newly developed sensorless electric scooter, whose traction motor (IPMSM of nonsinusoidal magnetization) is controlled by a sensorless vector control method using the “D-state-observer.” Through an actual development, this paper verifies that sensorless electric scooters can be realizable, and re-verifies that the D-state-observer has a potential applicable to other EVs. Detailed experimental results confirming the verification are also shown. Full article
582 KiB  
Article
Overview of the Taiwan EV National Promotion Program Driven by Clean Zone Policy
by Jet P.H. Shu, Jim Wu, James Wang, Jinn-Feng Jiang, Lin Chiu Feng, Yung-Miao Wang and Chang Tsu Kun
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 42-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010042 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
There have more than 14 million units of motorcycle in Taiwan, and the motorcycle’s exhaust emission has become one of the causes of air pollution in urban areas. To improve the air quality in urban areas and also seek the business opportunity from [...] Read more.
There have more than 14 million units of motorcycle in Taiwan, and the motorcycle’s exhaust emission has become one of the causes of air pollution in urban areas. To improve the air quality in urban areas and also seek the business opportunity from the new EV industry, the Taiwanese government starts regulating sales of gasoline motorcycle in 2009 to replace the less competitive 50cc engine motorcycles by e-Scooter of the light electric vehicles (LEV). The government also earmarks NT$1.6 billion (US$49.7 million) over the next four years to subsidize buyers of 2-wheelers electric scooters (2W e-Scooter) with the feature of the advanced Li-Ion battery system. As part of this effort, the Industrial Development Bureau (IDB) of Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) formulated standards for e-Scooter’s performance and safety to bring up 8,000 units of 2W e-Scooter in 2009, and to 100,000 by the end of 2012. This is the first phase of the EV national program, and next phase will be focus on the EV fleet promotion driven by the clean zone policy to be discussed hereafter. As most of the experts predicted, EV won’t be popular in next few years till the industry finds the good cost-performance battery solution. Hence, the government should lead the policy like the zero exhaust emission zone, clean zone, to demonstrate the clean and efficient transportation by employing EV solutions. The demonstration from the e-Scooter of LEV, utility van, and mid-size bus will accumulate the fleet operation experiences including the usage scenarios, the effectiveness of the business model, and the product performance. These are crucial for the participated industry to establish the products’ interface and standards, for the local government to build up the charging infrastructure system to promote an EV as a convenient and efficient transportation system, and also for industry to develop a series of the competitive EV niche products in Taiwan for the global markets. The in-depth discussion of this clean zone plot will be discussed in this paper. Full article
917 KiB  
Article
Rolling Stability Control Based on Electronic Stability Program for In-wheel-motor Electric Vehicle
by Kiyotaka Kawashima, Toshiyuki Uchida and Yoichi Hori
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 34-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010034 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
In this paper, a novel robust rolling stability control (RSC) based on electronic stability program (ESP) for electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel robust rolling stability control (RSC) based on electronic stability program (ESP) for electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate; (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely; (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel; and (4) motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable high performance three dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. Generally, RSC and YSC are incompatible. Therefore, ESP, which is composed of estimation system(S1) and integrated vehicle motion control system(S2) is proposed. A distribution ratio of RSC and YSC is defined based on rollover index (RI) which is calculated in S1 from rolling state information. The effectiveness of proposed methods are shown by simulation and experimental results. Full article
562 KiB  
Article
FiSyPAC project: The first vehicle integration of GENEPAC fuel cell stack
by F. ROY, J. P. POIROT and S. GARNIT
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 27-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010027 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
In January 2006, the first fuel cell stack developed by the partnership between PSA Peugeot Citroën and CEA has been unveiled. Due to its particularly high performances, 1,5 kW/l, 1 kW/kg, with high efficiency vehicle integration has been launched out into the FiSyPAC [...] Read more.
In January 2006, the first fuel cell stack developed by the partnership between PSA Peugeot Citroën and CEA has been unveiled. Due to its particularly high performances, 1,5 kW/l, 1 kW/kg, with high efficiency vehicle integration has been launched out into the FiSyPAC project. PSA group is committed to the long term, gradual integration of fuel cell technology into cars, by developing an innovative electric vehicle concept equipped with a range extender consisting of a hydrogenpowered fuel cell hybridized with a high battery capacity. CEA is involved in the development of innovative technical solutions for fuel cells, particularly PEMFC in terms of stack design and fuel cell systems optimization for reliability and durability improvements. The scope of the FiSyPAC project which joined eleven partner’s forces is to develop a reliable 20 kW fuel cell system, a Li-ion battery, and to test this hybridization on board a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). A description of the vehicle architecture and performances achieved during the project are described in this paper, from the stack and fuel cell system design to the vehicle performances. Full article
2092 KiB  
Article
Front-and-Rear-Wheel-Independent-Drive-Type Electric Vehicle (FRID EV) with Compatible Driving Performance and Safety
by Nobuyoshi Mutoh
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 17-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010017 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
This paper focuses on a front-and-rear-wheel-independent-drive-type-electric vehicle (FRID EV) which is being developed as the next generation EV with ideal characteristics of driving performance and safety. The FRID EV development work has included studying the driving performance and safety of all types of [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on a front-and-rear-wheel-independent-drive-type-electric vehicle (FRID EV) which is being developed as the next generation EV with ideal characteristics of driving performance and safety. The FRID EV development work has included studying the driving performance and safety of all types of propulsion systems. Since the FRID EV has propulsion systems which can control the driving and braking torques of the front and rear wheels independently, various outstanding and indispensable functions are produced. Three functions which EVs developed until now could not have are shown here analytically and experimentally. The first is the failsafe function under which vehicles continue running without any unexpected sudden stops, even if one of the propulsion systems fails. The second is the function for performing efficient acceleration and deceleration on all roads by suitably distributing the driving or braking torques to the front and rear wheels according to the road surface conditions. The third is the function for ensuring safe running on bad roads, i. e., low µ-roads like frozen roads, by simultaneously controlling slip ratios of the front and rear wheels in consideration of load movement. These are functions are unique to the FRID EV and they have not be realized previously in any gasoline engine-powered car, hybrid car or conventional electric vehicle. Full article
2080 KiB  
Article
The Electric Endeavour: Engineering formation through SYNECTRIC electric race car development
by Prof. ir. M. Borremans, Prof. dr. ir. P. Van den Bossche, Ing. B. Verbrugge, Ing. F. Van Mulders, Ing. M. Bottiglieri, Prof. ir. A. Van Steendam and Prof. dr. ir. J. Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 7-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010007 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
The Erasmus University College Brussels (EHB) and its partner the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) constitute the University Association Brussels (UAB), developing a common integrated policy towards the creation of a university space within the capital of Europe. In this framework, the Master degree [...] Read more.
The Erasmus University College Brussels (EHB) and its partner the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) constitute the University Association Brussels (UAB), developing a common integrated policy towards the creation of a university space within the capital of Europe. In this framework, the Master degree curricula at EHB, including the industrial engineering curriculum at the IWT department, are now in a phase of academization, which means the introduction of a research-based academic culture necessary to grant academic Master degrees. One of the main challenges with reforming the contemporary higher education landscape remains the transition from traditional ex-cathedra teaching to a more student-centered education sphere focused on the creation of competences. Although the acquisition of a sound theoretical knowledge will always remain the base foundation of the education of the intellectual, the introduction of projectoriented curriculum elements is a key factor in creating a learning environment allowing acquiring and exercising a wide array of skills and competences, including non-cognitive ones, to bene t the industrial and societal deployment of the engineer. The industrial engineer, as formed by EHB in a four year curriculum (three bachelor years and one master year), shall in fact be a polyvalent, operative intellectual, who is able to implement innovative solutions and to solve problems occurring in industrial practice. The involvement of master students in a multidisciplinary project is a premier occasion to create a learning environment enabling student personal development in such direction, including teamwork dynamics. The choice of an electrically propelled competition vehicle as pedagogical project presents several key bene ts. Not only concerns it a subject which greatly appeals to students and which has a large potential for dissemination and student attraction, but it also presents an occasion to enlighten students towards the philosophy of electric transportation which represents the key solution for future sustainable mobility. In urban traffic, due to their bene cial effect on environment, electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particularly for a healthier living environment. But also when performance is what it is aimed for, electric traction presents substantial environmental and technical bene ts compared with legacy technologies. The introduction of this environmental consciousness enhances the curriculum and contributes to the formation of morally and socially responsible industrial engineers, which is a major bene t for their own personal development as well as for society as a whole. The current project is aimed at the realization of a hybrid electric formula-type vehicle, based on a "Predator" class car body. This type of vehicle is used for competitions in Italy, albeit with a legacy drive train, and presents a versatile platform to implement new drive train technologies. Full article
615 KiB  
Article
The Cell versus the System: Standardization challenges for electricity storage devices
by P. Van den Bossche, F. Van Mulders, B. Verbrugge, N. Omar, H. Culcu and J. Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3010001 - 27 Mar 2009
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
The introduction of new electricity storage components such as electric double-layer capacitors or lithium batteries creates the necessity for relevant and reliable standards to assess components’ performance and safety. Technical committees within international standardization bodies such as IEC and ISO have thus increased [...] Read more.
The introduction of new electricity storage components such as electric double-layer capacitors or lithium batteries creates the necessity for relevant and reliable standards to assess components’ performance and safety. Technical committees within international standardization bodies such as IEC and ISO have thus increased the intensity of standardization work on the matter. The paper will describe current work on the matter, concentrating on the characteristic action points where standardization work is needed. Full article
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