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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In response to the growing need for sustainable urban mobility, this paper explores the design details of electric powertrains for light electric vehicles (LEVs) tailored to the specific demands of city and suburban environments. Unlike traditional approaches that overlook driving missions, this study emphasizes the role of driving cycles from the outset in optimizing powertrains for multipurpose LEVs. The proposed modular and scalable electric powertrain is finely tuned for European urban settings, accommodating varying motor specifications and the energy capacity of the battery. With a focus on motor, battery, and charging requirements, this research contributes valuable insights for the efficient deployment of LEVs in the pursuit of sustainable urban transportation. View this paper
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24 pages, 6127 KiB  
Article
Multi-Mode Switching Control Strategy for IWM-EV Active Energy-Regenerative Suspension Based on Pavement Level Recognition
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110317 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Aiming at the problems of poor overall vibration reduction and high energy consumption of in-wheel motor-driven electric vehicle (IWM-EV) active suspension on mixed pavement, a multi-mode switching control strategy based on pavement identification and particle swarm optimization is proposed. First, the whole vehicle [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problems of poor overall vibration reduction and high energy consumption of in-wheel motor-driven electric vehicle (IWM-EV) active suspension on mixed pavement, a multi-mode switching control strategy based on pavement identification and particle swarm optimization is proposed. First, the whole vehicle dynamic model containing active energy-regenerative suspension and the reference model was established, and the sliding mode controller and PID controller designed, respectively, to suppress the vertical vibration of the vehicle and the in-wheel motor. Second, a road grade recognition model based on the dynamic travel signal of the suspension and the road grade coefficient was established to identify the road grade, and then the dynamic performance and energy-feedback characteristics of suspension were optimized by particle swarm optimization. According to the results of pavement identification, the optimal solution of the suspension controller parameters under each working mode was divided and selected to realize the switch of the suspension working mode. The simulation results show that the control strategy can accurately identify the grade of road surface under the condition of mixed road surface, and the ride index of the optimized active energy-regenerative suspension is obviously improved, while some energy is recovered. Full article
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25 pages, 13842 KiB  
Article
Research into the Peculiarities of the Individual Traction Drive Nonlinear System Oscillatory Processes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110316 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Auto-oscillations may occur in moving vehicles in the area where the tire interacts with the support base. The parameters of such oscillations depend on the sliding velocity in the contact patch. As they negatively affect the processes occurring in the electric drive and [...] Read more.
Auto-oscillations may occur in moving vehicles in the area where the tire interacts with the support base. The parameters of such oscillations depend on the sliding velocity in the contact patch. As they negatively affect the processes occurring in the electric drive and the mechanical transmission, reducing their energy efficiency, such processes can cause failures in various elements. This paper aims to conduct a theoretical study into the peculiarities of oscillatory processes in the nonlinear system and an experimental study of the auto-oscillation modes of an individual traction drive. It presents the theoretical basis used to analyze the peculiarities of oscillation processes, including their onset and course, the results of simulation mathematical modeling and the experimental studies into the oscillation phenomena in the movement of the vehicle towards the supporting base. The practical value of this study lies in the possibility to use the results in the development of algorithms for the exclusion of auto-oscillation phenomena in the development of vehicle control systems, as well as to use the auto-oscillation processes onset and course analysis methodology to design the electric drive of the driving wheels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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18 pages, 5295 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Energy Management Strategy of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Power Following Strategy–Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy Hybrid Control
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110315 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles have the advantages of zero emission, high efficiency and fast refuelling, etc. and are one of the key directions for vehicle development. The energy management problem of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles is the key technology for power [...] Read more.
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles have the advantages of zero emission, high efficiency and fast refuelling, etc. and are one of the key directions for vehicle development. The energy management problem of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles is the key technology for power distribution. The traditional power following strategy has the advantage of a real-time operation, but the power correction is usually based only on the state of charge of a lithium battery, which causes the operating point of the fuel cell to be in the region of a low efficiency. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a hybrid power-following-fuzzy control strategy, where a fuzzy logic control strategy is used to optimise the correction module based on the power following strategy, which regulates the state of charge while correcting the output power of the fuel cell towards the efficient operating point. The results of the joint simulation with Matlab + Advisor under the Globally Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Cycle Conditions show that the proposed strategy still ensures the advantages of real-time energy management, and for the hydrogen fuel cell, the hydrogen consumption is reduced by 13.5% and 4.1% compared with the power following strategy and the fuzzy logic control strategy, and the average output power variability is reduced by 14.6% and 5.1%, respectively, which is important for improving the economy of the whole vehicle and prolonging the lifetime of fuel cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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16 pages, 1833 KiB  
Systematic Review
Managing Transitions to Autonomous and Electric Vehicles: Scientometric and Bibliometric Review
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110314 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
This paper presents a scientometric and bibliometric literature review of the research on transitions to autonomous and electric vehicles. We discuss the main characteristics, evolution, and various transitional issues, identifying potential trends for future research. The Scopus and WoS search for relevant research [...] Read more.
This paper presents a scientometric and bibliometric literature review of the research on transitions to autonomous and electric vehicles. We discuss the main characteristics, evolution, and various transitional issues, identifying potential trends for future research. The Scopus and WoS search for relevant research articles generated a corpus of 4693 articles, which we analyzed using VOSviewer visualization software. This result shows that the transition research is interdisciplinary, with 54 scientific areas identified. Analysis requires an understanding of the broader aspects of the automotive industry, trends related to sustainability, environment protection, road safety, public policies, market factors and other business, and legal and management issues. This study highlights the need for more research to address the challenges of this global transition in the automotive industry. Topics for future research are constant improvements in AI algorithms used in AVs, innovations in green energy sources, and storage solutions for EVs. This is leading to new innovative business models and platforms. Further to that, the conclusion is that the impact of the transition to a shared economy, the emergency of mobility as a service, and public acceptance of the technology have to be comprehensively considered. The vehicle of the future is seen as a smart electric car, running on green energy, and utilizing various levels of automation up to full autonomy. Full article
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13 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
Modeling EV Charging Station Loads Considering On-Road Wireless Charging Capabilities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110313 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Electric vehicle (EV) customers are expected to charge EV batteries at a rapid EV charging station or via on-road wireless EV charging systems when possible, as per their charging needs to successfully complete any remaining trips and reach their destination. When on-road wireless [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle (EV) customers are expected to charge EV batteries at a rapid EV charging station or via on-road wireless EV charging systems when possible, as per their charging needs to successfully complete any remaining trips and reach their destination. When on-road wireless EV charging systems are considered as an alternative charging method for EVs, this can affect the load of a rapid EV charging station in terms of time and magnitude. Hence, this paper presents a probabilistic framework for estimating the arrival rate of EVs at an EV rapid charging station, considering the availability of on-road wireless charging systems as an alternative charging method. The proposed model incorporates an Electric Vehicle Decision Tree that predicts the times when EVs require rapid charging based on realistic transportation data. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is used to capture uncertainties in EV user decisions regarding charging types. A queuing model is then developed to estimate the charging load for multiple EVs at the charging station, with and without the consideration of on-road EV wireless charging systems. A case study and simulation results considering a 32-bus distribution system and the US National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data are presented and discussed to demonstrate the impact of on-road wireless EV charging on the loads of an rapid EV charging station. It is observed that having on-road wireless EV charging as complementary charging to EV charging stations helps to significantly reduce the peak load of the charging station, which improves the power system capacity and defers the need for system upgrades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fast-Charging Station for Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Issues)
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31 pages, 20172 KiB  
Article
Electric Vehicle NiMH Battery State of Charge Estimation Using Artificial Neural Networks of Backpropagation and Radial Basis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110312 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1679
Abstract
The state of charge of a battery depends on many magnitudes, but only voltage and intensity are included in mathematical equations because other variables are complex to integrate into. The contribution of this work was to obtain a model to determine the state [...] Read more.
The state of charge of a battery depends on many magnitudes, but only voltage and intensity are included in mathematical equations because other variables are complex to integrate into. The contribution of this work was to obtain a model to determine the state of charge with these complex variables. This method was developed considering four models, the multilayer feed-forward backpropagation models of two and three input variables used supervised training, with the variable-learning-rate backpropagation training function, five and seven neurons in the hidden layer, respectively, achieving an optimal training. Meanwhile, the radial basis neural network models of two and three input variables were trained with the hybrid method, the propagation constant with a value of 1 and 80 neurons in the hidden layer. As a result, the radial basis neural network with the variable-learning-rate training function, considering the discharge temperature, was the one with the best performance, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99182 and a confidence interval of 95% (0.98849; 0.99516). It is then concluded that artificial neural networks have high performance when modeling nonlinear systems, whose parameters are difficult to measure with time variation, so estimating them in formulas where they are omitted is no longer necessary, which means an accurate SOC. Full article
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15 pages, 4385 KiB  
Article
Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110311 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
To enhance the speed stability and anti-interference performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, a composite control strategy, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) and extended state observer (ESO), was implemented to regulate the IPMSM’s speed. Firstly, three simulation [...] Read more.
To enhance the speed stability and anti-interference performance of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, a composite control strategy, incorporating sliding mode control (SMC) and extended state observer (ESO), was implemented to regulate the IPMSM’s speed. Firstly, three simulation analysis models of the IPMSM were established based on its electrical parameters. The current-loop regulator was a PI regulator, while the speed-loop regulators consisted of a basic SMC regulator, a linear SMC–ESO regulator, and a nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator. The simulation analysis results demonstrated that all three speed-loop regulators effectively ensured the speed stability of the IPMSM. However, the nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator exhibited superior performance in terms of enhancing the IPMSM’s resistance to disturbances. Secondly, a hardware testing platform was constructed to validate the simulation analysis findings. The hardware testing results, when compared to the simulation analysis results, revealed the need for optimization of the PI regulator’s control parameters to maintain the speed stability of the IPMSM. Moreover, contrary to the simulation analysis results, the hardware testing results indicated minimal difference in the anti-disturbance performance of the IPMSM between the linear SMC–ESO regulator and the nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator. Finally, the differences between the simulation analysis results and the hardware testing results are thoroughly discussed and analyzed, providing valuable insights for the practical implementation of IPMSM in electric vehicle drive systems. Full article
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Voltage Stability in Distribution Networks via Metaheuristic Algorithm-Driven Reactive Power Compensation from MDHD EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110310 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging [...] Read more.
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging MDHD EVs. However, this process must be carefully facilitated in order to be effective. This paper introduces an innovative distribution network voltage stability solution by first identifying the network’s weakest buses and then utilizing a metaheuristic algorithm to schedule reactive power compensation from MDHD EVs. In the paper, multiple metaheuristic algorithms, including genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, moth flame optimization, salp swarm algorithms, whale optimization, and grey wolf optimization, are subjected to rigorous evaluation concerning their efficacy in terms of voltage stability improvement, power loss reduction, and computational efficiency. The proposed methodology optimizes power flow with the salp swarm algorithm, which was determined to be the most effective tool, to mitigate voltage fluctuations and enhance overall stability. The simulation results, conducted on a modified IEEE 33 bus distribution system, convincingly demonstrate the algorithm’s efficacy in augmenting voltage stability and curtailing power losses, supporting the reliable and efficient integration of MDHD EVs into distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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12 pages, 3463 KiB  
Article
Modular and Scalable Powertrain for Multipurpose Light Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110309 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is [...] Read more.
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is initially parameterized, established, and then evaluated with an ex-post-performance assessment using driving cycles. Nevertheless, to optimize the size and performance of a vehicle according to its intended mission, it is essential to consider the driving cycles right from the outset, in the powertrain design. This paper presents the design of an electric powertrain for multipurpose light electric vehicles, focusing on the motor, battery, and charging requirements. The powertrain design optimization is realized from the first stages by considering the vehicle’s driving missions and operational patterns for multipurpose usage (transporting people or goods) in European urban environments. The proposed powertrain is modular and scalable in terms of the energy capacity of the battery as well as in the electric motor shaft power and torque. Having such a possibility gives one the flexibility to use the powertrain in different combinations for different vehicle categories, from L7 quadricycles to light M1 vehicles. Full article
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18 pages, 8018 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Usage and Driver Activity
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110308 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
As the country moves toward electric vehicles (EV), the United States is in the process of investing over USD 7.5 billion in EV charging stations, and Indiana has been allocated $100 million to invest in their EV charging network. In contrast to traditional [...] Read more.
As the country moves toward electric vehicles (EV), the United States is in the process of investing over USD 7.5 billion in EV charging stations, and Indiana has been allocated $100 million to invest in their EV charging network. In contrast to traditional “gas stations”, EV charging times, depending on the charger power delivery rating, can require considerably longer dwell times. As a result, drivers tend to pair charging with other activities. This study looks at two EV public charging locations and monitors driver activity while charging, charge time, and station utilization over a 2-month period in Lafayette, Indiana. Over 4000 charging sessions at stations with varying power levels (350 kW, 150 kW, and 50 kW) were monitored, and the median charge time was between 28 and 36 min. A large variation in station utilization was observed at Electrify America charging stations that had a range of stations with 350 kW, 150 kW, and 50 kW available. The highest utilization rates by hour of day on average were observed at 25% at the 150 kW Tesla station. Driver activity during charging influenced dwell times, with the average dwell time of drivers who waited in their vehicles to charge being 10 min shorter than those who would travel to the shops. Rain in the forecast also impacted the number of users per day. Although there are no published metrics for EV utilization and associated driver activities, we believe examining this relationship will produce best practices for planning future investments in EV charging infrastructure as public and private sector partners develop a nationwide charging network. Full article
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17 pages, 3719 KiB  
Article
Tuning Window Size to Improve the Accuracy of Battery State-of-Charge Estimations Due to Battery Cycle Addition
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110307 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
The primary indicator of battery level in a battery management system (BMS) is the state of charge, which plays a crucial role in enhancing safety in terms of energy transfer. Accurate measurement of SoC is essential to guaranteeing battery safety, avoiding hazardous scenarios, [...] Read more.
The primary indicator of battery level in a battery management system (BMS) is the state of charge, which plays a crucial role in enhancing safety in terms of energy transfer. Accurate measurement of SoC is essential to guaranteeing battery safety, avoiding hazardous scenarios, and enhancing the performance of the battery. To improve SoC accuracy, first-order and second-order adaptive extended Kalman filtering (AEKF) are the best choices, as they have less computational cost and are more robust in uncertain circumstances. The impact on SoC estimation accuracy of increasing the cycle and its interaction with the size of the tuning window was evaluated using both models. The research results show that tuning the window size (M) greatly affects the accuracy of SoC estimation in both methods. M provides a quick response detection measurement and adjusts the estimation’s character with the actual value. The results indicate that the precision of SoC improves as the value of M decreases. In addition, the application of first-order AEKF has practical advantages because it does not require pre-processing steps to determine polarization resistance and polarization capacity, while second-order AEKF has better capabilities in terms of SoC estimation. The robustness of the two techniques was also evaluated by administering various initial SoCs. The examination findings demonstrate that the estimated trajectory can approximate the actual trajectory of the SoC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Battery Design and Management)
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20 pages, 6513 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Affecting Air Flow against the Maximum Temperature Difference of a Lithium-Ion Battery with Heat Pipe Cooling
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110306 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Research on battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) is particularly significant since the electric vehicle sector is growing in importance and because the batteries that power them have high operating temperature requirements. Among them, heat pipe (HP)-based battery thermal management systems have very high [...] Read more.
Research on battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) is particularly significant since the electric vehicle sector is growing in importance and because the batteries that power them have high operating temperature requirements. Among them, heat pipe (HP)-based battery thermal management systems have very high heat transfer performance but fall short in maintaining uniform temperature distribution. This study presented forced air cooling by an axial fan as a method of improving the cooling performance of flat heat pipes coupled with aluminum fins (FHPAFs) and investigated the impact of air velocity on the battery pack’s maximum temperature differential (ΔTmax). All experiments were conducted on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) pouch battery cells with a 20 Ah capacity in seven series connections at room temperature, under forced and natural convection, at various air velocity values (12.7 m/s, 9.5 m/s, and 6.3 m/s), and with 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C discharge rates. The results indicated that at the same air velocity, increasing the discharge rate increases the ΔTmax significantly. Forced convection has a higher ΔTmax than natural convection. The ΔTmax was reduced when the air velocity was increased during forced convection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Diagnosis: Health and Safety)
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22 pages, 1768 KiB  
Review
A Review of Non-Destructive Techniques for Lithium-Ion Battery Performance Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110305 - 03 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are considered the most suitable option for powering electric vehicles in modern transportation systems due to their high energy density, high energy efficiency, long cycle life, and low weight. Nonetheless, several safety concerns and their tendency to lose charge over time [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are considered the most suitable option for powering electric vehicles in modern transportation systems due to their high energy density, high energy efficiency, long cycle life, and low weight. Nonetheless, several safety concerns and their tendency to lose charge over time demand methods capable of determining their state of health accurately, as well as estimating a range of relevant parameters in order to ensure their safe and efficient use. In this framework, non-destructive inspection methods play a fundamental role in assessing the condition of lithium-ion batteries, allowing for their thorough examination without causing any damage. This aspect is particularly crucial when batteries are exploited in critical applications and when evaluating the potential second life usage of the cells. This review explores various non-destructive methods for evaluating lithium batteries, i.e., electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, infrared thermography, X-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing, considers and compares several aspects such as sensitivity, flexibility, accuracy, complexity, industrial applicability, and cost. Hence, this work aims at providing academic and industrial professionals with a tool for choosing the most appropriate methodology for a given application. Full article
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24 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Examining the Determinants of Electric Vehicle Acceptance in Jordan: A PLS-SEM Approach
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110304 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Recently, technologies for electric mobility have developed rapidly. Since the introduction and spread of Electric Vehicles (EVs), several studies have attempted to investigate the benefits and risks that impact on the growth of the EV market by evaluating data gathered from various drivers. [...] Read more.
Recently, technologies for electric mobility have developed rapidly. Since the introduction and spread of Electric Vehicles (EVs), several studies have attempted to investigate the benefits and risks that impact on the growth of the EV market by evaluating data gathered from various drivers. However, some variables were disregarded such as: Public Involvement, Knowledge of EVs, Perceived Risk, Behavioural Intention, and EV acceptance. These variables are considered vital when analysing the intention to use EVs. Therefore, this study compiles the above mentioned variables to evaluate their effect on the intention to use EVs in Jordan. 501 collected responses were examined using the Smart PLS-Structural Equation Model algorithm. In general, the analysis revealed high levels of EV acceptance. The study proposed twelve direct relationship hypotheses. Out of these hypotheses, ten hypotheses were supported and two were rejected. The final conclusions are that an increase in public involvement is associated with an increase in knowledge of EVs, and an increase in their perceived risk. Moreover, the knowledge of EVs has positively and significantly influenced the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, along with EV acceptance. However, no relationships were found between the following: 1. the knowledge of EVs and perceived risk; and 2. perceived risk and behavioural intention. Full article
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19 pages, 5936 KiB  
Review
Annotated Survey on the Research Progress within Vehicle-to-Grid Techniques Based on CiteSpace Statistical Result
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110303 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes keyword co-occurrence, clustering, and burstiness, and further systematically summarizes the main trends and key results of V2G research. First, the connection between electric vehicles and the grid is outlined and the potential advantages of V2G technology are emphasized, such as energy management, load balancing, and environmental sustainability. The important topics of V2G, including renewable energy consumption, power dispatch, regulation and optimization of the grid, and the smart grid, are discussed. This paper also emphasizes the positive impacts of V2G technologies on the grid, including reduced carbon emissions, improved grid reliability, and the support for renewable energy integration. Current and future challenges for V2G research, such as standardization, policy support, and business models, are also considered. This review provides a comprehensive perspective for scholars and practitioners in V2G research and contributes to a better understanding of the current status and future trends of V2G technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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18 pages, 8494 KiB  
Article
Assessment of an Electric Vehicle Drive Cycle in Relation to Minimised Energy Consumption with Driving Behaviour: The Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Its Suburbs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110302 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Battery electric vehicles (BEV) are suitable alternatives for achieving energy independence and meeting the criteria for reducing greenhouse emissions in the transportation sector. Evaluating their performance and energy consumption in the real-data driving cycle (DC) is important. The purpose of this work is [...] Read more.
Battery electric vehicles (BEV) are suitable alternatives for achieving energy independence and meeting the criteria for reducing greenhouse emissions in the transportation sector. Evaluating their performance and energy consumption in the real-data driving cycle (DC) is important. The purpose of this work is to develop a BEV DC for the interlinked urban and suburban route of Addis Ababa (AA) in Ethiopia. In this study, a new approach of micro-trip random selection-to-rebuild with behaviour split (RSBS) was implemented, and its effectiveness was compared via the k-means clustering method. When comparing the statistical distribution of velocity and acceleration with measured real data, the RSBS cycle shows a minimum error of 2% and 2.3%, respectively. By splitting driving behaviour, aggressive drivers were found to consume more energy because of frequent panic stops and subsequent acceleration. In braking mode, coast drivers were found to improve the regenerative braking possibility and efficiency, which can extend the range by 10.8%, whereas aggressive drivers could only achieve 3.9%. Also, resynthesised RSBS with the percentage of behaviour split and its energy and power consumption were compared with standard cycles. A significant reduction of 14.57% from UDDS and 8.9% from WLTC-2 in energy consumption was achieved for the AA and its suburbs DC, indicating that this DC could be useful for both the city and suburbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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14 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Utility Factor Curves for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Beyond the Standard Assumptions
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110301 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric [...] Read more.
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric range (AER), but such predictions entail assumptions about both the driving patterns (distance traveled and energy intensity) and charging behavior. Studies have attempted to compare the real-world UF achieved by PHEVs to their standard values, but deviations can stem from deviations in assumptions about: (i) achievable electric range, (ii) travel distance and (iii) charging frequency. In this paper, we derive analytical models for modified utility factor curves as a function of both AER and charging behavior. We show that average charging frequency is insufficient to exactly predict UF but can still estimate bounds. Our generalized model can also provide insights into the efficacy of PHEVs in reducing carbon emissions. Full article
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18 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Waste from Electric Vehicle: A Bibliometric Analysis from 1995 to 2023
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110300 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) represents a promising solution for addressing urban air pollution, particularly CO2 emissions in the transportation sector. Numerous countries are actively promoting EV adoption and the electrification of transportation systems, leading to a surge in research on [...] Read more.
The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) represents a promising solution for addressing urban air pollution, particularly CO2 emissions in the transportation sector. Numerous countries are actively promoting EV adoption and the electrification of transportation systems, leading to a surge in research on EV-related topics. This study employs bibliometrics as a valuable tool to investigate the research landscape in electric vehicle waste management. Drawing from a dataset of 593 documents retrieved from SCOPUS from 1995 to 20 September 2023, this research employs descriptive analysis and bibliometric mapping techniques. Notably, China stands out as the leading contributor to publications, with Tsinghua University being a prominent research institution in this field. An examination of keyword trends reveals dynamic shifts in research focus. In 2023, the most frequently occurring topic is “closed loop”. “Recycling” is the dominant keyword, appearing 681 times. Additionally, TreeMaps and VOSviewer results indicate that the most commonly used keywords are “electronic waste” and “recycling”. Projections suggest that “recycling materials” will gain prominence in mid-2023, further highlighting the evolving nature of this research field. Researchers in recycling materials disciplines can leverage these insights to explore new research avenues and contribute to sustainable waste management practices in the context of electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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