# Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Mathematical Model and Regulator Design of IPMSM

#### 2.1. Mathematical Model of IPMSM

#### 2.2. Current-Loop Regulator Design of IPMSM

#### 2.3. Speed-Loop Regulator Design of IPMSM

- (1)
- Basic SMC regulator design

- (2)
- Linear SMC–ESO regulator design

- (3)
- Nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator design

## 3. Simulation Analysis

- (1)
- d-axis current-loop regulator: $\alpha =2000$, ${K}_{\mathrm{pd}}=17.92$, ${K}_{\mathrm{id}}=5840$;
- (2)
- q-axis current-loop regulator: $\alpha =2000$, ${K}_{\mathrm{pq}}=24.58$, ${K}_{\mathrm{iq}}=5840$;
- (3)
- Speed-loop regulator (basic SMC regulator): $c=240$, $\epsilon =200$, $g=100$.

## 4. Experimental Test and Improvement

#### 4.1. Experimental Setup

#### 4.2. Speed Stability Test and Improvement

#### 4.3. Start-Up Response Test

#### 4.4. Anti-Disturbance Performance Test

- (1)
- The sampling frequency of the utilized software program was relatively low, resulting in a slower and less accurate transmission of the speed signal from the encoder to the controller;
- (2)
- The output resolution of speed measurement for the power meter was insufficient, thereby impeding the timely collection of the differences in settling time and speed fluctuation between the linear SMC–ESO regulator and the nonlinear SMC–ESO regulator by the oscilloscope.

## 5. Discussion

- (1)
- Discrepancies arose between the damping coefficient employed in the hardware testing phase and that utilized in the simulation analysis. In the former, the enhanced PI parameters were derived based on the actual damping coefficient of IPMSM. However, due to the challenge of evaluating the damping coefficient of IPMSM, it was assumed to be zero during the simulation analysis;
- (2)
- The simulation model of IPMSM did not precisely correspond to the features of its hardware system, resulting in inaccuracies pertaining to the flux linkage, rotor inertia and dq-axis inductances;
- (3)
- Throughout the hardware testing phase, the actual power quality of the inverter, the accuracy of the encoder and current sensors and the execution process of the software program exerted a significant influence on the selection of optimal PI parameters.

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**Speed stability comparison of IPMSM (measured by the current sensor and collected by the software system of PC, see Figure 6a,b).

**Figure 8.**Start-up response test of IPMSM (measured by the power meter and displayed by the oscilloscope).

**Figure 10.**The simulation results of current-loop regulator with original and improved PI parameters.

Item | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Number of phases | 3 | - |

Number of pole pairs | 4 | - |

Power | 1.5 | kW |

Rated voltage | 220 | V |

Rated current | 4.5 | A |

Phase resistance | 2.92 | Ω |

d-axis inductance | 8.96 | mH |

q-axis inductance | 12.29 | mH |

Flux linkage | 0.2388 | Wb |

Rotor inertia | 0.00104 | kg·m^{2} |

Damping coefficient | 0 (assumed value) | N·m·s/rad |

Item | Original PI Parameters | Improvement PI Parameters |
---|---|---|

d-axis current-loop regulator | ${k}_{\mathrm{pd}}=17.92$, ${k}_{\mathrm{id}}=5840$ | ${k}_{\mathrm{id}}=5840$, ${k}_{\mathrm{id}}=1457$ |

q-axis current-loop regulator | ${k}_{\mathrm{pq}}=24.58$, ${k}_{\mathrm{iq}}=5840$ | ${k}_{\mathrm{pq}}=0.5$, ${k}_{\mathrm{iq}}=1457$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chen, Z.; Dai, X.; Faizan, M.
Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2023**, *14*, 311.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110311

**AMA Style**

Chen Z, Dai X, Faizan M.
Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2023; 14(11):311.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110311

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chen, Zhongxian, Xianglin Dai, and Munawar Faizan.
2023. "Speed Stability and Anti-Disturbance Performance Improvement of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 14, no. 11: 311.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110311