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Viruses, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Viral Diversity of Microbats within the South West Botanical Province of Western Australia
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121157 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Bats are known reservoirs of a wide variety of viruses that rarely result in overt clinical disease in the bat host. However, anthropogenic influences on the landscape and climate can change species assemblages and interactions, as well as undermine host-resilience. The cumulative result [...] Read more.
Bats are known reservoirs of a wide variety of viruses that rarely result in overt clinical disease in the bat host. However, anthropogenic influences on the landscape and climate can change species assemblages and interactions, as well as undermine host-resilience. The cumulative result is a disturbance of bat–pathogen dynamics, which facilitate spillover events to sympatric species, and may threaten bat communities already facing synergistic stressors through ecological change. Therefore, characterisation of viral pathogens in bat communities provides important basal information to monitor and predict the emergence of diseases relevant to conservation and public health. This study used targeted molecular techniques, serological assays and next generation sequencing to characterise adenoviruses, coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses from 11 species of insectivorous bats within the South West Botanical Province of Western Australia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated complex ecological interactions including virus–host associations, cross-species infections, and multiple viral strains circulating concurrently within selected bat populations. Additionally, we describe the entire coding sequences for five alphacoronaviruses (representing four putative new species), and one novel adenovirus. Results indicate that viral burden (both prevalence and richness) is not homogeneous among species, with Chalinolobus gouldii identified as a key epidemiological element within the studied communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Pathogenic Characteristics of a Porcine Astrovirus Strain Isolated in China
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121156 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence [...] Read more.
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence of a cytopathic porcine astrovirus (PAstV) strain (PAstV1-GX1) isolated from the PK-15 cell line was tested using seven-day-old nursing piglets. The results showed that PAstV1-GX1 infection could cause mild diarrhea, growth retardation, and damage of the villi of the small intestinal mucosa. However, all the above symptoms could be restored within 7 to 10days post inoculation (dpi). To evaluate the innate immunity response of PAstV in vivo, the alteration of inflammatory cytokine expression in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1 was determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA expression levels of the IFNβ and ISG54 were found to be significantly elevated in virus-infected piglets. In contrast, expression of IFNλ was downregulated in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1. In addition, the mRNA expression of the tight junction protein 1 and 2 and zonula occludin 1, which are associated with the intestinal barrier permeability, were affected after PAstV1 infection. The present study adds to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of PAstV and has established an animal model for further study of pig astrovirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Lineages of Feline Parvovirus Associated with Epizootic Outbreaks in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121155 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV). We investigated simultaneous outbreaks of FPL between 2014 and 2018 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where FPL outbreaks had [...] Read more.
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV). We investigated simultaneous outbreaks of FPL between 2014 and 2018 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where FPL outbreaks had not been reported for several decades. Case data from 989 cats and clinical samples from additional 113 cats were obtained to determine the cause of the outbreaks and epidemiological factors involved. Most cats with FPL were shelter-housed, 9 to 10 weeks old at diagnosis, unvaccinated, had not completed a primary vaccination series or had received vaccinations noncompliant with current guidelines. Analysis of parvoviral VP2 sequence data confirmed that all FPL cases were caused by FPV and not CPV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these outbreaks was caused by a distinct FPV, with two virus lineages present in eastern Australia and virus movement between different geographical locations. Viruses from the UAE outbreak formed a lineage of unknown origin. FPV vaccine virus was detected in the New Zealand cases, highlighting the difficulty of distinguishing the co-incidental shedding of vaccine virus in vaccinated cats. Inadequate vaccination coverage in shelter-housed cats was a common factor in all outbreaks, likely precipitating the multiple re-emergence of infection events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Antigenic and Pathogenic Characteristics of QX-Type Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains Isolated in Southwestern China
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121154 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
The QX-type avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is still a prevalent genotype in Southwestern China. To analyze the antigenicity and pathogenicity characteristics of the dominant genotype strains (QX-type), S1 gene sequence analysis, virus cross-neutralization tests, and pathogenicity test of eight QX-type IBV isolates [...] Read more.
The QX-type avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is still a prevalent genotype in Southwestern China. To analyze the antigenicity and pathogenicity characteristics of the dominant genotype strains (QX-type), S1 gene sequence analysis, virus cross-neutralization tests, and pathogenicity test of eight QX-type IBV isolates were conducted. Sequence analysis showed that the nucleotide homology between the eight strains was high, but distantly related to H120 and 4/91 vaccine strains. Cross-neutralization tests showed that all eight strains isolated from 2015 and 2017 belonged to the same serotype, but exhibited antigenic variations over time. The pathogenicity test of the five QX-type IBV isolates showed that only three strains, CK/CH/SC/DYW/16, CK/CH/SC/MS/17, and CK/CH/SC/GH/15, had a high mortality rate with strong respiratory and renal pathogenicity, whereas CK/CH/SC/PZ/17 and CK/CH/SC/DYYJ/17 caused only mild clinical symptoms and tissue lesions. Our results indicate that the prevalent QX-type IBVs displayed antigenic variations and pathogenicity difference. These findings may provide reference for research on the evolution of IBV and vaccine preparation of infectious bronchitis (IB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling Vector Transmission and Epidemiology of Co-Infecting Plant Viruses
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121153 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Co-infection of plant hosts by two or more viruses is common in agricultural crops and natural plant communities. A variety of models have been used to investigate the dynamics of co-infection which track only the disease status of infected and co-infected plants, and [...] Read more.
Co-infection of plant hosts by two or more viruses is common in agricultural crops and natural plant communities. A variety of models have been used to investigate the dynamics of co-infection which track only the disease status of infected and co-infected plants, and which do not explicitly track the density of inoculative vectors. Much less attention has been paid to the role of vector transmission in co-infection, that is, acquisition and inoculation and their synergistic and antagonistic interactions. In this investigation, a general epidemiological model is formulated for one vector species and one plant species with potential co-infection in the host plant by two viruses. The basic reproduction number provides conditions for successful invasion of a single virus. We derive a new invasion threshold which provides conditions for successful invasion of a second virus. These two thresholds highlight some key epidemiological parameters important in vector transmission. To illustrate the flexibility of our model, we examine numerically two special cases of viral invasion. In the first case, one virus species depends on an autonomous virus for its successful transmission and in the second case, both viruses are unable to invade alone but can co-infect the host plant when prevalence is high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
Tilapia Lake Virus Does Not Hemagglutinate Avian and Piscine Erythrocytes and NH4Cl Does Not Inhibit Viral Replication In Vitro
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121152 - 12 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) icosahedral virus classified to be the only member in the family Amnoonviridae. Although TiLV segment-1 shares homology with the influenza C virus PB1 and has four conserved motifs similar to influenza A, B, [...] Read more.
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) icosahedral virus classified to be the only member in the family Amnoonviridae. Although TiLV segment-1 shares homology with the influenza C virus PB1 and has four conserved motifs similar to influenza A, B, and C polymerases, it is unknown whether there are other properties shared between TiLV and orthomyxovirus. In the present study, we wanted to determine whether TiLV agglutinated avian and piscine erythrocytes, and whether its replication was inhibited by lysosomotropic agents, such as ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), as seen for orthomyxoviruses. Our findings showed that influenza virus strain A/Puerto Rico/8 (PR8) was able to hemagglutinate turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) red blood cells (RBCs), while infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) only agglutinated Atlantic salmon, but not turkey or tilapia, RBCs. In contrast to PR8 and ISAV, TiLV did not agglutinate turkey, Atlantic salmon, or tilapia RBCs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 30 mM NH4Cl, a basic lysosomotropic agent, neither inhibited nor enhanced TiLV replication in E-11 cells. There was no difference in viral quantities in the infected cells with or without NH4Cl treatment during virus adsorption or at 1, 2, and 3 h post-infection. Given that hemagglutinin proteins that bind RBCs also serve as ligands that bind host cells during virus entry leading to endocytosis in orthomyxoviruses, the data presented here suggest that TiLV may use mechanisms that are different from orthomyxoviruses for entry and replication in host cells. Therefore, future studies should seek to elucidate the mechanisms used by TiLV for entry into host cells and to determine its mode of replication in infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of FDA-Approved Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121151 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a category B select agent pathogen that can be aerosolized. Infections in murine models and humans can advance to an encephalitic phenotype which may result in long-term neurological complications or death. No specific FDA-approved treatments or vaccines [...] Read more.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a category B select agent pathogen that can be aerosolized. Infections in murine models and humans can advance to an encephalitic phenotype which may result in long-term neurological complications or death. No specific FDA-approved treatments or vaccines are available for the treatment or prevention of VEEV infection. Neurotropic viral infections have two damaging components: neuronal death caused by viral replication, and damage from the subsequent inflammatory response. Reducing the level of inflammation may lessen neurological tissue damage that often arises following VEEV infection. In this study, three commercially available anti-inflammatory drugs, Celecoxib, Rolipram, and Tofacitinib, were evaluated for antiviral activity in an astrocyte and a microglial model of VEEV infection. The inhibitors were tested against the vaccine strain VEEV TC-83, as well as the wild-type VEEV Trinidad donkey strain. Celecoxib, Tofacitinib, and Rolipram significantly decreased viral titers both after pre-treatment and post-treatment of infected cells. VEEV Trinidad Donkey (TrD) titers were reduced 6.45-fold in cells treated with 50 µM of Celecoxib, 2.45-fold when treated with 50 µM of Tofacitinib, and 1.81-fold when treated with 50 µM of Rolipram. Celecoxib was also shown to decrease inflammatory gene expression in the context of TC-83 infection. Overall, Celecoxib demonstrated potency as a countermeasure strategy that slowed VEEV infection and infection-induced inflammation in an in vitro model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessReply
Reply to Comments by Yih et al. (Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross-Sectional Study)
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121150 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Dear Drs. W. Katherine Yih, Martin Kulldorff, Jessica H. Leibler, David J. Friedman, and Daniel R. Brooks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Bacterium-Like Particle-Based Vaccine Displaying the SUDV Glycoprotein Induces Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Mice
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121149 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Sudan virus (SUDV) causes severe lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The most effective and economical way to protect against Sudan ebolavirus disease is prophylactic vaccination. However, there are no licensed vaccines to prevent SUDV infections. In this study, a bacterium-like [...] Read more.
Sudan virus (SUDV) causes severe lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The most effective and economical way to protect against Sudan ebolavirus disease is prophylactic vaccination. However, there are no licensed vaccines to prevent SUDV infections. In this study, a bacterium-like particle (BLP)-based vaccine displaying the extracellular domain of the SUDV glycoprotein (eGP) was developed based on a gram-positive enhancer matrix-protein anchor (GEM-PA) surface display system. Expression of the recombinant GEM-displayed eGP (eGP-PA-GEM) was verified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The SUDV BLPs (SBLPs), which were mixed with Montanide ISA 201VG plus Poly (I:C) combined adjuvant, could induce high SUDV GP-specific IgG titers of up to 1:40,960 and robust virus-neutralizing antibody titers reached 1:460. The SBLP also elicited T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated immunity. These data indicate that the SBLP subunit vaccine has the potential to be developed into a promising candidate vaccine against SUDV infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel and Divergent Gyrovirus with Unusual Genomic Features Detected in Wild Passerine Birds from a Remote Rainforest in French Guiana
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121148 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Sequence-independent amplification techniques have become important tools for virus discovery, metagenomics, and exploration of viral diversity at the global scale, especially in remote areas. Here, we describe the detection and genetic characterization of a novel gyrovirus, named GyV11, present in cloacal, oral, and [...] Read more.
Sequence-independent amplification techniques have become important tools for virus discovery, metagenomics, and exploration of viral diversity at the global scale, especially in remote areas. Here, we describe the detection and genetic characterization of a novel gyrovirus, named GyV11, present in cloacal, oral, and blood samples from neotropical wild birds in French Guiana. The molecular epidemiology revealed the presence of GyV11 only in passerine birds from three different species at a low prevalence (0.73%). This is the first characterization and prevalence study of a gyrovirus carried out in resident wild bird populations in a remote region, and provides evidence of the fecal–oral route transmission and local circulation of the virus. The molecular phylogeny of gyroviruses reveals the existence of two distinct gyrovirus lineages in which GyV11 is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported gyroviruses. Furthermore, GyV11 is placed basal in the gyrovirus phylogeny, likely owing to its ancestral origin and marked divergence. This study also provides important insights into the ecology, epidemiology, and genomic features of gyroviruses in a remote neotropical rainforest. The pathogenesis of this virus in avian species or whether GyV11 can infect humans and/or chickens needs to be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessComment
Comment on Sarathkumara et al.: Exposure to Hantavirus is a Risk Factor Associated with Kidney Diseases in Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Study
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121147 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 143
Abstract
In a recent paper, Sarathkumara et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle
From a Movement-Deficient Grapevine Fanleaf Virus to the Identification of a New Viral Determinant of Nematode Transmission
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121146 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 127
Abstract
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) are nepoviruses responsible for grapevine degeneration. They are specifically transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by two distinct ectoparasitic dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema. GFLV and ArMV move from cell to cell as [...] Read more.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) are nepoviruses responsible for grapevine degeneration. They are specifically transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by two distinct ectoparasitic dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema. GFLV and ArMV move from cell to cell as virions through tubules formed into plasmodesmata by the self-assembly of the viral movement protein. Five surface-exposed regions in the coat protein called R1 to R5, which differ between the two viruses, were previously defined and exchanged to test their involvement in virus transmission, leading to the identification of region R2 as a transmission determinant. Region R4 (amino acids 258 to 264) could not be tested in transmission due to its requirement for plant systemic infection. Here, we present a fine-tuning mutagenesis of the GFLV coat protein in and around region R4 that restored the virus movement and allowed its evaluation in transmission. We show that residues T258, M260, D261, and R301 play a crucial role in virus transmission, thus representing a new viral determinant of nematode transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acids Regulate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection via the AMPK-ACC1 Signaling Pathway
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121145 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV [...] Read more.
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV infection. In this study, we found that treatment with a FA biosynthetic inhibitor significantly inhibited PRRSV propagation, indicating the necessity of FAs for optimal replication of PRRSV. Further study revealed that 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key kinase antagonizing FA biosynthesis, was strongly activated by PRRSV and the pharmacological activator of AMPK exhibited anti-PRRSV activity. Additionally, we found that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the FA biosynthesis pathway, was phosphorylated (inactive form) by PRRSV-activated AMPK, and active ACC1 was required for PRRSV proliferation, suggesting that the PRRSV infection induced the activation of the AMPK–ACC1 pathway, which was not conducive to PRRSV replication. This work provides new evidence about the mechanisms involved in host lipid metabolism during PRRSV infection and identifies novel potential antiviral targets for PRRSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Feline Infectious Peritonitis as a Systemic Inflammatory Disease: Contribution of Liver and Heart to the Pathogenesis
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121144 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated disease of cats, induced by feline coronavirus (FCoV). A combination of as yet poorly understood host and viral factors combine to cause a minority of FCoV-infected cats to develop FIP. Clinicopathological features include fever, vasculitis, [...] Read more.
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated disease of cats, induced by feline coronavirus (FCoV). A combination of as yet poorly understood host and viral factors combine to cause a minority of FCoV-infected cats to develop FIP. Clinicopathological features include fever, vasculitis, and serositis, with or without effusions; all of which indicate a pro-inflammatory state with cytokine release. As a result, primary immune organs, as well as circulating leukocytes, have thus far been of most interest in previous studies to determine the likely sources of these cytokines. Results have suggested that these tissues alone may not be sufficient to induce the observed inflammation. The current study therefore focussed on the liver and heart, organs with a demonstrated ability to produce cytokines and therefore with huge potential to exacerbate inflammatory processes. The IL-12:IL-10 ratio, a marker of the immune system’s inflammatory balance, was skewed towards the pro-inflammatory IL-12 in the liver of cats with FIP. Both organs were found to upregulate mRNA expression of the inflammatory triad of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in FIP. This amplifying step may be one of the missing links in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
New Genus Fibralongavirus in Siphoviridae Phages of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121143 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Bacteriophages of the significant veterinary pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius are rarely described morphologically and genomically in detail, and mostly include phages of the Siphoviridae family. There is currently no taxonomical classification for phages of this bacterial species. Here we describe a new phage designated [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages of the significant veterinary pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius are rarely described morphologically and genomically in detail, and mostly include phages of the Siphoviridae family. There is currently no taxonomical classification for phages of this bacterial species. Here we describe a new phage designated vB_SpsS_QT1, which is related to phage 2638A originally described as a Staphylococcus aureus phage. Propagating strain S. aureus 2854 of the latter was reclassified by rpoB gene sequencing as S. pseudintermedius 2854 in this work. Both phages have a narrow but different host range determined on 54 strains. Morphologically, both of them belong to the family Siphoviridae, share the B1 morphotype, and differ from other staphylococcal phage genera by a single long fibre at the terminus of the tail. The complete genome of phage vB_SpsS_QT1 was sequenced with the IonTorrent platform and expertly annotated. Its linear genome with cohesive ends is 43,029 bp long and encodes 60 predicted genes with the typical modular structure of staphylococcal siphophages. A global alignment found the genomes of vB_SpsS_QT1 and 2638A to share 84% nucleotide identity, but they have no significant similarity of nucleotide sequences with other phage genomes available in public databases. Based on the morphological, phylogenetic, and genomic analyses, a novel genus Fibralongavirus in the family Siphoviridae is described with phage species vB_SpsS_QT1 and 2638A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Survey and Phylogenetic Analysis of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus (APPV) Identified in Swine and Wild Boar from Northern Italy
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121142 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a newly recognized member of the Flaviviridae family. This novel porcine pestivirus was first described in 2015 in the USA, where it has been associated with congenital tremor type A-II in new-born piglets. APPV is widely distributed in [...] Read more.
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a newly recognized member of the Flaviviridae family. This novel porcine pestivirus was first described in 2015 in the USA, where it has been associated with congenital tremor type A-II in new-born piglets. APPV is widely distributed in domestic pigs in Europe and Asia. In this study, a virological survey was performed in Northern Italy to investigate the presence of APPV using molecular methods. Testing of 360 abortion samples from pig herds revealed two APPV strains from distinct provinces in the Lombardy region and testing of 430 wild boar blood samples revealed three strains, one from Lombardy and two from Emilia Romagna. The nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the nonstructural protein 3-coding region revealed a high similarity to the previously detected European strains (Spanish, German, and Italian) of APPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Related Pestiviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Rep Enhances IL-10 Production in Macrophages via Activation of p38-MAPK Pathway
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121141 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the major threats to pig farms worldwide. Although PCV2 has been identified to promote IL-10 production, the detailed regulatory roles of PCV2 Rep for IL-10 production remain unclear. Herein, we first found that PCV2 Rep, [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the major threats to pig farms worldwide. Although PCV2 has been identified to promote IL-10 production, the detailed regulatory roles of PCV2 Rep for IL-10 production remain unclear. Herein, we first found that PCV2 Rep, rather than PCV1 Rep, enhanced IL-10 expression at the later phase of PCV2 infection in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Furthermore, we found that PCV2 Rep directly activated the p38-MAPK pathway to promote transcription factors NF-κB p50 and Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter, but PCV1 Rep did not. During PCV2 infection, however, PCV2 Rep promoted the binding activities of NF-κB p50 and Sp1 with the il10 promoter only at the later phase of PCV2 infection, since Rep proteins only expressed at the later phase of the infection. Moreover, silence of the thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), a Rep-binding protein, significantly reduced the binding activities of NF-κB p50 and Sp1 with il10 promoter, resulting in the reduction of IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated PAMs at the later phase of infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Rep proteins enhance IL-10 production during PCV2 infection of PAMs via activation of p38-MAPK pathways, in which host TDG is a critical mediator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Three YXXL Sequences of a Bovine Leukemia Virus Transmembrane Protein are Independently Required for Fusion Activity by Controlling Expression on the Cell Membrane
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121140 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia viruses, is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. The transmembrane subunit of the BLV envelope glycoprotein, gp30, contains three completely conserved YXXL sequences [...] Read more.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia viruses, is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. The transmembrane subunit of the BLV envelope glycoprotein, gp30, contains three completely conserved YXXL sequences that fit an endocytic sorting motif. The two N-terminal YXXL sequences are reportedly critical for viral infection. However, their actual function in the viral life cycle remains undetermined. Here, we identified the novel roles of each YXXL sequence. Syncytia formation ability was upregulated by a single mutation of the tyrosine (Tyr) residue in any of the three YXXL sequences, indicating that each YXXL sequence is independently able to regulate the fusion event. The alteration resulted from significantly high expression of gp51 on the cell surface, thereby decreasing the amount of gp51 in early endosomes and further revealing that the three YXXL sequences are independently required for internalization of the envelope (Env) protein, following transport to the cell surface. Moreover, the 2nd and 3rd YXXL sequences contributed to Env protein incorporation into the virion by functionally distinct mechanisms. Our findings provide new insights regarding the three YXXL sequences toward the BLV viral life cycle and for developing new anti-BLV drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Multiple Variants of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in Single Xiphinema index Nematodes
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121139 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is responsible for a widespread disease in vineyards worldwide. Its genome is composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs, which both show a high genetic diversity. The virus is transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index [...] Read more.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is responsible for a widespread disease in vineyards worldwide. Its genome is composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs, which both show a high genetic diversity. The virus is transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Grapevines in diseased vineyards are often infected by multiple genetic variants of GFLV but no information is available on the molecular composition of virus variants retained in X. index following nematodes feeding on roots. In this work, aviruliferous X. index were fed on three naturally GFLV-infected grapevines for which the virome was characterized by RNAseq. Six RNA-1 and four RNA-2 molecules were assembled segregating into four and three distinct phylogenetic clades of RNA-1 and RNA-2, respectively. After 19 months of rearing, single and pools of 30 X. index tested positive for GFLV. Additionally, either pooled or single X. index carried multiple variants of the two GFLV genomic RNAs. However, the full viral genetic diversity found in the leaves of infected grapevines was not detected in viruliferous nematodes, indicating a genetic bottleneck. Our results provide new insights into the complexity of GFLV populations and the putative role of X. index as reservoirs of virus diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Transmission by Vectors)
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Open AccessArticle
Chimeric Capsid Proteins Impact Transduction Efficiency of Haploid Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121138 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Our previous studies have demonstrated that haploid AAV vectors made from capsids of two different serotypes induced high transduction and prevented serotype-specific antibody binding. In this study, we explored the transduction efficiency of several haploid viruses, which were made from the VP1/VP2 of [...] Read more.
Our previous studies have demonstrated that haploid AAV vectors made from capsids of two different serotypes induced high transduction and prevented serotype-specific antibody binding. In this study, we explored the transduction efficiency of several haploid viruses, which were made from the VP1/VP2 of one serotype and VP3 of another compatible serotype. After systemic injection of 2 × 1010 vg of AAV vectors into mice, the haploid AAV vectors, composed of VP1/VP2 from serotypes 8 or 9, and VP3 from AAV2, displayed a two to seven-fold increase in liver transduction compared with those of parental AAV2 vectors. Furthermore, a chimeric AAV2/8 VP1/VP2 with N-terminus of VP1/VP2 from AAV2 and C-terminus (VP3 domain) from AAV8 was constructed, and produced the haploid vector 28m-2VP3 with AAV2 VP3. The haploid 28m-2VP3 vector showed a five-fold higher transduction than that of the vectors composed solely of AAV2 VPs. Remarkably, the 28m-2VP3 vectors also induced a significant increase in transgene expression compared to the vectors composed of AAV8 VP1/VP2 with AAV2 VP3. The results suggest that the difference in the VP1/VP2 N-terminal region between AAV2 and AAV8 may allow better “communication” between the VP1/VP2 N-terminus of AAV2 with its cognate VP3. Similarly, the haploid vectors, VP1/VP2 from serotypes 8 or 9 and VP3 from AAV3, achieved higher transductions in multiple tissue types beyond typical tropism compared with those of AAV3 vectors. Consistently, higher vector genome copy numbers were detected in these tissues, indicating that an incorporation of non-cognate VP1/VP2 might influence the cellular tropism of the haploid vectors. However, there was no significant difference or even decreased transductions when compared with those of parental AAV8 or AAV9 vectors. In summary, these studies provide insight into current development strategies of AAV vectors that can increase AAV transduction across multiple tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Characterization and Molecular Evolution of Urban Seoul Virus in Southern China
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121137 - 09 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Seoul virus (SEOV), which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, has spread all over the world, especially in mainland China. Understanding basic mechanisms of SEOV evolution is essential to better combat and prevent viral diseases. Here, we examined SEOV prevalence [...] Read more.
Seoul virus (SEOV), which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, has spread all over the world, especially in mainland China. Understanding basic mechanisms of SEOV evolution is essential to better combat and prevent viral diseases. Here, we examined SEOV prevalence and evolution in the residential area of four districts in Guangzhou city, China. The carriage of SEOV was observed in 33.33% of the sampled rodents, with 35.96% of the sampled Rattus norvegicus and 13.33% of R. tanezumi. Based on the comprehensive analyses of large (L), medium (M), and small (S) segments, our study first demonstrated that the genetic characterization of urban SEOV was shaped by high nucleotide substitution rates, purifying selection, and recombination. Additionally, we detected mutational saturation in the S segment of SEOV, which may lead to the biases of genetic divergence and substitution rates in our study. Importantly, we have filled the gap of SEOV evolution in the urban area. The genetic variation of SEOV may highlight the risk of HFRS, which merits further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Insight into the Tropism of Dengue Virus in Humans
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121136 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
In tropical and subtropical zones, arboviruses are among the major threats to human life, affecting a large number of populations with serious diseases. Worldwide, over three hundred million people are infected with dengue virus (DENV) every year as per the World Health Organization [...] Read more.
In tropical and subtropical zones, arboviruses are among the major threats to human life, affecting a large number of populations with serious diseases. Worldwide, over three hundred million people are infected with dengue virus (DENV) every year as per the World Health Organization (WHO). DENV-mediated disease severity ranges from a mild fever to hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Patients suffering from severe infection might experience multi-organ failure, cardiomyopathy and even encephalopathy, further complicating the disease pathogenesis. In life-threatening cases, DENV has been reported to affect almost all organs of the human body. In this review, we discuss the organ tropism of DENV in humans in depth as detected in various autopsy studies. Keeping in mind the fact that there is currently no DENV-specific antiviral, it is of utmost importance to achieve a vivid picture of the susceptible cells in humans which might help in designing antivirals against DENV, especially targeting those tissues in which infection might lead to life-threatening conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time PCR Detection Patterns of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Polish Farms with Different Statuses of Vaccination against PCV2
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121135 - 08 Dec 2019
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms that do not vaccinate against PCV2 (NON-VAC) and from 22 farms that do vaccinate (VAC) were tested with quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of ORF2 of the virus were obtained from selected samples. Three genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d, were detected. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in PCV2 prevalence and quantities between the VAC and NON-VAC farms were evident. In five VAC farms, no viremia or shedding in feces was detected. On the other hand, in four VAC farms, the results were very similar to those from NON-VAC farms. No significant difference in PCV2 prevalence in oral fluids was observed between VAC and NON-VAC farms. An examination of viremia can be recommended for the detection of vaccination efficacy issues. The median of the PCV2 viral loads >6.0 log10 copies/mL in pooled sera from the vaccinated population should be considered a very strong indication that the vaccination protocol needs revision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Camelids and Cattle Are Dead-End Hosts for Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121133 - 08 Dec 2019
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 [...] Read more.
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 revealed that pigs and wild boar are possible sources of PPRV-infection. We therefore investigated the role of cattle, llamas, alpacas, and dromedary camels in transmission trials using the Kurdistan/2011 strain for intranasal infection and integrated a literature review for a proper evaluation of their host traits and role in PPRV-transmission. Cattle and camelids developed no clinical signs, no viremia, shed no or only low PPRV-RNA loads in swab samples and did not transmit any PPRV to the contact animals. The distribution of PPRV-RNA or antigen in lymphoid organs was similar in cattle and camelids although generally lower compared to suids and small ruminants. In the typical small ruminant hosts, the tissue tropism, pathogenesis and disease expression after PPRV-infection is associated with infection of immune and epithelial cells via SLAM and nectin-4 receptors, respectively. We therefore suggest a different pathogenesis in cattle and camelids and both as dead-end hosts for PPRV. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Genus of Actinobacterial Tectiviridae
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121134 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Streptomyces phages WheeHeim and Forthebois are two novel members of the Tectiviridae family. These phages were isolated on cultures of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabiei, known for its worldwide economic impact on potato crops. Transmission electron microscopy showed viral particles with double-layered [...] Read more.
Streptomyces phages WheeHeim and Forthebois are two novel members of the Tectiviridae family. These phages were isolated on cultures of the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabiei, known for its worldwide economic impact on potato crops. Transmission electron microscopy showed viral particles with double-layered icosahedral capsids, and frequent instances of protruding nanotubes harboring a collar-like structure. Mass-spectrometry confirmed the presence of lipids in the virion, and serial purification of colonies from turbid plaques and immunity testing revealed that both phages are temperate. Streptomyces phages WheeHeim and Forthebois have linear dsDNA chromosomes (18,266 bp and 18,251 bp long, respectively) with the characteristic two-segment architecture of the Tectiviridae. Both genomes encode homologs of the canonical tectiviral proteins (major capsid protein, packaging ATPase and DNA polymerase), as well as PRD1-type virion-associated transglycosylase and membrane DNA delivery proteins. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses firmly establish that these two phages, together with Rhodococcus phage Toil, form a new genus within the Tectiviridae, which we have tentatively named Deltatectivirus. The identification of a cohesive clade of Actinobacteria-infecting tectiviruses with conserved genome structure but with scant sequence similarity to members of other tectiviral genera confirms that the Tectiviridae are an ancient lineage infecting a broad range of bacterial hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid, Unbiased PRRSV Strain Detection Using MinION Direct RNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Tools
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121132 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Prompt detection and effective control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during outbreaks is important given its immense adverse impact on the swine industry. However, the diagnostic process can be challenging due to the high genetic diversity and high mutation rate [...] Read more.
Prompt detection and effective control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) during outbreaks is important given its immense adverse impact on the swine industry. However, the diagnostic process can be challenging due to the high genetic diversity and high mutation rate of PRRSV. A diagnostic method that can provide more detailed genetic information about pathogens is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Oxford Nanopore MinION direct RNA sequencing to generate a PRRSV whole genome sequence and detect and discriminate virus at the strain-level. A nearly full length PRRSV genome was successfully generated from raw sequence reads, achieving an accuracy of 96% after consensus genome generation. Direct RNA sequencing reliably detected the PRRSV strain present with an accuracy of 99.9% using as few as 5 raw sequencing reads and successfully differentiated multiple co-infecting strains present in a sample. In addition, PRRSV strain information was obtained from clinical samples containing 104 to 106 viral copies or more within 6 hours of sequencing. Overall, direct viral RNA sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis proves to be a promising approach for identification of the viral strain or strains involved in clinical infections, allowing for more precise prevention and control strategies during PRRSV outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Bioinformatics 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Pediatric Infections by Human mastadenovirus C Types 2, 89, and a Recombinant Type Detected in Japan between 2011 and 2018
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121131 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Between 2011 and 2018, 518 respiratory adenovirus infections were diagnosed in a pediatric clinic in Shizuoka, Japan. Detection and typing were performed by partial sequencing of both hexon- and fiber-coding regions which identified: adenovirus type 1 (Ad-1, n = 85), Ad-2 (n [...] Read more.
Between 2011 and 2018, 518 respiratory adenovirus infections were diagnosed in a pediatric clinic in Shizuoka, Japan. Detection and typing were performed by partial sequencing of both hexon- and fiber-coding regions which identified: adenovirus type 1 (Ad-1, n = 85), Ad-2 (n = 160), Ad-3 (n = 193), Ad-4 (n = 18), Ad-5 (n = 27), Ad-11 (n = 2), Ad-54 (n = 3), and Ad-56 (n = 1). Considering previous reports of the circulation of an endemic recombinant Ad-2, e.g., Ad-89, 100 samples typed as Ad-2 were randomly selected for further molecular typing by sequencing the penton base-coding region. Despite the high nucleotide sequence conservation in the penton base- coding region, 27 samples showed 98% identity to Ad-2. Furthermore, 14 samples showed 97.7% identity to Ad-2 and 99.8% identity to Ad-89, while the remaining 13 samples showed an average 98% pairwise identity to other Ad-C types and clustered with Ad-5. The samples typed as Ad-89 (n = 14) and as a recombinant Ad type (P5H2F2) (n = 13) represented 27% of cases originally diagnosed as Ad-2, and were detected sporadically. Therefore, two previously uncharacterized types in Japan, Ad-89 and a recombinant Ad-C, were shown to circulate in children. This study creates a precedent to evaluate the epidemiology and divergence among Ad-C types by comprehensively considering the type classification of adenoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) Vaccines Efficiently Protect Cockatiels Against Parrot Bornavirus Infection and Proventricular Dilatation Disease
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121130 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic and often fatal neurologic disorder in Psittaciformes. The disease is widely distributed in private parrot collections and threatens breeding populations of endangered species. Thus, immunoprophylaxis strategies are urgently needed. [...] Read more.
Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic and often fatal neurologic disorder in Psittaciformes. The disease is widely distributed in private parrot collections and threatens breeding populations of endangered species. Thus, immunoprophylaxis strategies are urgently needed. In previous studies we demonstrated a prime-boost vaccination regime using modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) constructs expressing the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of PaBV-4 (MVA/PaBV-4 and NDV/PaBV-4, respectively) to protect cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) against experimental challenge infection. Here we investigated the protective effect provided by repeated immunization with either MVA/PaBV-4, NDV/PaBV-4 or Orf virus constructs (ORFV/PaBV-4) individually. While MVA/PaBV-4-vaccinated cockatiels were completely protected against subsequent PaBV-2 challenge infection and PDD-associated lesions, the course of the challenge infection in NDV/PaBV-4- or ORFV/PaBV-4-vaccinated birds did not differ from the unvaccinated control group. We further investigated the effect of vaccination on persistently PaBV-4-infected cockatiels. Remarkably, subsequent immunization with MVA/PaBV-4 and NDV/PaBV-4 neither induced obvious immunopathogenesis exacerbating the disease nor reduced viral loads in the infected birds. In summary, we demonstrated that vaccination with MVA/PaBV-4 alone is sufficient to efficiently prevent PaBV-2 challenge infection in cockatiels, providing a suitable vaccine candidate against avian bornavirus infection and bornavirus-induced PDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Method for Sample Preparation to Facilitate Efficient Whole-Genome Sequencing of African Swine Fever Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121129 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 209
Abstract
In the recent years, African swine fever has become the biggest animal health threat to the swine industry. To facilitate quick genetic analysis of its causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), we developed a simple and efficient method for next generation [...] Read more.
In the recent years, African swine fever has become the biggest animal health threat to the swine industry. To facilitate quick genetic analysis of its causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), we developed a simple and efficient method for next generation sequencing of the viral DNA. Execution of the protocol does not demand complicated virus purification steps, enrichment of the virus by ultracentrifugation or of the viral DNA by ASFV-specific PCRs, and minimizes the use of Sanger sequencing. Efficient DNA-se treatment, monitoring of sample preparation by qPCR, and whole genome amplification are the key elements of the method. Through detailed description of sequencing of the first Hungarian ASFV isolate (ASFV_HU_2018), we specify the sensitive steps and supply key reference numbers to assist reproducibility and to facilitate the successful use of the method for other ASFV researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Suggestive Serological Evidence of Infection with Shrew-Borne Imjin Virus (Hantaviridae) in Humans
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121128 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 205
Abstract
The pathogenicity of the shrew-borne Imjin virus (MJNV) is unknown. The objective of our study was to find serological evidence of MJNV infection in humans. Partial MJNV nucleocapsid protein (NP) was cloned and expressed as an antigen for double-antigen sandwich ELISA, IgM capture [...] Read more.
The pathogenicity of the shrew-borne Imjin virus (MJNV) is unknown. The objective of our study was to find serological evidence of MJNV infection in humans. Partial MJNV nucleocapsid protein (NP) was cloned and expressed as an antigen for double-antigen sandwich ELISA, IgM capture ELISA, and dot blot to detect MJNV specific antibodies in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients’ and healthy persons’ sera from endemic areas in China. The purified recombinant NP reacted with neither the 90 healthy individuals’ sera from non-endemic areas of MJNV nor the 100 antisera to HFRS-causing virus, indicating that the MJNV NP had no cross-reaction with normal human sera and HFRS-causing viral antibodies. As determined by screening ELISA and dot blot analysis, IgG antibodies against MJNV NP were detected in sera from two of 385 healthy individuals from MJNV-endemic areas, suggesting infection with MJNV or MJNV-like thottimvirus. Based on the suggestive evidence, healthcare workers should be alert to febrile diseases occurring among individuals with exposure to shrew-infested habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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