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Materials, Volume 13, Issue 17 (September-1 2020) – 252 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The electronic structure and the corresponding electrical conductive behavior of the Cu/Cr2C/TiN stack were assessed according to a newly developed first-principle model based on density functional theory. Using an additional Cr2C layer provides the metal-like characteristic of the Cu/Cr2C/TiN stack with much larger electrical conduction coefficients (i.e., mobility, diffusivity, and electrical conductivity) than the conventional Ag/Ti3C2/Pt stack due to the lower activation energy. This device is therefore capable of offering faster switching speeds, lower programming voltage, and better stability and durability than the memristor device with conventional Ti3C2 MXene. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Cyclic Loading Impact on the Creep Deformation Mechanism in Cohesive Materials
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173907 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Long-term cyclic loading is observed in a wide range of human activities, as well as in nature, such as in the case of ocean waves. Cyclic loading can lead to ratcheting which is defined as progressive accumulation of plastic deformation in a material. [...] Read more.
Long-term cyclic loading is observed in a wide range of human activities, as well as in nature, such as in the case of ocean waves. Cyclic loading can lead to ratcheting which is defined as progressive accumulation of plastic deformation in a material. Long-term cyclic loading causes a time effect (creep), which is a secondary compression effect. In this article, we conducted 15 triaxial tests on four types of cohesive materials in undrained conditions to evaluate the damage and failure mechanism. To characterize the strain and pore pressure development, we modified the Yanbu resistance concept. On the basis of the static creep tests, we concluded that the stress paths for undrained creep behavior have to take into account the pore pressure developed during long-term cyclic loading. Pore pressure build-up and plastic strain accumulation during long-term cyclic loading are dependent on the number of loading cycles. Finally, we proposed the failure criterion, which was based on the Modified Cam-Clay constitutive model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage Mechanisms and Failure Analysis in Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Incorporation of Waste Glass as an Activator in Class-C Fly Ash/GGBS Based Alkali Activated Material
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173906 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 797
Abstract
In this study, an alkaline activator was synthesized by dissolving waste glass powder (WGP) in NaOH-4M solution to explore its effects on the formation of alkali-activated material (AAM) generated by Class-C fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The compressive [...] Read more.
In this study, an alkaline activator was synthesized by dissolving waste glass powder (WGP) in NaOH-4M solution to explore its effects on the formation of alkali-activated material (AAM) generated by Class-C fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The compressive strength, flexure strength, porosity and water absorption were measured, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to study the crystalline phases, hydration mechanism and microstructure of the resulting composites. Results indicated that the composition of alkali solutions and the ratios of FA/GGBS were significant in enhancing the properties of the obtained AAM. As the amount of dissolved WGP increased in alkaline solution, the silicon concentration increased, causing the accelerated reactivity of FA/GGBS to develop Ca-based hydrate gel as the main reaction product in the system, thereby increasing the strength and lowering the porosity. Further increase in WGP dissolution led to strength loss and increased porosity, which were believed to be due to the excessive water demand of FA/GGBS composites to achieve optimum mixing consistency. Increasing the GGBS proportion in a composite appeared to improve the strength and lower the porosity owing to the reactivity of GGBS being higher than that of FA, which contributed to develop C-S-H-type hydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
Grain Growth Kinetics of 0.65Ca0.61La0.26TiO3-0.35Sm(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Dielectric Ceramic
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173905 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 596
Abstract
The 0.65Ca0.61La0.26TiO3-0.35Sm(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3[0.65CLT-0.35SMT] ceramic was prepared by the solid-state reaction method. The effects of sintering process on its microstructure and grain growth behavior were investigated. The Hillert model and a simplified Sellars [...] Read more.
The 0.65Ca0.61La0.26TiO3-0.35Sm(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3[0.65CLT-0.35SMT] ceramic was prepared by the solid-state reaction method. The effects of sintering process on its microstructure and grain growth behavior were investigated. The Hillert model and a simplified Sellars model were established by linear regression, and the Sellars-Anelli model with a time index was established by using a nonlinear regression method. The results show that the grain size gradually increases with the increase of sintering temperature and holding time. Meanwhile, the sintering temperature has a more significant effect on the grain growth. The grain sizes of 0.65CLT-0.35SMT ceramic were predicted by the three models and compared with the experimentally measured grain size. The results indicate that for the 0.65CLT-0.35SMT ceramic, the Hillert model has the lowest prediction accuracy and the Sellars-Anelli model, the highest prediction accuracy. In this work, the Sellars-Anelli model can effectively predict the grain growth process of 0.65CLT-0.35SMT ceramic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Excited-State Dynamics of Room-Temperature Phosphorescent Organic Materials Based on Monobenzil and Bisbenzil Frameworks
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173904 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Room-temperature phosphorescent (RTP) materials have been attracting tremendous interest, owing to their unique material characteristics and potential applications for state-of-the-art optoelectronic devices. Recently, we reported the synthesis and fundamental photophysical properties of new RTP materials based on benzil, i.e., fluorinated monobenzil derivative and [...] Read more.
Room-temperature phosphorescent (RTP) materials have been attracting tremendous interest, owing to their unique material characteristics and potential applications for state-of-the-art optoelectronic devices. Recently, we reported the synthesis and fundamental photophysical properties of new RTP materials based on benzil, i.e., fluorinated monobenzil derivative and fluorinated and non-fluorinated bisbenzil derivative analogues [Yamada, S. et al., Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2020, 16, 1154–1162.]. To deeply understand their RTP properties, we investigated the excited-state dynamics and photostability of the derivatives by means of time-resolved and steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopies. For these derivatives, clear RTP emissions with lifetimes on the microsecond timescale were identified. Among them, the monobenzil derivative was found to be the most efficient RTP material, showing both the longest lifetime and highest amplitude RTP emission. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, measured at 77 K, and density functional theory calculations revealed the existence of a second excited triplet state in the vicinity of the first excited singlet state for the monobenzil derivative, indicative of the presence of a fast intersystem crossing pathway. The correlation between the excited state dynamics, emission properties, and conformational flexibility of the three derivatives is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Analysis of Blast Protection of Graded Metal Foam-Cored Sandwich Cylinders/Rings
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173903 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
The blast resistance of a sandwich-walled cylinder/ring comprising two metal face-sheets and a graded metal foam core, subjected to internal air blast loading, is investigated. Analytical models are developed for the deformation of the sandwich cylinder with positive and negative gradient cores under [...] Read more.
The blast resistance of a sandwich-walled cylinder/ring comprising two metal face-sheets and a graded metal foam core, subjected to internal air blast loading, is investigated. Analytical models are developed for the deformation of the sandwich cylinder with positive and negative gradient cores under internal blast loading. The deformation process is divided into three distinct phases, namely the fluid–structure interaction phase, core-crushing phase, and outer face-sheet deformation phase. Finite element modeling is performed using the Voronoi material model. The proposed analytical models are verified through finite element analysis, and reasonable agreement is observed between the analytical predictions and finite element results. The sandwich structures with high energy absorption capacity or low maximum radial deflection are satisfied for the protecting purpose of impact/blast resistance requirements. Typical deformation processes are classified and analyzed; the effects of explosive charge, face-sheet thickness, and core gradient on the structural response are also examined. The results indicate that both the deformation modes and the structural response of the cylinders are sensitive to the blast charge and core configuration. It is concluded that energy absorption capacity and maximum radial deflection are two conflicting goals for achieving high impact/blast resistance capability. An in-depth understanding of the behavior in sandwich-walled cylinders under blast impulse and the influence of the core configuration helps realize the advantages and disadvantages of using graded foam materials in sandwich structures and can provide a guideline for structural design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced and High Performance Metallic Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Feature Selection Approach Based on Tree Models for Evaluating the Punching Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173902 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
When designing flat slabs made of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC), it is very important to predict their punching shear capacity accurately. The use of machine learning seems to be a great way to improve the accuracy of empirical equations currently used in this [...] Read more.
When designing flat slabs made of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC), it is very important to predict their punching shear capacity accurately. The use of machine learning seems to be a great way to improve the accuracy of empirical equations currently used in this field. Accordingly, this study utilized tree predictive models (i.e., random forest (RF), random tree (RT), and classification and regression trees (CART)) as well as a novel feature selection (FS) technique to introduce a new model capable of estimating the punching shear capacity of the SFRC flat slabs. Furthermore, to automatically create the structure of the predictive models, the current study employed a sequential algorithm of the FS model. In order to perform the training stage for the proposed models, a dataset consisting of 140 samples with six influential components (i.e., the depth of the slab, the effective depth of the slab, the length of the column, the compressive strength of the concrete, the reinforcement ratio, and the fiber volume) were collected from the relevant literature. Afterward, the sequential FS models were trained and verified using the above-mentioned database. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed models for both testing and training datasets, various statistical indices, including the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE), were utilized. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that the FS-RT model outperformed FS-RF and FS-CART models in terms of prediction accuracy. The range of R2 and RMSE values were obtained as 0.9476–0.9831 and 14.4965–24.9310, respectively; in this regard, the FS-RT hybrid technique demonstrated the best performance. It was concluded that the three hybrid techniques proposed in this paper, i.e., FS-RT, FS-RF, and FS-CART, could be applied to predicting SFRC flat slabs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Comparison between Densified and Undensified Silica Fume in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173901 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Silica fume (SF) is a key ingredient in the production of ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC). The use of undensified SF may have an advantage in the dispersion efficiency inside cement-based materials, but it also carries a practical burden such as high material [...] Read more.
Silica fume (SF) is a key ingredient in the production of ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC). The use of undensified SF may have an advantage in the dispersion efficiency inside cement-based materials, but it also carries a practical burden such as high material costs and fine dust generation in the workplace. This study reports that a high strength of 200 MPa can be achieved by using densified SF in UHPFRC with Portland limestone cement. Additionally, it was experimentally confirmed that there was no difference between densified and undensified SFs in terms of workability, compressive and flexural tensile strengths, and hydration reaction of the concrete, regardless of heat treatment, because of a unique mix proportion as well as mixing method for dispersing agglomerated SF particles. It was experimentally validated that the densified SF can be used for both precast and field casting UHPFRCs with economic and practical benefits and without negative effects on the material performance of the UHPFRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Chloride Distribution and Steel Corrosion in a Concrete Bridge after Long-Term Exposure to Natural Marine Environment
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173900 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Chloride-induced steel corrosion is the most concerning issue for the durability of concrete structures. Concrete and steel samples were obtained from a 30-year-old reinforced concrete bridge. The chloride content was measured by a potentiometric titration method and the microstructure of concrete was obtained [...] Read more.
Chloride-induced steel corrosion is the most concerning issue for the durability of concrete structures. Concrete and steel samples were obtained from a 30-year-old reinforced concrete bridge. The chloride content was measured by a potentiometric titration method and the microstructure of concrete was obtained by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The rust phases of the steel were detected by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. It was found that the convection depth for chloride transport in cracked concrete was significantly larger than that in uncracked concrete. The concrete in a pier column facing upstream had greater porosity due to the water impact and calcium leaching. The coefficients of variability of chloride diffusivity of concrete for the bridge deck and the pier column were significantly different. Rust phases including lepidocrocite, goethite, akaganeite, magnetite, and maghemite were detected using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The major phases of steel rust in the atmospheric zone were lepidocrocite and goethite, while they were lepidocrocite and maghemite in the tidal zone. The results of this study would provide information concerning the chloride-induced steel corrosion under a marine environment in order to predict long-term behaviors of a reinforced concrete structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Self-Organized Anodization of Aluminum in Malic Acid Solutions—New Aspects of Anodization in the Organic Acid
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173899 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
In this work, aluminum (Al) anodization in malic acid electrolytes of different concentrations (0.15 M, 0.25 M, and 0.5 M) was studied. The close-packed hexagonal pore structure was obtained for the first time in this organic acid in a 0.5 M solution, at [...] Read more.
In this work, aluminum (Al) anodization in malic acid electrolytes of different concentrations (0.15 M, 0.25 M, and 0.5 M) was studied. The close-packed hexagonal pore structure was obtained for the first time in this organic acid in a 0.5 M solution, at 250 V and temperature of 5 °C. Moreover, the process was investigated as a function of the number of cycles carried out in the same electrolyte. A repetition of anodization under seemingly the same external electrochemical parameters (applied voltage, temperature, etc.) induced serious changes in the electrolyte. The changes were reflected in the current density vs. time curves and were most evident in the higher concentrated electrolytes. This phenomenon was tentatively explained by a massive incorporation of malate anions into anodic alumina (AAO) framework. The impoverishment of the electrolyte of the malate anions changed internal electrochemical conditions making easier the attraction of the anions to the Al anode and thus the AAO formation. The electrolyte modification was advantageous in terms of pore organization: In a 0.25 M solution, already after the second anodization, the pore arrangement transformed from irregular towards regular, hexagonal close-packed structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of this kind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Al Alloys on Lightweight Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Hydration Time on Carbonation Degree and Strength of Steel Slag Specimens Containing Zeolite
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173898 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Steel slag partially substituted by zeolite (SZ) was beneficial for improving the compressive strength and carbonation degree of SZ specimens after a combined curing (hydration and then carbonation) process due to pozzolanic reaction between them. By previous work results, the zeolitic substitution ratios [...] Read more.
Steel slag partially substituted by zeolite (SZ) was beneficial for improving the compressive strength and carbonation degree of SZ specimens after a combined curing (hydration and then carbonation) process due to pozzolanic reaction between them. By previous work results, the zeolitic substitution ratios of 5 wt.% and 15 wt.% in steel slag specimens (SZ5 and SZ15) gained the optimum compressive strength and carbonation degree, respectively, after 1 day hydration and then 2 h carbonation. This study investigated the effect of previous hydration time (1, 3, 7, 14, and 196 days) on carbonation degree and strength of SZ specimens after subsequent carbonation curing. Two zeolitic substitution ratios (5 wt.% and 15 wt.%) were selected and pure steel slag specimens were also prepared as controls. Compressive strength results revealed that the optimum hydration curing time was 1 day and the optimum zeolitic substitution ratio was 5 wt.%. The pozzolanic reaction happened in SZ specimens was divided into early and late pozzolanic reaction. In the late hydration, a new mineral, monocarboaluminate (AFmc) was produced in SZ15 specimens, modifying the carbonation degree and strength further. And the mechanism of pozzolanic reaction in early and late hydration in SZ specimens was explained by several microscopic test methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Physical Properties of Mortar for Section Restoration Using Calcium Nitrite and CO2 Nano-Bubble Water
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173897 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
This study investigated the physical properties of section-restoration mortar with calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) nanobubble mixing water to develop materials and methods for the repair and reinforcement of cracks in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the physical properties of section-restoration mortar with calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) nanobubble mixing water to develop materials and methods for the repair and reinforcement of cracks in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. As the calcium nitrite content increased, the generation rate and generated amount of nitrite-based hydration products also increased, owing to the rapid reaction between NO2 ions in calcium nitrite and C3A(Al2O3). Further, the reaction with C3S and C2S was accelerated, thereby increasing the generation rates of Ca(OH)2 and C-S-H. The large amount of Ca2+ ions in these hydration products reacted with CO32− ions in CO2 nanobubble water, thereby increasing the generation of calcite-based CaCO3 in the cement matrix. This appears to have affected strength development and durability improvement via the densification of the structure. These results suggest that the performance of polymer cement mortar for repairing concrete structures can be improved if calcium nitrite and CO2 nanobubble water are properly combined and applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Approach for Generating Random Aggregate Model of Concrete Based on Laguerre Tessellation and Its Application Analyses
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173896 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
Generating random aggregate models (RAMs) plays a key role in the mesoscopic modelling of concrete-like composite materials. The arbitrary geometry, wide gradation, and high volume ratio of aggregates pose a great challenge for fast and efficient numerical construction of concrete meso-structures. This paper [...] Read more.
Generating random aggregate models (RAMs) plays a key role in the mesoscopic modelling of concrete-like composite materials. The arbitrary geometry, wide gradation, and high volume ratio of aggregates pose a great challenge for fast and efficient numerical construction of concrete meso-structures. This paper presents a simple strategy for generating RAMs of concrete based on Laguerre tessellation, which mainly consists of three steps: tessellation, geometric smoothing, and scaling. The computer-assisted design (CAD) file of RAMs obtained by the proposed approach can be directly adopted for the construction of random numerical concrete samples. Combined with the image-based octree meshing algorithm, the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) was adopted for an automatic stress analysis of mass concrete samples, and a parametric study was conducted to investigate the meso-structural effects on concrete elasticity properties. The modelling results successfully reproduced the increasing trend of concrete elastic modulus with the grading of coarse aggregates in literature test data and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer-Aided Design and Modeling of Materials at Different Scales)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview of Additive Manufacturing Technologies—A Review to Technical Synthesis in Numerical Study of Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173895 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes enable their deployment in broad applications from aerospace to art, design, and architecture. Part quality and performance are the main concerns during AM processes execution that the achievement of adequate characteristics can be guaranteed, considering a wide range of [...] Read more.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes enable their deployment in broad applications from aerospace to art, design, and architecture. Part quality and performance are the main concerns during AM processes execution that the achievement of adequate characteristics can be guaranteed, considering a wide range of influencing factors, such as process parameters, material, environment, measurement, and operators training. Investigating the effects of not only the influential AM processes variables but also their interactions and coupled impacts are essential to process optimization which requires huge efforts to be made. Therefore, numerical simulation can be an effective tool that facilities the evaluation of the AM processes principles. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a widespread Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) AM process that due to its superior advantages, such as capability to print complex and highly customized components, which leads to an increasing attention paid by industries and academia. Temperature distribution and melt pool dynamics have paramount importance to be well simulated and correlated by part quality in terms of surface finish, induced residual stress and microstructure evolution during SLM. Summarizing numerical simulations of SLM in this survey is pointed out as one important research perspective as well as exploring the contribution of adopted approaches and practices. This review survey has been organized to give an overview of AM processes such as extrusion, photopolymerization, material jetting, laminated object manufacturing, and powder bed fusion. And in particular is targeted to discuss the conducted numerical simulation of SLM to illustrate a uniform picture of existing nonproprietary approaches to predict the heat transfer, melt pool behavior, microstructure and residual stresses analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing Methods and Modeling Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
Powdered Ceramsite and Powdered Limestone Use in Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173894 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 527
Abstract
The effects of two powdered mineral materials (powdered ceramsite and powdered limestone) on aerobic granulation of sludge were evaluated. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory scale bioreactors treating wastewater for 89 days. Three granular sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) were operated at the [...] Read more.
The effects of two powdered mineral materials (powdered ceramsite and powdered limestone) on aerobic granulation of sludge were evaluated. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory scale bioreactors treating wastewater for 89 days. Three granular sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) were operated at the lowest optimal organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.55 g COD/(L∙d). In the control reactor (R1), the mean diameter (d) of the biomass ranged from 124.0 to 210.0 µm, and complete granulation was not achieved. However, complete granulation did occur in reactors to which either ceramsite (251.9 µm < d < 783.1 µm) or limestone (246.0 µm < d < 518.9 µm) was added. Both powdered materials served as a ballast for the sludge flocs making up the seed sludge. Ceramsite particles also acted as microcarriers of granule-forming biomass. The granules in the reactors with added powdered materials had nonfibrous and smoother surfaces. The reactor with ceramsite exhibited the highest average efficiencies for COD, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removal (85.4 ± 5.4%, 56.6 ± 10.2%, and 56.8 ± 9.9%, respectively). By contrast, the average nitrification efficiency was 95.1 ± 12.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure of Alloys for (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z Permanent Magnets: First Level of Heterogeneity
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173893 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
An original vision for the structural formation of (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z alloys, the compositions of which show promise for manufacturing high-coercivity permanent magnets, is reported. Foundations arising from the quantitative analysis of alloy microstructures as the first, coarse, level of heterogeneity are considered. The [...] Read more.
An original vision for the structural formation of (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z alloys, the compositions of which show promise for manufacturing high-coercivity permanent magnets, is reported. Foundations arising from the quantitative analysis of alloy microstructures as the first, coarse, level of heterogeneity are considered. The structure of the alloys, in optical resolutions, is shown to be characterized by three structural phase components, which are denoted as A, B, and C and based on the 1:5, 2:17, and 2:7 phases, respectively. As the chemical composition of alloys changes monotonically, the quantitative relationships of the components A, B, and C vary over wide ranges. In this case, the hysteretic properties of the (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z alloys in the high-coercivity state are strictly controlled by the volume fractions of the A and B structural components. Based on quantitative relationships of the A, B, and C structural components for the (R,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)Z alloys with R = Gd or Sm, sketches of quasi-ternary sections of the (Co,Cu,Fe)-R-Zr phase diagrams at temperatures of 1160–1190 °C and isopleths for the 2:17–2:7 phase composition range of the (Co,Cu,Fe)–Sm–Zr system were constructed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Performance of Environmentally Friendly Bio-Degradable Lubricants Based on a Combination of Boric Acid and Bio-Based Oils
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173892 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 559
Abstract
Finding effective and environmentally friendly lubrication to use in sheet metal forming operations presents a substantial environmental and economic challenge to the automotive industry. This paper examines the effectiveness of different lubricants in the reduction of the coefficient of friction (COF) in the [...] Read more.
Finding effective and environmentally friendly lubrication to use in sheet metal forming operations presents a substantial environmental and economic challenge to the automotive industry. This paper examines the effectiveness of different lubricants in the reduction of the coefficient of friction (COF) in the process of sheet metal forming of the low carbon steel sheets. These lubricants are based on a combination of boric acid (H3BO3) and edible vegetable oils, both of which are natural and environmentally friendly. To evaluate the friction characteristics of the lubricants in a forming operation, a strip drawing friction test is used. This test consisted in drawing a specimen in the form of a sheet metal strip between two non-rotating counter-samples with radii of 200 and 10 mm. The effectiveness of environmentally friendly lubricants in reducing the COF was compared to the traditional petroleum-based lubricants which are used in sheet metal-forming operations. The effect of lubricant conditions and tool surface roughness on the value of COFs is studied. It was found that palm oil in both configurations of countersample radius, both as pure oil and with the addition of 5 wt.% of H3BO3, was the most effective in lowering the coefficient of friction. In most of the conditions analysed, the addition of boric acid into vegetable oils leads to an increase in the lubrication efficiency by up to 15% compared to pure oils. The effectiveness of lubrication by olive and rapeseed oils in decreasing the frictional resistances clearly depends on the nominal pressure applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials )
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Open AccessArticle
The Three-Dimensional Morphology and Distribution of CaS Inclusions in Continuous Casting Slab of Ni20Mn6 Steel
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173891 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Calcium sulfide (CaS) inclusion with large and irregular shape is detrimental to the properties of steel. Understanding the shape and distribution of CaS inclusions in a continuous casting (CC) slab is of significance for improving the rolling properties. In this study, CaS inclusions [...] Read more.
Calcium sulfide (CaS) inclusion with large and irregular shape is detrimental to the properties of steel. Understanding the shape and distribution of CaS inclusions in a continuous casting (CC) slab is of significance for improving the rolling properties. In this study, CaS inclusions were extracted from CC slab of Ni20Mn6 steel using the electrolytic extraction and investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The CaS inclusions morphologies vary with their locations in the CC slab and, thus, are classified into five categories. The thermodynamics calculated results showed that CaS inclusions precipitated at the end of solidification due to the microsegregation of sulfur and calcium in the interdendrite liquid and finally precipitated along the austenite grain boundary. The macrosegregation degree of solutes in different regions is one of the reasons that affect the size of CaS inclusion. The morphologies of CaS inclusion are affected by the solidification structure of slab and austenite grain boundary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying 3D Strain in Scaffold Implants for Regenerative Medicine
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173890 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Regenerative medicine solutions require thoughtful design to elicit the intended biological response. This includes the biomechanical stimulus to generate an appropriate strain in the scaffold and surrounding tissue to drive cell lineage to the desired tissue. To provide appropriate strain on a local [...] Read more.
Regenerative medicine solutions require thoughtful design to elicit the intended biological response. This includes the biomechanical stimulus to generate an appropriate strain in the scaffold and surrounding tissue to drive cell lineage to the desired tissue. To provide appropriate strain on a local level, new generations of scaffolds often involve anisotropic spatially graded mechanical properties that cannot be characterised with traditional materials testing equipment. Volumetric examination is possible with three-dimensional (3D) imaging, in situ loading and digital volume correlation (DVC). Micro-CT and DVC were utilised in this study on two sizes of 3D-printed inorganic/organic hybrid scaffolds (n = 2 and n = 4) with a repeating homogenous structure intended for cartilage regeneration. Deformation was observed with a spatial resolution of under 200 µm whilst maintaining displacement random errors of 0.97 µm, strain systematic errors of 0.17% and strain random errors of 0.031%. Digital image correlation (DIC) provided an analysis of the external surfaces whilst DVC enabled localised strain concentrations to be examined throughout the full 3D volume. Strain values derived using DVC correlated well against manually calculated ground-truth measurements (R2 = 0.98, n = 8). The technique ensures the full 3D micro-mechanical environment experienced by cells is intimately considered, enabling future studies to further examine scaffold designs for regenerative medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Local Strain Distribution at the Level of the Constituents of Particle Reinforced Composite: An Experimental and Numerical Study
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173889 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
This paper is devoted to numerical and experimental investigation of the strain field at the level of the constituents of two-phase particle reinforced composite. The research aims to compare the strain distributions obtained experimentally with the results obtained by using a computational model [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to numerical and experimental investigation of the strain field at the level of the constituents of two-phase particle reinforced composite. The research aims to compare the strain distributions obtained experimentally with the results obtained by using a computational model based on the concept of the representative volume element. A digital image correlation method has been used for experimental determination of full-field strain. The numerical investigation was conducted by the finite element analysis of the representative volume element. Moreover, usage of the novel method of assessment of the speckle pattern applicability for the measurement of local fields by using the digital image correlation method has been proposed. In general, the obtained experimental and numerical results are in good agreement although some discrepancies between the results have been noticed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling and Design of Novel Engineering Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasticity of Bead-on-Plate Welds Made with the Use of Stored Flux-Cored Wires for Offshore Applications
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173888 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Extreme atmospheric conditions in the marine and offshore industry are harmful to engineering materials, especially to welded joints, and may cause degradation of their properties. This article presents the results of research on the plasticity of bead-on-plate welds made using two types of [...] Read more.
Extreme atmospheric conditions in the marine and offshore industry are harmful to engineering materials, especially to welded joints, and may cause degradation of their properties. This article presents the results of research on the plasticity of bead-on-plate welds made using two types of seamless, copper plated flux-cored wires. Before welding, spools with wire were stored for 1 month in two distinct locations with different geographical and industrial conditions in Poland, and then subjected to visual examination. Bead-on-plate welds were subjected to a static tensile test and on this basis plasticity indexes showing the effect of storage on plasticity were determined. The fractures after tensile tests and the surfaces of the wires were examined on an electron scanning microscope. Additionally, diffusible hydrogen content in deposited metal measurements for each condition were carried out. The highest degradation level was found for wire stored in an agricultural building in north-eastern Poland—there was an almost fourfold decrease in the plasticity index value and the highest diffusible hydrogen content. For the same wire and the same location, the largest difference was also observed in fracture morphology after the tensile test—ductile fracture was obtained for wire at delivery condition while an almost full cleavage fracture was found after relatively short (1 month) storage of wire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Processing of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Hydrogen Diffusion Behavior during Welding of Heavy Plate
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173887 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
For the multi-layer and multi-pass welding process of the heavy plate, the hydrogen diffusion behavior was numerically simulated to study the effect of solid-state phase transition (SSPT) on the hydrogen diffusion in the thickness direction, and the influence of the residual stress-induced diffusion [...] Read more.
For the multi-layer and multi-pass welding process of the heavy plate, the hydrogen diffusion behavior was numerically simulated to study the effect of solid-state phase transition (SSPT) on the hydrogen diffusion in the thickness direction, and the influence of the residual stress-induced diffusion after SSPT. The calculation results were compared with the experimental results. The comparison shows that the distribution of hydrogen concentration in the direction of thickness was in good agreement. The position with the most severe cold cracking sensitivity was located at a 20–30 mm depth from the top surface in this article. After welding, the hydrogen concentration in this position was kept at a high level for a long time under the effect of the size-constraint effect of the heavy plate and the existence of welding residual stress gradient. In addition, the SSPT reduced the residual stress level of weld metal (WM) significantly, increased that of the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the hydrogen was redistributed under the influence of stress. In the process of phase transformation, the parameters of hydrogen diffusion property of the material changed dramatically in a short time, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient increased in order of magnitude, and the solubility decreased in order of magnitude. This directly led to the upward diffusion of hydrogen in WM, and produced a self-gathering effect. For a welded joint of heavy plate, the self-gathering effect between passes was effective in the short-range and ineffective in the long-range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Layer Sequence on the Ballistic Performance and Failure Mechanism of Ti6Al4V/CP-Ti Laminated Composite Armor
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173886 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The effect of the layer sequence on the ballistic performance of Ti6Al4V (35 mm)/CP-Ti (5 mm) laminated composite armor, against a 12.7 mm armor piercing projectile, was systematically investigated, both experimentally and computationally. By introducing the Johnson–Cook constitutive model and fracture criterion, the [...] Read more.
The effect of the layer sequence on the ballistic performance of Ti6Al4V (35 mm)/CP-Ti (5 mm) laminated composite armor, against a 12.7 mm armor piercing projectile, was systematically investigated, both experimentally and computationally. By introducing the Johnson–Cook constitutive model and fracture criterion, the penetrating process of the composite plate was well-simulated. Furthermore, the influence of the layer sequence on the ballistic performance and failure mechanism of the composite plate was evaluated from the perspective of energy absorption and the stress distribution. Numerical simulation results of the macro morphology and penetration depth agreed well with the experimental results. The results showed that the energy absorption histories of each layer and stress distribution of the composite plate were found to be significantly affected by the arrangement sequence. The ballistic performance of Ti6Al4V/CP-Ti was far superior to that of CP-Ti/Ti6Al4V because more energy was absorbed in the early stage of the penetration process, thereby reducing the damage to the rear face. Further studies showed that the first principal stress in both structures was radially distributed in space, but was mainly concentrated at the rear face when the CP-Ti was placed at the front. Therefore, this stress induced cracking and failure in that region and, consequently, lowered the overall ballistic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Steel-Slag Components on Interfacial-Reaction Characteristics of Permeable Steel-Slag–Bitumen Mixture
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173885 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
In this paper, a permeable steel-slag–bitumen mixture (PSSBM) was first prepared according to the designed mixture ratio. Then, the interaction characteristics between steel slag and bitumen were studied. The chemical interaction between bitumen and steel slag was explored with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer [...] Read more.
In this paper, a permeable steel-slag–bitumen mixture (PSSBM) was first prepared according to the designed mixture ratio. Then, the interaction characteristics between steel slag and bitumen were studied. The chemical interaction between bitumen and steel slag was explored with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The influence of steel-slag chemistry, mineral composition, and bitumen reaction on phase angle, complex shear modulus (CSM), and rutting factor was explored with dynamic shear rheological (DSR) tests. The PSSBM had better properties, including high permeability, water stability, Marshall stability, high-temperature (HT) stability, and low volume-expansion rate. Bitumen-coated steel slag can prevent heavy-metal ions from leaching. In the infrared spectra of the mixture of a chemical component of steel slag (calcium oxide) and bitumen, a new absorption peak at 3645 cm−1 was ascribed to the SiO–H stretching vibration, indicating that new organic silicon compounds were produced in the chemical reaction between calcium oxide and bitumen. SiO–H had an obvious enhancement effect on the interfacial adhesion and high-temperature rheological property of the mixture. In the mineral components of steel slag, dicalcium and tricalcium silicate reacted with bitumen and generated new substances. Chemical reactions between tricalcium silicate and bitumen were significant and had obvious enhancement effects on interfacial adhesion and high-temperature rheological properties of the mixture. The results of FT-IR and DSR were basically consistent, which revealed the chemical-reaction mechanism between steel-slag microcomponents and bitumen at the interface. SEM results showed that pits and grooves on the surface of the steel-slag aggregate, and the textural characteristics provide a framework-like function, thus strengthening the strength and adhesion of the steel-slag–bitumen aggregate interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Promising Antimicrobial Aloe Vera/PVA Electrospun Nanofibers for Protective Clothing
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173884 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
In the present condition of COVID-19, the demand for antimicrobial products such as face masks and surgical gowns has increased. Because of this increasing demand, there is a need to conduct a study on the development of antimicrobial material. Therefore, this study was [...] Read more.
In the present condition of COVID-19, the demand for antimicrobial products such as face masks and surgical gowns has increased. Because of this increasing demand, there is a need to conduct a study on the development of antimicrobial material. Therefore, this study was conducted on the development of Aloe Vera and Polyvinyl Alcohol (AV/PVA) electrospun nanofibers. Four different fibers were developed by varying the concentrations of Aloe vera (0.5%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3%) while maintaining the concentration of PVA constant. The developed samples were subjected to different characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, and ICP studies. After that, the antimicrobial activity of the developed Aloe Vera/PVA electrospun nanofibers was checked against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The developed nanofibers had high profile antibacterial activity against both bacteria, but showed excellent results against S. aureus bacteria as compared with E. coli. These nanofibers have potential applications in the development of surgical gowns, gloves, etc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CO2 Curing Efficiency for Cement Paste and Mortars Produced by a Low Water-to-Cement Ratio
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173883 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Curing by CO2 is a way to utilize CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Placing early-age cement paste in a CO2 chamber or pressure vessel accelerates its strength development. Cement carbonation is attributed to the quickened strength development, and CO [...] Read more.
Curing by CO2 is a way to utilize CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Placing early-age cement paste in a CO2 chamber or pressure vessel accelerates its strength development. Cement carbonation is attributed to the quickened strength development, and CO2 uptake can be quantitatively evaluated by measuring CO2 gas pressure loss in the pressure vessel. A decrease in CO2 gas pressure is observed with all cement pastes and mortar samples regardless of the mix proportion and the casting method; one method involves compacting a low water-to-cement ratio mix, and the other method comprises a normal mix consolidated in a mold. The efficiency of the CO2 curing is superior when a 20% concentration of CO2 gas is supplied at a relative humidity of 75%. CO2 uptake in specimens with the same CO2 curing condition is different for each specimen size. As the specimen scale is larger, the depth of carbonation is smaller. Incorporating colloidal silica enhances the carbonation as well as the hydration of cement, which results in contributing to the increase in the 28-day strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle
Hip Spacers with a Metal-on-Cement Articulation Did Not Show Significant Surface Alterations of the Metal Femoral Head in Two-Stage Revision for Periprosthetic Joint Infection
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173882 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Two-stage revision is considered the gold standard treatment for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). During the interim period, between explantation of the infected hip endoprosthesis and revision arthroplasty, individually formed articulating hip spacers made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement can be used to [...] Read more.
Two-stage revision is considered the gold standard treatment for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). During the interim period, between explantation of the infected hip endoprosthesis and revision arthroplasty, individually formed articulating hip spacers made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement can be used to provide better soft tissue preservation, local antibiotic release, and improved postoperative mobilization. If effective prevention from luxation is achieved, hip function and hence overall patient satisfaction is improved. Zirconium oxide particles inside conventional PMMA bone cement, however, are known to enhance third-body wear, which may cause alterations of the metal head in the articulating spacer and hence become a serious risk for the patient. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze whether the articular surface of cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads is significantly altered in the setting of a metal-on-cement articulation during the interim period of two-stage revision for PJI. We analyzed a consecutive series of 23 spacer cases and compared them with femoral heads from two series of conventional hip arthroplasty revisions with metal-on-polyethylene articulations and different time intervals in situ. To investigate metallic wear, the femoral heads were thoroughly examined, and their surface roughness was measured and analyzed. We found no significant differences between the two conventional hip arthroplasty groups, despite their very different times in situ. Furthermore, the individually different times in situ within the spacer group had no significant impact on surface roughness, either. Compared with the spacer group, the surface roughness of the metal femoral heads from both conventional hip arthroplasty groups were even higher. Within the spacer group, roughness parameters did not show significant differences regarding the five predefined locations on the metal head. We conclude that metal-on-cement articulations do not cause enhanced surface alterations of the metal femoral head and hence do not limit the application in articulating hip spacers in the setting of two-stage revision for PJI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimisation of the Thin-Walled Composite Structures in Terms of Critical Buckling Force
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173881 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
The paper presents the optimisation of thin-walled composite structures on a representative sample of a thin-walled column made of carbon laminate with a channel section-type profile. The optimisation consisted of determining the configuration of laminate layers for which the tested structure has the [...] Read more.
The paper presents the optimisation of thin-walled composite structures on a representative sample of a thin-walled column made of carbon laminate with a channel section-type profile. The optimisation consisted of determining the configuration of laminate layers for which the tested structure has the greatest resistance to the loss of stability. The optimisation of the layer configuration was performed using two methods. The first method, divided into two stages to reduce the time, was to determine the optimum arrangement angle in each laminate layer using finite element methods (FEM). The second method employed artificial neural networks for predicting critical buckling force values and the creation of an optimisation tool. Artificial neural networks were combined into groups of networks, thereby improving the quality of the obtained results and simplifying the obtained neural networks. The results from computations were verified against the results obtained from the experiment. The optimisation was performed using ABAQUS® and STATISTICA® software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Modeling of Materials Fatigue and Fracture)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Unidirectional Cellular Structure with Multiple Pipe Layers and Characterisation of Its Mechanical Properties
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173880 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 537
Abstract
This study is concerned with the development of a new unidirectional cellular (UniPore) copper structure with multiple concentric pipe layers. The investigated UniPore structures were grouped into three main types, each having a different number of pipes (3, 4, and 5 pipes per [...] Read more.
This study is concerned with the development of a new unidirectional cellular (UniPore) copper structure with multiple concentric pipe layers. The investigated UniPore structures were grouped into three main types, each having a different number of pipes (3, 4, and 5 pipes per transversal cross-section) and different pore arrangements. The specimens were fabricated by explosive compaction to achieve tightly compacted structures with a quasi-constant cross-section along the length of the specimens. The bonding between copper pipes was observed by a metallographic investigation, which showed that the pipes and bars were compressed tightly without voids. However, they were not welded together. The mechanical properties were determined by quasi-static compressive testing, where the typical behaviour for cellular materials was noted. The study showed that porosity significantly influences the mechanical properties, even more so than the arrangement of the pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced and High Performance Metallic Foams)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible 3D Printed Conductive Metamaterial Units for Electromagnetic Applications in Microwaves
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173879 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
In this work we present a method for fabricating three dimensional, ultralight and flexible millimeter metamaterial units using a commercial household 3D printer. The method is low-cost, fast, eco-friendly and accessible. In particular, we use the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing technique and [...] Read more.
In this work we present a method for fabricating three dimensional, ultralight and flexible millimeter metamaterial units using a commercial household 3D printer. The method is low-cost, fast, eco-friendly and accessible. In particular, we use the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing technique and we fabricate flexible conductive Spilt Ring Resonators (SRRs) in a free-standing form. We characterized the samples experimentally through measurements of their spectral transmission, using standard rectangular microwave waveguides. Our findings show that the resonators produce well defined resonant electromagnetic features that depend on the structural details and the infiltrating dielectric materials, indicating that the thin, flexible and light 3D printed structures may be used as electromagnetic microwave components and electromagnetic fabrics for coating a variety of devices and infrastructure units, while adapting to different shapes and sizes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Material Structure on Forces Measured during Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173878 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
Material structure is one of the important factors influencing abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining efficiency and quality. The force measurements were performed on samples prepared from two very similar steels with different thicknesses and heat treatment. The samples were austenitized at 850 °C, quenched [...] Read more.
Material structure is one of the important factors influencing abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining efficiency and quality. The force measurements were performed on samples prepared from two very similar steels with different thicknesses and heat treatment. The samples were austenitized at 850 °C, quenched in polymer and tempered at various temperatures between 20 °C and 640 °C. The resulting states of material substantially differed in strength and hardness. Therefore, samples prepared from these material states are ideal for testing of material response to AWJ. The force measurements were chosen to test the possible influence of material structure on the material response to the AWJ impact. The results show that differences in material structure and respective material properties influence the limit traverse speed. The cutting to deformation force ratio seems to be a function of relative traverse speed independently on material structure. Full article
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