Special Issue "Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gyuyong Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Korea
Interests: cement; cement composites; concrete; mechanical behavior
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue “Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites” will publish the research on the performance of cement-based construction and building materials.

This issue covers a wide range of cement and concrete composite materials, such as cement composites using waste materials, fiber-reinforced cement composites, polymer cement composites, novel concrete, and so on.

The mechanical behavior of cement and concrete will also be covered, including (but not restricted to) the following: fundamental physical properties; mechanical properties; durability; fracture mechanics; corrosion technology; applications for cement and concrete composites.

This Special Issue will focus on papers with a broad interest, based on their subject area, the quality of the research, and the novelty of the results, which can advance the role of cement and concrete composites.

Prof. Gyuyong Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cement
  • cement composites
  • concrete
  • mechanical behavior
  • fiber reinforcement
  • recycled materials

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Article
Influencing Factors on the Healing Performance of Microcapsule Self-Healing Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154139 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The amounts of the components in a microcapsule self-healing system significantly impact the basic performance and self-healing performance of concrete. In this paper, an orthogonal experimental design is used to investigate the healing performance of microcapsule self-healing concrete under different pre-damage loads. The [...] Read more.
The amounts of the components in a microcapsule self-healing system significantly impact the basic performance and self-healing performance of concrete. In this paper, an orthogonal experimental design is used to investigate the healing performance of microcapsule self-healing concrete under different pre-damage loads. The strength recovery performance and sound speed recovery performance under extensive damage are analyzed. The optimum factor combination of the microcapsule self-healing concrete is obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are carried out on the concrete samples before and after healing to determine the healing mechanism. The results show that the healing effect of self-healing concrete decreases with an increase in the pre-damage load, and the sound speed recovery rate increases with an increase in the damage degree. The influence of the sodium silicate content on the compressive strength and compressive strength recovery rate of the self-healing concrete increases, followed by a decrease. The optimum combination of factors of the microcapsule self-healing system is 3% microcapsules, 30% sodium silicate, and 15% sodium fluosilicate. The results can be used for the design and preparation of self-healing concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Research on Cracking Mechanism of Early-Age Restrained Concrete under High-Temperature and Low-Humidity Environment
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154084 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 199
Abstract
How to prevent the cracking of tunnel lining concrete under a high-temperature and low-humidity environment has gradually become a challenge faced by the engineering community. Actually, the concrete structure will be restrained, which easily leads to cracking. Aiming at this problem, a self-restraint [...] Read more.
How to prevent the cracking of tunnel lining concrete under a high-temperature and low-humidity environment has gradually become a challenge faced by the engineering community. Actually, the concrete structure will be restrained, which easily leads to cracking. Aiming at this problem, a self-restraint device of concrete specimens was designed in this paper, which aims to more realistically simulate the restrained state of concrete structures during construction. SEM, EDS and XRD detection methods were used to study the macroscopic and microscopic properties of an early-age restrained concrete specimen under a high-temperature and low-humidity environment, and the results were compared with those of a non-restrained concrete specimen. The results show that the change in the internal relative humidity of the concrete was an extremely slow process, and the response rate of the internal humidity of the concrete was much slower than that of the temperature. A cubic curve model was used to fit the measured concrete damage degree with the loading age, and the fitting effect was good. Under the environment of high temperature and low humidity, the loading age from the 0.6th day to the 1st day was the period of a relatively large fluctuation in the concrete temperature and humidity, and the restraint would aggravate the damage of the concrete. The damage degree increased with the increase in the loading age, the microcracks gradually increased and, finally, macrocracks were formed. The restraint effect was to intensify the formation of microcracks, affect the hydration of the cement at the micro level and, finally, increase the risk of concrete cracking perpendicular to the restrained direction at the macro level. The research results may provide guidance for research on the cracking mechanism of tunnel lining concrete constructed under a high-temperature and low-humidity environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of High-Ductility Concrete against Combined Sulfate Attack and Dry–Wet Cycles
Materials 2021, 14(14), 4035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14144035 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Concrete will deteriorate and damage under sulfate attack.In order to study the degradation characteristics of HDC under sulfate attack, the mechanical properties of high-ductility concrete (HDC) were investigated using the uniaxial compressive strength test of HDC specimens soaked in different concentrations of sulfate [...] Read more.
Concrete will deteriorate and damage under sulfate attack.In order to study the degradation characteristics of HDC under sulfate attack, the mechanical properties of high-ductility concrete (HDC) were investigated using the uniaxial compressive strength test of HDC specimens soaked in different concentrations of sulfate solution and subjected to different times of dry–wet cycles. The variations in the compressive strength, loss rate of compressive strength, and the max compressive strength under the action of sulfate attack and dry–wet cycles were analyzed. The analytical expressions of damage variables were given. SEM was used to observe the microstructure of the sample, and the microdamage mechanism of the HDC was explored. The deterioration of the HDC was found to be the result of the combined action of sulfate attack and dry–wet cycles and was caused by physical attack and chemical attack. PVA prevented the rapid development of deterioration. On the basis of the change of compressive strength, the damage variable was established to quantitatively describe the degree of damage to HDC. The experimental results showed that with the increase in the number of dry–wet cycles, the compressive strength of HDC generally increased first and then decreased. As the concentration of the sulfate solution increased, the loss rate of the compressive strength of HDC generally increased and the max compressive strength gradually decreased. With the increase inthe number of dry–wet cycles, HDC first showed self-compacting characteristics and then gradually became destroyed. Compared with ordinary concrete (OC), HDC is superior to OC in sulfate resistance and dry–wet cycles. This study provided a test basis for the engineering application of HDC in sulfate attack and dry–wet cycles environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
The Mechanical Properties of Early Aged Shotcrete under Internal Sulfate Attack
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3726; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133726 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Shotcrete is the primary material for tunnel support due to its early rapid hardening characteristics. During tunnel construction in a sulfate environment, the hardening law of concrete will be affected. In this study, samples were prepared at six different curing times and immersed [...] Read more.
Shotcrete is the primary material for tunnel support due to its early rapid hardening characteristics. During tunnel construction in a sulfate environment, the hardening law of concrete will be affected. In this study, samples were prepared at six different curing times and immersed in four different concentrations of sulfate solutions. A uniaxial test was conducted and analyzed to investigate the effect of sulfate attack on the mechanical properties of early aged shotcrete materials. Results indicated that waterlogged shotcrete does not have apparent cracks on the outside. The stress–strain curve or ultimate compressive strength of the samples showed that the effect of sulfate on shotcrete should be differentiated into chemical and physical sulfate attacks, according to the concentration of sulfate ions. The two parameters in the equation of the hardening behaviors of sulfate attack samples, ultimate compressive strength, and time constant, are related to sulfate concentration. The crack damage stress threshold of samples demonstrates that high-concentration sulfate corrosion leads to an impact on the durability of shotcrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Synthetic Polypropylene Fiber–Reinforced Renewable Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092337 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Oil palm shell (OPS) is an agricultural solid waste from the extraction process of palm oil. All these wastes from industry pose serious disposal issues for the environment. This research aims to promote the replacement of conventional coarse aggregates with eco-friendly OPS aggregate [...] Read more.
Oil palm shell (OPS) is an agricultural solid waste from the extraction process of palm oil. All these wastes from industry pose serious disposal issues for the environment. This research aims to promote the replacement of conventional coarse aggregates with eco-friendly OPS aggregate which offers several advantages, such as being lightweight, renewable, and domestically available. This paper evaluates the mechanical and thermal performances of renewable OPS lightweight concrete (LWC) reinforced with various type of synthetic polypropylene (SPP) fibers. Monofilament polypropylene (MPS) and barchip polypropylene straight (BPS) were added to concrete at different volume fractions (singly and hybrid) of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.4%. All specimens were mixed by using a new mixing method with a time saving of up to 14.3% compared to conventional mixing methods. The effects of SPP fibers on the mechanical properties were investigated by compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and residual strength. The strength of the oil palm shell lightweight concrete hybrid 0.4% (OPSLWC–HYB–0.4%) mixture achieved the highest compressive strength of 29 MPa at 28 days. The inclusion of 0.3% of BPS showed a positive outcome with the lowest thermal conductivity value at 0.55 W/m °C. Therefore, the results revealed that incorporation of BPS fiber enhanced the performance of thermal conductivity tests as compared to inclusion of MPS fiber. Hence, renewable OPS LWC was proven to be a highly recommended environmentally friendly aggregate as an alternative solution to replace natural aggregates used in the concrete industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity in Concentrated Cementitious Suspensions: Probabilistic Approximation and Bayesian Analysis
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081971 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
We present a new focus for the Krieger–Dougherty equation from a probabilistic point of view. This equation allows the calculation of dynamic viscosity in suspensions of various types, like cement paste and self-compacting mortar/concrete. The physical meaning of the parameters that intervene in [...] Read more.
We present a new focus for the Krieger–Dougherty equation from a probabilistic point of view. This equation allows the calculation of dynamic viscosity in suspensions of various types, like cement paste and self-compacting mortar/concrete. The physical meaning of the parameters that intervene in the equation (maximum packing fraction of particles and intrinsic viscosity), together with the random nature associated with these systems, make the application of the Bayesian analysis desirable. This analysis permits the transformation of parametric-deterministic models into parametric-probabilistic models, which improves and enriches their results. The initial limitations of the Bayesian methods, due to their complexity, have been overcome by numerical methods (Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Gibbs Sampling) and the development of specific software (OpenBUGS). Here we use it to compute the probability density functions that intervene in the Krieger–Dougherty equation applied to the calculation of viscosity in several cement pastes, self-compacting mortars, and self-compacting concretes. The dynamic viscosity calculations made with the Bayesian distributions are significantly better than those made with the theoretical values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Investigation of the Residual Mechanical and Porosity Properties of Cement Mortar under Axial Stress during Heating
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081944 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The preload load on concrete during heating is considered to cause a ‘densification’ of cement mortar which led to the increased compressive strength. In order to assess the influence of coupled load and heating effects on porosity characteristics of concrete, the porosity of [...] Read more.
The preload load on concrete during heating is considered to cause a ‘densification’ of cement mortar which led to the increased compressive strength. In order to assess the influence of coupled load and heating effects on porosity characteristics of concrete, the porosity of mortar after mechanical and thermal loading was measured by X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The preload at pre-stress ratios of 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 (ratio of stress applied to the specimen to its compressive strength at room temperature) were applied on mortar specimens during heating. The residual compressive strengths of the heated and stressed mortar specimens were tested after cooling to room temperature. Combined analyses of the residual compressive strength test results and porosity test results, it shows that the porosity of the specimens under the coupled stressing and heating conditions were slightly lower than that under the unstressed conditions; however, the conclusion that the increase of compressive strength of stressed mortar was caused by the ‘densification’ of cement paste was insufficient. The preload reduced the cracks in the mortar, especially the crack induced due to the thermal mismatch in aggregates and hardened cement paste (HCP), and this may account for the increased compressive strength of stressed mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Effect of a Nitrite/Nitrate-Based Accelerator on the Strength Development and Hydrate Formation in Cold-Weather Cementitious Materials
Materials 2021, 14(4), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14041006 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Recently, there has been increased use of calcium-nitrite and calcium-nitrate as the main components of chloride- and alkali-free anti-freezing agents to promote concrete hydration in cold weather concreting. As the amount of nitrite/nitrate-based accelerators increases, the hydration of tricalcium aluminate (C3A [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been increased use of calcium-nitrite and calcium-nitrate as the main components of chloride- and alkali-free anti-freezing agents to promote concrete hydration in cold weather concreting. As the amount of nitrite/nitrate-based accelerators increases, the hydration of tricalcium aluminate (C3A phase) and tricalcium silicate (C3S phase) in cement is accelerated, thereby improving the early strength of cement and effectively preventing initial frost damage. Nitrite/nitrate-based accelerators are used in larger amounts than usual in low temperature areas below −10 °C. However, the correlation between the hydration process and strength development in concrete containing considerable nitrite/nitrate-based accelerators remains to be clearly identified. In this study, the hydrate composition (via X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance), pore structures (via mercury intrusion porosimetry), and crystal form (via scanning electron microscopy) were determined, and investigations were performed to elucidate the effect of nitrite/nitrate-based accelerators on the initial strength development and hydrate formation of cement. Nitrite/nitrate-AFm (aluminate-ferret-monosulfate; AFm) was produced in addition to ettringite at the initial stage of hydration of cement by adding a nitrite/nitrate-based accelerator. The amount of the hydrates was attributed to an increase in the absolute amounts of NO2 and NO3 ions reacting with Al2O3 in the tricalcium aluminate (C3A phase). Further, by effectively filling the pores, it greatly contributed to the enhancement of the strength of the hardened cement product, and the degree of the contribution tended to increase with the amount of addition. On the other hand, in addition to the occurrence of cracks due to the release of a large amount of heat of hydration, the amount of expansion and contraction may increase, and it is considered necessary to adjust the amount used for each concrete work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Internal Curing Effect of Pre-Soaked Zeolite Sand on the Performance of Alkali-Activated Slag
Materials 2021, 14(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040718 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
This study clarifies the effects of pre-soaked zeolite sand as an internal curing material on the hydration, strength, autogenous shrinkage, and durability of alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortars. The liquid-to-binder ratio (L/b) of all of the AAS mortars was 0.55. Sodium hydroxide solution was [...] Read more.
This study clarifies the effects of pre-soaked zeolite sand as an internal curing material on the hydration, strength, autogenous shrinkage, and durability of alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortars. The liquid-to-binder ratio (L/b) of all of the AAS mortars was 0.55. Sodium hydroxide solution was used as an alkali activator and an internal curing liquid. Calcined zeolite and natural zeolite sand replaced the standard sand at 15% and 30%, respectively. The setting time, autogenous shrinkage, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and surface electrical resistivity were tested. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The addition of zeolite significantly reduces the autogenous shrinkage of AAS mortar. Compared with the control group, 30% calcined zeolite reduced the autogenous shrinkage by 96.4%. Moreover, the autogenous shrinkage of the AAS mortars was noticed in two stages (a variable temperature stage and an ambient temperature stage), and the two stages split at one day of age. (2) The compressive strength of all of the specimens increased as the zeolite sand content increased, and the highest compressive strength was obtained for AAS combined with 30% natural zeolite sand. (3) Internal curing accelerated the formation of the second peak of heat flow and reduced the accumulated heat release. (4) Calcined zeolite sand delayed the setting time of the AAS mortars. (5) The addition of zeolite significantly reduced the surface electrical resistivity of the AAS mortars. In summary, zeolite sand is extremely useful as an internal curing agent to reduce autogenous shrinkage and to increase the compressive strength of AAS mortars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Experimental Study on the Fracture Parameters of Concrete
Materials 2021, 14(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010129 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the influence of the volume fraction of steel fibers on the fracture parameters of concrete. Fifty notched steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams and ordinary concrete beams with 100 mm × 100 mm × 515 mm were cast and tested [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the influence of the volume fraction of steel fibers on the fracture parameters of concrete. Fifty notched steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams and ordinary concrete beams with 100 mm × 100 mm × 515 mm were cast and tested via a three-point bending test. Among them, the type of steel fiber was the milling type (MF), and the volume fraction of steel fiber added was 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%, respectively. The effects of the steel fiber volume fraction (VF) on the critical stress intensity factor (KIC), fracture energy (GF), the deflection at failure(δ0), the critical crack mouth opening displacement (CMODC) and the critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODC) were studied. Through the analysis of test phenomena and test data such as the load-deflection (P-δ) curve, load-crack mouth opening displacement (P-CMOD) curve and load-crack tip opening displacement (P-CTOD) curve, the following conclusions are drawn: with the increase of the steel fiber volume fraction, some fracture parameters increase gradually and maintain a certain linear growth. The gain ratio of the fracture parameters increases significantly, and the gain effect is obvious. Through this law of growth, the experimental statistical formulas of fracture energy and the critical stress intensity factor are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Pore Filling Effect of Forced Carbonation Reactions Using Carbon Dioxide Nanobubbles
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194343 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Various methods for repairing and modifying concrete surfaces have been proposed and applied to improve the durability of existing concrete structures. Surface modification through forced carbonation is a method of densification that forms calcium carbonate in the pores on the surface of concrete [...] Read more.
Various methods for repairing and modifying concrete surfaces have been proposed and applied to improve the durability of existing concrete structures. Surface modification through forced carbonation is a method of densification that forms calcium carbonate in the pores on the surface of concrete to improve its durability. In this study, to evaluate the applicability of this surface modification method to existing buildings, a series of experiments was conducted in which mortar specimens were repeatedly immersed in a carbon dioxide nanobubble aqueous solution. By evaluating the weight change and absorption rate, it was determined that the higher the water/cement ratio of the mortar specimen, the higher the pore filling effect owing to immersion in the carbon dioxide nanobubble aqueous solution. In addition, the effect of clogged pores generated by the precipitation of calcium carbonate was confirmed, and it was found that the higher the water/cement ratio of the mortar specimen, the higher the pore filling effect due to clogging. We believe that our findings contribute to the development of research and construction practices associated with concrete repair and restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Incorporation of Waste Glass as an Activator in Class-C Fly Ash/GGBS Based Alkali Activated Material
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173906 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
In this study, an alkaline activator was synthesized by dissolving waste glass powder (WGP) in NaOH-4M solution to explore its effects on the formation of alkali-activated material (AAM) generated by Class-C fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The compressive [...] Read more.
In this study, an alkaline activator was synthesized by dissolving waste glass powder (WGP) in NaOH-4M solution to explore its effects on the formation of alkali-activated material (AAM) generated by Class-C fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The compressive strength, flexure strength, porosity and water absorption were measured, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to study the crystalline phases, hydration mechanism and microstructure of the resulting composites. Results indicated that the composition of alkali solutions and the ratios of FA/GGBS were significant in enhancing the properties of the obtained AAM. As the amount of dissolved WGP increased in alkaline solution, the silicon concentration increased, causing the accelerated reactivity of FA/GGBS to develop Ca-based hydrate gel as the main reaction product in the system, thereby increasing the strength and lowering the porosity. Further increase in WGP dissolution led to strength loss and increased porosity, which were believed to be due to the excessive water demand of FA/GGBS composites to achieve optimum mixing consistency. Increasing the GGBS proportion in a composite appeared to improve the strength and lower the porosity owing to the reactivity of GGBS being higher than that of FA, which contributed to develop C-S-H-type hydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Study on Physical Properties of Mortar for Section Restoration Using Calcium Nitrite and CO2 Nano-Bubble Water
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173897 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
This study investigated the physical properties of section-restoration mortar with calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) nanobubble mixing water to develop materials and methods for the repair and reinforcement of cracks in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the physical properties of section-restoration mortar with calcium nitrite (Ca(NO2)2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) nanobubble mixing water to develop materials and methods for the repair and reinforcement of cracks in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. As the calcium nitrite content increased, the generation rate and generated amount of nitrite-based hydration products also increased, owing to the rapid reaction between NO2 ions in calcium nitrite and C3A(Al2O3). Further, the reaction with C3S and C2S was accelerated, thereby increasing the generation rates of Ca(OH)2 and C-S-H. The large amount of Ca2+ ions in these hydration products reacted with CO32− ions in CO2 nanobubble water, thereby increasing the generation of calcite-based CaCO3 in the cement matrix. This appears to have affected strength development and durability improvement via the densification of the structure. These results suggest that the performance of polymer cement mortar for repairing concrete structures can be improved if calcium nitrite and CO2 nanobubble water are properly combined and applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
Spalling Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced Ultra-High-Strength Concrete Subjected to the ISO-834 Standard Fire Curve: Effects of Thermal Strain and Water Vapor Pressure
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173792 - 27 Aug 2020
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The prevention and mitigation of spalling in high-strength concrete (HSC) rely on mixing polypropylene (PP) as an additive reinforcement. The dense internal structures of ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) result in risks associated with a high thermal stress and high water vapor pressure. Herein, the [...] Read more.
The prevention and mitigation of spalling in high-strength concrete (HSC) rely on mixing polypropylene (PP) as an additive reinforcement. The dense internal structures of ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) result in risks associated with a high thermal stress and high water vapor pressure. Herein, the effects of pore formation and thermal strain on spalling are examined by subjecting fiber-laden UHSC to conditions similar to those under which the ISO-834 standard fire curve was obtained. Evaluation of the initial melting properties of the fibers based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) demon strated that although nylon fibers exhibit a higher melting point than polypropylene and polyethylene fibers, weight loss occurs below 200 °C. Nylon fibers were effective at reducing spalling in UHSC compared to polypropylene and polyethylene fibers as they rapidly melt, leading to pore formation. We anticipate that these results will serve as references for future studies on the prevention of spalling in fiber-reinforced UHSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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Article
The Effect of Lightweight Concrete Cores on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Insulation Panels
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112632 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
The performance of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) is strongly affected by several factors, such as panel thickness, design, quality of vacuum, and material type. In particular, the core materials inside VIPs significantly influence their overall performance. Despite their superior insulation performance, VIPs are [...] Read more.
The performance of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) is strongly affected by several factors, such as panel thickness, design, quality of vacuum, and material type. In particular, the core materials inside VIPs significantly influence their overall performance. Despite their superior insulation performance, VIPs are limited in their widespread use as structural materials, because of their low material strength and the relatively expensive core materials. As an alternative core material that can compensate these limitations, foamed concrete, a type of lightweight concrete with very low density, can be used. In this study, two different types of foamed concrete were used as VIP core materials, with their effects on the thermal behavior of the VIPs having been evaluated using experimental and numerical methods. To confirm and generate numerical models for VIP analysis, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was utilized. The obtained results show that insulation effects increase effectively when panels with lightweight concrete are in a vacuum, and both foamed concrete types can be effectively used as VIP core materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Mechanical Behavior of Cement and Concrete Composites)
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