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Future Internet, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2019) – 17 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Roadside units (RSUs) are now found on motorways, at urban traffic spots, and also at sites such as [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Blockchain and the Tokenization of the Individual: Societal Implications
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100220 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1708
Abstract
We are living in a world where the very systems upon which trust is based are being challenged by new and exciting paradigm shifts. Centralization whether in the form of governments, financial institutions, enterprises and organizations is simply being challenged because of the [...] Read more.
We are living in a world where the very systems upon which trust is based are being challenged by new and exciting paradigm shifts. Centralization whether in the form of governments, financial institutions, enterprises and organizations is simply being challenged because of the lack of trust associated with data governance often experienced in the form of data breaches or simply a monetization of our data without our permission and/or incentives to participate in this emerging decentralization of structures. We see this trust deficit challenging the very institutions we have depended on including but not limited to financial institutions, private enterprises or government bodies. A new “social contract” is required as we continuously evolve into more decentralized and self-governing (or semi self-governing) entities. We will see more development in digital sovereignty with the caveat that a governance model will need to be defined. This position paper will present evidence that supports the premise that blockchain and individual tokenization could provide a new social contract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain: Current Challenges and Future Prospects/Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Techno-Economic Benefits of Flexible Demand Resources Scheduling for Renewable Energy–Based Smart Microgrid Planning
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100219 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
The need for innovative pathways for future zero-emission and sustainable power development has recently accelerated the uptake of variable renewable energy resources (VREs). However, integration of VREs such as photovoltaic and wind generators requires the right approaches to design and operational planning towards [...] Read more.
The need for innovative pathways for future zero-emission and sustainable power development has recently accelerated the uptake of variable renewable energy resources (VREs). However, integration of VREs such as photovoltaic and wind generators requires the right approaches to design and operational planning towards coping with the fluctuating outputs. This paper investigates the technical and economic prospects of scheduling flexible demand resources (FDRs) in optimal configuration planning of VRE-based microgrids. The proposed demand-side management (DSM) strategy considers short-term power generation forecast to efficiently schedule the FDRs ahead of time in order to minimize the gap between generation and load demand. The objective is to determine the optimal size of the battery energy storage, photovoltaic and wind systems at minimum total investment costs. Two simulation scenarios, without and with the consideration of DSM, were investigated. The random forest algorithm implemented on scikit-learn python environment is utilized for short-term power prediction, and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) on MATLAB® is used for optimum configuration optimization. From the simulation results obtained here, the application of FDR scheduling resulted in a significant cost saving of investment costs. Moreover, the proposed approach demonstrated the effectiveness of the FDR in minimizing the mismatch between the generation and load demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation-Based Performance Validation of Homomorphic Encryption Algorithms in the Internet of Things
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100218 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
IoT systems consist of Hardware/Software systems (e.g., sensors) that are embedded in a physical world, networked and that interact with complex software platforms. The validation of such systems is a challenge and currently mostly done by prototypes. This paper presents the virtual environment [...] Read more.
IoT systems consist of Hardware/Software systems (e.g., sensors) that are embedded in a physical world, networked and that interact with complex software platforms. The validation of such systems is a challenge and currently mostly done by prototypes. This paper presents the virtual environment for simulation, emulation and validation of an IoT platform and its semantic model in real life scenarios. It is based on a decentralized, bottom up approach that offers interoperability of IoT devices and the value-added services they want to use across different domains. The framework is demonstrated by a comprehensive case study. The example consists of the complete IoT “Smart Energy” use case with focus on data privacy by homomorphic encryption. The performance of the network is compared while using partially homomorphic encryption, fully homomorphic encryption and no encryption at all.As a major result, we found that our framework is capable of simulating big IoT networks and the overhead introduced by homomorphic encryption is feasible for VICINITY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Reliability of IoT---Selected Papers from SecRIoT 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
5G V2X System-Level Architecture of 5GCAR Project
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100217 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
One of the goals of the 5G Communication Automotive Research and innovation (5GCAR) project has been to evaluate and propose system architecture enhancements aiming at supporting the strict requirements of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) use cases. In this paper, we provide an overview of 3GPP [...] Read more.
One of the goals of the 5G Communication Automotive Research and innovation (5GCAR) project has been to evaluate and propose system architecture enhancements aiming at supporting the strict requirements of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) use cases. In this paper, we provide an overview of 3GPP 5G system architecture, which is used as a baseline architecture in the project, and we present the main architectural enhancements introduced by 5GCAR. The work of the project focused on the following categories: (i) end-to-end security, also including aspects of privacy; (ii) network orchestration and management; (iii) network procedures; (iv) edge computing enhancements; and (v) multi-connectivity cooperation. The enhancements introduced by 5GCAR to above-listed categories are discussed in this paper, while a more detailed analysis of some selected features is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Survey on LoRaWAN Architecture, Protocol and Technologies
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100216 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) expansion led the market to find alternative communication technologies since existing protocols are insufficient in terms of coverage, energy consumption to fit IoT needs. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) emerged as an alternative cost-effective communication technology for the [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) expansion led the market to find alternative communication technologies since existing protocols are insufficient in terms of coverage, energy consumption to fit IoT needs. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) emerged as an alternative cost-effective communication technology for the IoT market. LoRaWAN is an open LPWAN standard developed by LoRa Alliance and has key features i.e., low energy consumption, long-range communication, builtin security, GPS-free positioning. In this paper, we will introduce LoRaWAN technology, the state of art studies in the literature and provide open opportunities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensorial Network Framework Embedded in Ubiquitous Mobile Devices
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100215 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Today’s digital society is interconnected and networked, with modern smart devices ubiquitously built into and embedded within smart environments and other environments, where people (their users) typically live. It is very important to mention that sensorial awareness of an environment depends on one’s [...] Read more.
Today’s digital society is interconnected and networked, with modern smart devices ubiquitously built into and embedded within smart environments and other environments, where people (their users) typically live. It is very important to mention that sensorial awareness of an environment depends on one’s current location and equipment, as well as the equipment’s real-time capabilities. Personal sensorial information is considered to be the key factor for progress in the improvement of the productivity of everyday life and creation of a smart surrounding environment. This paper describes the design, implementation, and testing process of a new sensorial framework based on the current possibilities created by ubiquitous smart mobile devices with sensors, which involves computing power and battery power issues. The two parts of the proposed framework have been designed, implemented, and tested. The client part is represented by a front-end mobile application, and the back-end part is represented by a server-side application. The analysis of the data, captured during the testing phase, involves the analysis of the processing time, battery consumption, and transmitted data amount. This analysis reveals that Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) protocols have a comparable performance, although TCP is preferable for use in local networks. In comparison to other solutions such as MobiSense or Feel the World framework, the final solution of the proposed and developed sensorial framework has two main capabilities, which are the security support and social networking possibilities. The advantage of the MobiSense platform is the existence of several real-world applications, whereas the proposed sensorial framework needs to be verified in the massive context of many users in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things for Smart City Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Beam Training for Millimeter-Wave Communication Based on Tabu Table Enhanced Rosenbrock Algorithm
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100214 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The codebook-based beamforming for millimeter-wave (mm Wave) communication systems is usually used to compensate the severe attenuation of the mm Wave region. The beam training process based on pre-specified beam codebooks is considered a global optimization problem in 2-D planes formed by the [...] Read more.
The codebook-based beamforming for millimeter-wave (mm Wave) communication systems is usually used to compensate the severe attenuation of the mm Wave region. The beam training process based on pre-specified beam codebooks is considered a global optimization problem in 2-D planes formed by the potential beam index. The Rosenbrock algorithm (RA) is adopted to implement optimum beam searching whereas the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used to solve the problem of falling into the local optimum, due to the unavailable gradient information of the objective function. However, the RA implements rounding to the integer which leads to the problem of repeated search and beam space discontinuity caused by beam index will impair the powerful local search ability. Thus, in this paper, an enhanced RA based on tabu search and combined with SA algorithm is proposed as an alternative solution for beam search success rate. The proposed algorithm reduces the search times by forbidding the repeat search with tabu table and design of neighbor region. Moreover, to prevent the search failure, the search candidate index is defined to keep the local search ability of the original algorithm and wrap around of beam index is applied to maintain continuity of the search direction. Experimental simulations show that the proposed technique can improve the search efficiency in terms of reduced steps and increase search success rate during the beam training procedure compared to existing techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Future Networking Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Blockchain Technology for Intelligent Environments
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100213 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
In the last few years, we have been witnessing the convergence of the physical with the digital world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is progressing at a fast pace, and IoT devices are becoming pervasive in our physical environments, bringing the vision of [...] Read more.
In the last few years, we have been witnessing the convergence of the physical with the digital world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is progressing at a fast pace, and IoT devices are becoming pervasive in our physical environments, bringing the vision of Intelligent Environments closer to reality. At the same time, the newly-introduced blockchain technology is offering for the first time ever cryptographically proven trust based on a set of mutually untrusted nodes. Blockchain technology thus has the potential to become a key component of many IoT systems, offering them an unprecedented level of accountability, transparency, and reliability. This paper first lays out the principles on which blockchain systems are operating, along with descriptions of the most noteworthy blockchain implementations. It then presents a number of systems through which blockchains may interact with external systems and third-party data sources. Finally, it provides a survey of the state-of-the-art blockchain-based systems targeting IoT applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Featured Reviews of Future Internet Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100212 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the [...] Read more.
In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Trustworthy Communication Hub for Cyber-Physical Systems
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100211 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
The motivation for this research arises from the challenges in the trustworthy communications related operation of cyber-physical systems (CPS), especially in the energy and mobility domains. The increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs) of prosumers and electric vehicles requires new ways for [...] Read more.
The motivation for this research arises from the challenges in the trustworthy communications related operation of cyber-physical systems (CPS), especially in the energy and mobility domains. The increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs) of prosumers and electric vehicles requires new ways for CPS communications to enable information exchanges for smart operation in peak consumption hours and balancing power levels in the energy grids in order to lower the energy cost. The huge number of mobile appliances and the related service providers do not serve properly the privacy of the owners, owing to the vertical silo type of operating model in industries. As the results of this research, we provide a trustworthy communication hub for CPS (CPS hub) for solving the challenges related to trustworthy communications between physical resources owned by different stakeholders. The CPS hub realizes the communication spaces concept, and enables combined trust and communications processes when dynamic resources owned by different stakeholders are exchanging information. The evaluations showed that the provided CPS hub enable information exchanges between distributed energy resources of different stakeholders, so that they can join the aggregation process for more flexible and efficient resource usage in energy markets. The CPS hub enable interaction between heterogeneous physical devices of multiple stakeholders to exchange information so that, for example, authorities can see the situation in the emergency area and, simultaneously, the policies of the owners can be taken into concern. Despite limited evaluation scenarios, it is shown that consideration of the ownership issues in the trustworthy communication for information exchanges between heterogeneous physical resources (devices) is possible and feasible. Several future research items, such as, for example, scalability; real-time and streams based operation; as well as consideration of the security, privacy, trust, and safety challenges, were detected. However, the evaluations showed that the constructed CPS hub contribute a set of very essential technical enablers for future smart CPS systems and create strong a basis for such future research towards a future smart society. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
About Linda Again: How Narratives and Group Reasoning Can Influence Conjunction Fallacy
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100210 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Conjunction fallacy (together with other systematic reasoning errors) is usually explained in terms of the dual process theory of reasoning: Biases should be ascribed to fast and automatic processes, whereas slow and deliberative processes are responsible of producing answers that are correct with [...] Read more.
Conjunction fallacy (together with other systematic reasoning errors) is usually explained in terms of the dual process theory of reasoning: Biases should be ascribed to fast and automatic processes, whereas slow and deliberative processes are responsible of producing answers that are correct with respect of normative criterion. The dual process theory is related to Bruner’s distinction between narrative and paradigmatic thought: Both modes of thought can be characterized by the two different processes of reasoning. In this paper, we explore the role of Bruner’s mode of thought manipulating also the difference between group vs individual reasoning. We observed that the narrative strategy of response induces more wrong answers. However, narrative-based strategies have higher effectiveness in the case of group reasoning. Our results suggest that narrative reasoning and group reasoning may induce violations of the conjunction rule when acceptable by the verisimilitude of the story. Five models are also presented in order to predict answer correctness and strategy of reasoning using a text analysis software. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Partitioning Convolutional Neural Networks to Maximize the Inference Rate on Constrained IoT Devices
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100209 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Billions of devices will compose the IoT system in the next few years, generating a huge amount of data. We can use fog computing to process these data, considering that there is the possibility of overloading the network towards the cloud. In this [...] Read more.
Billions of devices will compose the IoT system in the next few years, generating a huge amount of data. We can use fog computing to process these data, considering that there is the possibility of overloading the network towards the cloud. In this context, deep learning can treat these data, but the memory requirements of deep neural networks may prevent them from executing on a single resource-constrained device. Furthermore, their computational requirements may yield an unfeasible execution time. In this work, we propose Deep Neural Networks Partitioning for Constrained IoT Devices, a new algorithm to partition neural networks for efficient distributed execution. Our algorithm can optimize the neural network inference rate or the number of communications among devices. Additionally, our algorithm accounts appropriately for the shared parameters and biases of Convolutional Neural Networks. We investigate the inference rate maximization for the LeNet model in constrained setups. We show that the partitionings offered by popular machine learning frameworks such as TensorFlow or by the general-purpose framework METIS may produce invalid partitionings for very constrained setups. The results show that our algorithm can partition LeNet for all the proposed setups, yielding up to 38% more inferences per second than METIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Topologies and Algorithms for Neural Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Optimization of Pico-Base-Station Density and Transmit Power for an Energy-Efficient Heterogeneous Cellular Network
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100208 - 27 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for explosive data traffic. However, an increase in the number of base stations (BSs) inevitably leads to an increase in energy consumption. Energy efficiency (EE) has become a focal point in HCNs. In [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for explosive data traffic. However, an increase in the number of base stations (BSs) inevitably leads to an increase in energy consumption. Energy efficiency (EE) has become a focal point in HCNs. In this paper, we apply tools from stochastic geometry to investigate and optimize the energy efficiency (EE) for a two-tier HCN. The average achievable transmission rate and the total power consumption of all the BSs in a two-tier HCN is derived, and then the EE is formulated. In order to maximize EE, a one-dimensional optimization algorithm is used to optimize picocell BS density and transmit power. Based on this, an alternating optimization method aimed at maximizing EE is proposed to jointly optimize transmit power and density of picocell BSs. Simulation results validate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the proposed joint optimization method can obviously improve EE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Aware Networking and Green Internet)
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Open AccessArticle
Threat Analysis for Smart Homes
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100207 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The development and deployment of highly dynamic, cyber+connected operational environments, such as smart homes, smart cities, and smart transportation systems, is increasing. The security analysis of such dynamic environments necessitates the use of dynamic risk assessment methodologies and the modeling of dynamically changing [...] Read more.
The development and deployment of highly dynamic, cyber+connected operational environments, such as smart homes, smart cities, and smart transportation systems, is increasing. The security analysis of such dynamic environments necessitates the use of dynamic risk assessment methodologies and the modeling of dynamically changing states. In this paper, we focus on the smart home environment, where the deployment of IoT devices increase the attack surface. We examine existing dynamic risk assessment methodologies, and by leveraging a smart home reference architecture we identify the security risks of a smart home’s physical and communication viewpoints, taking into consideration also dynamic operational aspects. Further, we develop a smart home network topology generator and a graph-based attack model to study dependencies among dynamically changing states and the propagation of a malware infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Reliability of IoT---Selected Papers from SecRIoT 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Coherent Receiver Settings for Optimum Channel Spacing in Gridless Optical Networks
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100206 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel circuit and system to optimize the spacing between optical channels in gridless (also called flexible-grid or elastic) networking. The method will exploit the beginning-of-life link margin by enabling the channel to operate in super-Nyquist dense wavelength [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel circuit and system to optimize the spacing between optical channels in gridless (also called flexible-grid or elastic) networking. The method will exploit the beginning-of-life link margin by enabling the channel to operate in super-Nyquist dense wavelength division multiplexing mode. We present the work in the context of software-defined networking and high-speed optical flexible-rate transponders. The clock recovery scheme allows the mitigation of jitter by decoupling the contribution of high-jitter noise sources from the clock recovery loop. The method and associated algorithm are experimentally verified where a spectrum gain of up to 2 GHz in spacing between two channels in the Media Channel (MC) is obtained compared to conventional clocking strategies. We showed that the improvement is equivalent to increasing throughput, in a data-center interconnect scenario, by up to 300 giga-bits per second per route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time and Power Allocation for Energy Efficiency Maximization in Wireless-Powered Full-Duplex Relay Systems
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100205 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an optimal time and power allocation scheme in a wireless power supply full-duplex (FD) relay system, where we consider the number of relay antennas in the energy harvesting stage. At the same time, the energy efficiency optimization problem [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose an optimal time and power allocation scheme in a wireless power supply full-duplex (FD) relay system, where we consider the number of relay antennas in the energy harvesting stage. At the same time, the energy efficiency optimization problem of the system is structured, where optimization issues related to time allocation factors and power allocation are established. For the FD dual-antenna and the FD single-antenna energy harvesting system, energy efficiency function is proven to be a concave function over the time-switch factor, and the optimal time-switching factor is theoretically obtained using the Lambert function. Then, according to the given value range of the optimal time switching factor, the optimal power distribution scheme is obtained by analyzing the derivative function of the system energy efficiency and using the properties of the Lambert function. The time-switching factor and transmission power are optimally selected at the wireless power supply FD relay. Results reveal that the performance of energy efficiency of the dual-antenna energy harvesting at the FD relay outperforms that of the single-antenna. Moreover, our results demonstrate that FD relay systems always substantially boost the energy efficiency compared with half-duplex (HD) relay systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
No-Reference Depth Map Quality Evaluation Model Based on Depth Map Edge Confidence Measurement in Immersive Video Applications
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100204 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
When it comes to evaluating perceptual quality of digital media for overall quality of experience assessment in immersive video applications, typically two main approaches stand out: Subjective and objective quality evaluation. On one hand, subjective quality evaluation offers the best representation of perceived [...] Read more.
When it comes to evaluating perceptual quality of digital media for overall quality of experience assessment in immersive video applications, typically two main approaches stand out: Subjective and objective quality evaluation. On one hand, subjective quality evaluation offers the best representation of perceived video quality assessed by the real viewers. On the other hand, it consumes a significant amount of time and effort, due to the involvement of real users with lengthy and laborious assessment procedures. Thus, it is essential that an objective quality evaluation model is developed. The speed-up advantage offered by an objective quality evaluation model, which can predict the quality of rendered virtual views based on the depth maps used in the rendering process, allows for faster quality assessments for immersive video applications. This is particularly important given the lack of a suitable reference or ground truth for comparing the available depth maps, especially when live content services are offered in those applications. This paper presents a no-reference depth map quality evaluation model based on a proposed depth map edge confidence measurement technique to assist with accurately estimating the quality of rendered (virtual) views in immersive multi-view video content. The model is applied for depth image-based rendering in multi-view video format, providing comparable evaluation results to those existing in the literature, and often exceeding their performance. Full article
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