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Advanced Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 21749

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Guest Editor
Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials (CeFEMA), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: low-temperature fuel cells; alkaline water electrolysis; electrochemical wastewater treatment
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Guest Editor
Laboratory for Physics of Materials and Emerging Technologies, Chemical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: alloys; electrochemistry; fuel cells; electrocatalysis; electrode; materials chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Electrochemical energy conversion and storage is attracting special attention due to the drawbacks and limitations of existing fossil fuel-based technologies. The development of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices has three directions: the development of batteries, development of capacitors, and development of fuel cells. Batteries are finding wide application in portable devices including laptop computers, mobile phones and cameras. Supercapacitors have the ability to accept and deliver charge at much faster rate than batteries, for many charge/discharge cycles. Fuel cells provide efficient and clean continuous power generation for both stationary and portable devices. These three technologies show promise of overcoming climate change problems caused by the use of fossil fuels. However, issues related to the electrode efficiency, membrane costs, and electrolyte stability, still limit the widespread commercialisation of batteries, capacitors and fuel cells.

The choice of electrode materials, as well as the electrolyte composition, determines the crucial electrochemical device parameters, such as specific energy and power, cycle life and safety. Accordingly, it is essential to develop the existing and introduce new procedures for the synthesis of electrode materials in batteries, capacitors and fuel cells. The development of new, improved electrocatalytic materials for batteries, capacitors, and fuel cell electrode reactions is expected to have great impact on device performance and, consequently, their commercialisation.

This Special Issue is focused on the development of electrocatalytic material for energy storage and conversion devices, including, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Theoretical screening of material properties for the tailoring of electrocatalysts;
  • Novel non-platinum cathode materials for low-temperature fuel cells;
  • Novel non-metal cathode materials for low-temperature fuel cells;
  • Novel anode materials for alcohol fuel cells;
  • Novel anode materials for direct borohydride and ammonia fuel cells;
  • Novel electrode materials for sodium-ion rechargeable batteries of high efficiency;
  • Novel materials for supercapacitors;
  • Novel supporting materials for metal electrocatalysts for energy conversion devices;
  • New trends in the synthesis procedures of materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices;
  • Characterisation of materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices;
  • Testing of novel electrode materials for lab-scale fuel cells;
  • Development of novel electrolytes and membranes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices.

Dr. Diogo Miguel Franco dos Santos
Dr. Biljana Šljukić
Guest Editors

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fuel cells
  • batteries
  • supercapacitors
  • electrode materials
  • electrocatalysis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices
by Diogo M. F. Santos and Biljana Šljukić
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247711 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Electrochemical energy conversion and storage is attracting particular attention due to the drawbacks and limitations of existing fossil fuel-based technologies [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

20 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
A Study of Methylcellulose Based Polymer Electrolyte Impregnated with Potassium Ion Conducting Carrier: Impedance, EEC Modeling, FTIR, Dielectric, and Device Characteristics
by Muaffaq M. Nofal, Jihad M. Hadi, Shujahadeen B. Aziz, Mohamad A. Brza, Ahmad S. F. M. Asnawi, Elham M. A. Dannoun, Aziz M. Abdullah and Mohd F. Z. Kadir
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174859 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
In this research, a biopolymer-based electrolyte system involving methylcellulose (MC) as a host polymeric material and potassium iodide (KI) salt as the ionic source was prepared by solution cast technique. The electrolyte with the highest conductivity was used for device application of electrochemical [...] Read more.
In this research, a biopolymer-based electrolyte system involving methylcellulose (MC) as a host polymeric material and potassium iodide (KI) salt as the ionic source was prepared by solution cast technique. The electrolyte with the highest conductivity was used for device application of electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with high specific capacitance. The electrical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of the electrolyte systems were investigated using various techniques. According to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the bulk resistance (Rb) decreased from 3.3 × 105 to 8 × 102 Ω with the increase of salt concentration from 10 wt % to 40 wt % and the ionic conductivity was found to be 1.93 ×10−5 S/cm. The dielectric analysis further verified the conductivity trends. Low-frequency regions showed high dielectric constant, ε′ and loss, ε″ values. The polymer-salt complexation between (MC) and (KI) was shown through a Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The analysis of transference number measurement (TNM) supported ions were predominantly responsible for the transport process in the MC-KI electrolyte. The highest conducting sample was observed to be electrochemically constant as the potential was swept linearly up to 1.8 V using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) profile reveals the absence of a redox peak, indicating the presence of a charge double-layer between the surface of activated carbon electrodes and electrolytes. The maximum specific capacitance, Cs value was obtained as 118.4 F/g at the sweep rate of 10 mV/s. Full article
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17 pages, 4397 KiB  
Article
Optical and Electrochemical Applications of Li-Doped NiO Nanostructures Synthesized via Facile Microwave Technique
by Aarti S. Bhatt, R. Ranjitha, M. S. Santosh, C. R. Ravikumar, S. C. Prashantha, Rapela R. Maphanga and Guilherme F. B. Lenz e Silva
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132961 - 2 Jul 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
Nanostructured NiO and Li-ion doped NiO have been synthesized via a facile microwave technique and simulated using the first principle method. The effects of microwaves on the morphology of the nanostructures have been studied by Field Emission Spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the [...] Read more.
Nanostructured NiO and Li-ion doped NiO have been synthesized via a facile microwave technique and simulated using the first principle method. The effects of microwaves on the morphology of the nanostructures have been studied by Field Emission Spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the nanosize of the particles and favoured orientations along the (111), (200) and (220) planes revealing the cubic structure. The optical band gap decreases from 3.3 eV (pure NiO) to 3.17 eV (NiO doped with 1% Li). Further, computational simulations have been performed to understand the optical behaviour of the synthesized nanoparticles. The optical properties of the doped materials exhibit violet, blue and green emissions, as evaluated using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In the presence of Li-ions, NiO nanoparticles exhibit enhanced electrical capacities and better cyclability. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that with 1% Li as dopant, there is a marked improvement in the reversibility and the conductance value of NiO. The results are encouraging as the synthesized nanoparticles stand a better chance of being used as an active material for electrochromic, electro-optic and supercapacitor applications. Full article
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19 pages, 14217 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of LiFePO4–PANI Hybrid Material as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Cesario Ajpi, Naviana Leiva, Max Vargas, Anders Lundblad, Göran Lindbergh and Saul Cabrera
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122834 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
This work focuses on the synthesis of LiFePO4–PANI hybrid materials and studies their electrochemical properties (capacity, cyclability and rate capability) for use in lithium ion batteries. PANI synthesis and optimization was carried out by chemical oxidation (self-assembly process), using ammonium persulfate [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the synthesis of LiFePO4–PANI hybrid materials and studies their electrochemical properties (capacity, cyclability and rate capability) for use in lithium ion batteries. PANI synthesis and optimization was carried out by chemical oxidation (self-assembly process), using ammonium persulfate (APS) and H3PO4, obtaining a material with a high degree of crystallinity. For the synthesis of the LiFePO4–PANI hybrid, a thermal treatment of LiFePO4 particles was carried out in a furnace with polyaniline (PANI) and lithium acetate (AcOLi)-coated particles, using Ar/H2 atmosphere. The pristine and synthetized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, IR and TGA. The electrochemical characterizations were carried out by using CV, EIS and galvanostatic methods, obtaining a capacity of 95 mAhg−1 for PANI, 120 mAhg−1 for LiFePO4 and 145 mAhg−1 for LiFePO4–PANI, at a charge/discharge rate of 0.1 C. At a charge/discharge rate of 2 C, the capacities were 70 mAhg−1 for LiFePO4 and 100 mAhg−1 for LiFePO4–PANI, showing that the PANI also had a favorable effect on the rate capability. Full article
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20 pages, 27836 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Electrodeposition Parameters on the Properties of Mn-Co-Based Nanofilms as Anode Materials for Alkaline Electrolysers
by Karolina Cysewska, Maria Krystyna Rybarczyk, Grzegorz Cempura, Jakub Karczewski, Marcin Łapiński, Piotr Jasinski and Sebastian Molin
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112662 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2990
Abstract
In this work, the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structure, morphology, and electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Mn-Co-based films is studied. For this purpose, Mn-Co nanofilm is electrochemically synthesised in a one-step process on nickel foam in [...] Read more.
In this work, the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structure, morphology, and electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Mn-Co-based films is studied. For this purpose, Mn-Co nanofilm is electrochemically synthesised in a one-step process on nickel foam in the presence of metal nitrates without any additives. The possible mechanism of the synthesis is proposed. The morphology and structure of the catalysts are studied by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The analyses show that the as-deposited catalysts consist mainly of oxides/hydroxides and/or (oxy)hydroxides based on Mn2+, Co2+, and Co3+. The alkaline post-treatment of the film results in the formation of Mn-Co (oxy)hydroxides and crystalline Co(OH)2 with a β-phase hexagonal platelet-like shape structure, indicating a layered double hydroxide structure, desirable for the OER. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic performance of Mn-Co was dependent on the concentration of Mn versus Co in the synthesis solution and on the deposition charge. The optimised Mn-Co/Ni foam is characterised by a specific surface area of 10.5 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.0042 cm3·g−1, and high electrochemical stability with an overpotential deviation around 330–340 mV at 10 mA·cm−2geo for 70 h. Full article
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19 pages, 8081 KiB  
Article
Doped Nanoscale NMC333 as Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries
by Ahmed M. Hashem, Ashraf E. Abdel-Ghany, Marco Scheuermann, Sylvio Indris, Helmut Ehrenberg, Alain Mauger and Christian M. Julien
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182899 - 7 Sep 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4775
Abstract
A series of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)1−xMxO2 (M = Al, Mg, Zn, and Fe, x = 0.06) was prepared via sol-gel method assisted by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as a chelating agent. A [...] Read more.
A series of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)1−xMxO2 (M = Al, Mg, Zn, and Fe, x = 0.06) was prepared via sol-gel method assisted by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as a chelating agent. A typical hexagonal α-NaFeO2 structure (R-3m space group) was observed for parent and doped samples as revealed by X-ray diffraction patterns. For all samples, hexagonally shaped nanoparticles were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The local structure was characterized by infrared, Raman, and Mössbauer spectroscopy and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (Li-NMR). Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests showed that Mg and Al doping improved the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 in terms of specific capacities and cyclability. In addition, while Al doping increases the initial capacity, Mg doping is the best choice as it improves cyclability for reasons discussed in this work. Full article
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