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Energies, Volume 17, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 355 articles

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14 pages, 3416 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Preparation Methods on the Stability of Low-Carbon Alcohol Blended Fuels
by Chao Jin, Juntong Dong, Chenyun Ding, Jingjing Hu, Zhenlong Geng, Xiaodan Li, Teng Xu, Guolong Zang and Haifeng Liu
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112796 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
The n-butanol/low-carbon alcohol/diesel microemulsion system is a good alternative fuel to diesel. In this study, the microemulsions were formulated in four ways: ultrasonication, vortex oscillation, shaker mixing and spontaneous formation. The results reveal that the ultrasonication method is significantly influenced by temperature. Specifically, [...] Read more.
The n-butanol/low-carbon alcohol/diesel microemulsion system is a good alternative fuel to diesel. In this study, the microemulsions were formulated in four ways: ultrasonication, vortex oscillation, shaker mixing and spontaneous formation. The results reveal that the ultrasonication method is significantly influenced by temperature. Specifically, at 45 °C, the quantity of cosolvent added during the ultrasonic process can be reduced by a maximum of 25% compared to that at 25 °C. However, while the amount of cosolvent required is the lowest at 45 °C, the stability of the emulsion is the poorest. In all cases of this study, the stability of the microemulsion increases when the volume ratio of the lower carbon alcohol exceeds 60%. The lowest amount of co-solvent and high stability were achieved using the shaker mixing method at both 25 °C and 35 °C. Although the quantity of cosolvent required at 45 °C is second only to the lowest, its stability surpasses that of the ultrasonication method. Therefore, it is more effective to choose the shaker mixing method that provides uniform and ordered forces for the preparation of microemulsion liquids. Full article
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15 pages, 3493 KiB  
Article
Energy Flow Analysis in Oilseed Sunflower Farms and Modeling with Artificial Neural Networks as Compared to Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (Case Study: Khoy County)
by Hossein Lotfali Nezhad, Vali Rasooli Sharabiani, Javad Tarighi, Mohammad Tahmasebi, Ebrahim Taghinezhad and Antoni Szumny
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112795 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The evaluation of energy input and output processes in agricultural systems is a crucial method for assessing sustainability levels within these systems. In this research, the investigation focused on the input and output energies and related indices in sunflower farms in Khoy County [...] Read more.
The evaluation of energy input and output processes in agricultural systems is a crucial method for assessing sustainability levels within these systems. In this research, the investigation focused on the input and output energies and related indices in sunflower farms in Khoy County during the agricultural year 2017–2018. Data were collected from 140 sunflower producers through specialized questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Additionally, artificial neural networks (ANNs), specifically the multilayer perceptron, were employed to predict the output energy. The results revealed that a substantial portion of the total input energy was attributed to chemical nitrogen fertilizer (43.98%), consumable fuel (25.74%), and machinery (8.42%). The energy efficiency (energy ratio) in these agroecosystems was relatively low, measured at 1.57 for seed and 7.96 for seed and straw. These values should be improved. The energy efficiency in seed production was computed at 0.06 MJ·ha−1, while, for the combined seeds and straw, it was 0.57 MJ·ha−1. In particular, seed energy efficiency represents approximately 11% of the overall biological energy efficiency, highlighting that a substantial 89% of the produced energy is associated with straw. The proper use of this straw is crucial, as its improper handling could lead to a drastic decrease in overall efficiency. Furthermore, the explanatory coefficient (R2) and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) to predict the output energy with the best neural network were 0.94, and 1.77 for the training data, 0.97 and 1.55 for the test data, and 0.9 and 2.08 for the validation data, respectively; additionally, 0.97 and 0.42 were obtained by an ANFIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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22 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Maximizing Solar Share in Robust System Spinning Reserve-Constrained Economic Operation of Hybrid Power Systems
by Rana Muhammad Musharraf Saeed, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Mustafa Shakir, Guftaar Ahmad Sardar Sidhu, Ahmed Bilal Awan and Mohammad Abdul Baseer
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112794 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The integration of renewable energy is rapidly leading the existing grid systems toward modern hybrid power systems. These hybrid power systems are more complex due to the random and intermittent nature of RE and involve numerous operational challenges. This paper presents the operational [...] Read more.
The integration of renewable energy is rapidly leading the existing grid systems toward modern hybrid power systems. These hybrid power systems are more complex due to the random and intermittent nature of RE and involve numerous operational challenges. This paper presents the operational model for solar integrated power systems to address the issues of economical operation, reliable solar share, energy deficit in case of contingency events, and the allocation of system spinning reserve. A mixed-integer optimization is formulated to minimize the overall cost of the system operation and to maximize the solar share under robust system spinning reserve limits as well as various other practical constraints. A Pareto-optimal solution for the maximization of the number of solar power plants and minimization of the solar cost is also presented for reliable solar share. Further, a decomposition framework is proposed to split the original problem into two sub-problems. The solution of joint optimization is obtained by exploiting a Lagrange relaxation method, a binary search Lambda iteration method, system spinning reserve analysis, and binary integer programming. The proposed model was implemented on an IEEE-RTS 26 units system and 40 solar plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization in Smart Grids of Electric Power Systems)
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29 pages, 19380 KiB  
Article
Multiphase LLC DC-Link Converter with Current Equalization Based on CM Voltage-Controlled Capacitor
by Yue-Lin Lee and Kuo-Ing Hwu
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112793 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
In this study, a current-equalization technology utilizing a variable-capacitance technique for a multiphase inductor–inductor–capacitor (LLC) converter is studied. Accordingly, the proposed method involves adjusting the resonant capacitance of the LLC resonant converter to balance the currents between phases. This is achieved primarily by [...] Read more.
In this study, a current-equalization technology utilizing a variable-capacitance technique for a multiphase inductor–inductor–capacitor (LLC) converter is studied. Accordingly, the proposed method involves adjusting the resonant capacitance of the LLC resonant converter to balance the currents between phases. This is achieved primarily by biasing ferroelectric multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) through a step-down circuit and a common-mode bias structure. These ferroelectric MLCCs serve as the resonant elements, allowing for variable capacitance by leveraging capacitance sensitivity to their trans voltages. This approach provides additional control flexibility to the resonant circuit. Furthermore, since each phase operates independently, the circuit can be scaled to accommodate any number of phases. Moreover, all switches in the circuit have zero-voltage switching (ZVS) turn-on, minimizing switching losses. This study initially analyzes and evaluates the proposed common-mode bias variable capacitance technique and the corresponding operational principles. Subsequently, a two-phase LLC experimental circuit based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) digital controller is utilized to assess current equalization and efficiency. That is to say, this experimentation aims to validate the effectiveness of the current-equalization variable-capacitance technique in an LLC resonant converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy, Electrical and Power Engineering 2024)
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20 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Integrating Renewable Energy Solutions in Small-Scale Industrial Facilities
by Laila Zemite, Jevgenijs Kozadajevs, Leo Jansons, Ilmars Bode, Egils Dzelzitis and Karina Palkova
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112792 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the economical suitability of numerous on-site renewable electricity generation technologies which were intended to be used in a recently built industrial facility designed and utilized as a warehouse. The facility was located in the vicinity [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the economical suitability of numerous on-site renewable electricity generation technologies which were intended to be used in a recently built industrial facility designed and utilized as a warehouse. The facility was located in the vicinity of Riga, Latvia. Data were collected and calculations were performed within the scope of the project “Mitigating Energy Poverty through Innovative Solutions” as part of several planned activities to address the broad spectrum of energy poverty and self-reliance issues in both the residential sector and small-scale industrial facilities. During the project, evaluations of various renewable energy technologies, including PV installations, wind energy installations, battery storage solutions, and hybrid technologies, were carried out. The aim of these evaluations was to develop an electricity production–consumption model for efficient and cost-effective energy use and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the test facility. A model was created and subsequent research scenarios were developed based on a payback period instead of the net present value criterion. The project was carried out over several steps to develop a calculation methodology. The open access databases of energy resource providers were used to evaluate statistical data and make forecasts for the analysis of the electricity consumption of companies. MATLAB/Simulink 23/2 was used for the data analysis, and the H-TEC method was employed. This made it possible to modulate the required production capacity as the model allowed for the addition of new modules to modules already installed. The project results proved that despite high initial investment costs, renewable energy sources and efficient storage systems can provide cost-effective solutions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable and Smart Building)
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22 pages, 7006 KiB  
Article
4E Study and Best Performance Analysis of a Hydrogen Multi-Generation Layout by Waste Energy Recovery of Combined SOFC-GT-ORC
by Mohammad Zoghi, Nasser Hosseinzadeh, Saleh Gharaie and Ali Zare
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112791 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Different approaches have been suggested for the waste heat recovery of high-temperature exhausted gas of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In such systems, mostly gas turbine (GT) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are added as bottoming systems to the SOFC (Configuration 1). [...] Read more.
Different approaches have been suggested for the waste heat recovery of high-temperature exhausted gas of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In such systems, mostly gas turbine (GT) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are added as bottoming systems to the SOFC (Configuration 1). However, the SOFC-GT-ORC has a considerable amount of waste energy which can be recovered. In the present research, the waste energy of ORC in the heat rejection stage and the residual exhausted gas of the system were recovered by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) and a hot water unit, respectively. Then, the extra produced power in the TEG was directed to a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer and a reverse osmosis desalination unit (RODU) for hydrogen and potable water outputs. The performance of SOFC-GT, Configuration 1, and Configuration 2 was compared through a 4E (energy, exergy, exergy-economic, and environmental) analysis. In the best performance point, the exergy efficiency and unit cost of product (UCOP) of SOFC-GT were obtained as 69.41% and USD 26.53/GJ. The exergy efficiency increased by 2.56% and 2.86%, and the UCOP rose by 0.45% and 12.25% in Configurations 1 and 2. So, the overall performance of Configuration 1 was acceptable and Configuration 2 led to the highest exergy efficiency, while its economic performance was not competitive because of the high investment cost of RODU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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25 pages, 6991 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Methods Used in Electric Power System Operation
by Marcel Hallmann, Robert Pietracho and Przemyslaw Komarnicki
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112790 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The methods of artificial intelligence (AI) have been used in the planning and operation of electric power systems for more than 40 years. In recent years, due to the development of microprocessor and data storage technologies, the effectiveness of this use has greatly [...] Read more.
The methods of artificial intelligence (AI) have been used in the planning and operation of electric power systems for more than 40 years. In recent years, due to the development of microprocessor and data storage technologies, the effectiveness of this use has greatly increased. This paper provides a systematic overview of the application of AI, including the use of machine learning (ML) in the electric power system. The potential application areas are divided into four blocks and the classification matrix has been used for clustering the AI application tasks. Furthermore, the data acquisition methods for setting the parameters of AI and ML algorithms are presented and discussed in a systematic way, considering the supervised and unsupervised learning methods. Based on this, three complex application examples, being wind power generation forecasting, smart grid security assessment (using two methods), and automatic system fault detection are presented and discussed in detail. A summary and outlook conclude the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F5: Artificial Intelligence and Smart Energy)
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24 pages, 2653 KiB  
Article
Energy Consumption Analysis and Characterization of the Residential Sector in the US towards Sustainable Development
by Khaled Bawaneh, Samir Das and Md. Rasheduzzaman
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112789 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
In 2023, residential and commercial sectors together consumed approximately 27.6% of total United States (U.S.) energy, equivalent to about 20.6 quadrillion Btu. Factoring in the electrical system energy losses, the residential sector represented approximately 19.7% of total U.S. energy consumption during that time. [...] Read more.
In 2023, residential and commercial sectors together consumed approximately 27.6% of total United States (U.S.) energy, equivalent to about 20.6 quadrillion Btu. Factoring in the electrical system energy losses, the residential sector represented approximately 19.7% of total U.S. energy consumption during that time. There were approximately 144 million housing units in the United States in 2023, which is increasing yearly. In this study, information on energy usage in the United States residential sector has been analyzed and then represented as energy intensities to establish benchmark data and to compare energy consumption of varying sizes and locations. First, public sources were identified and data from these previously published sources were aggregated to determine the energy use of the residential sector within the US. Next, as part of this study, the energy data for seven houses/apartments from five different United States climate zones were collected firsthand. That data were analyzed, and the energy intensity of each home was calculated and then compared with the energy intensities of the other homes in the same states using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) data. The energy intensity for each facility was calculated based on the actual energy bills. Finally, the study evaluated the carbon footprint associated with residential energy consumption in all 50 states to reinforce the importance of sustainable development initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
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16 pages, 4770 KiB  
Article
Electrode Materials with High Performance of Nickel Sulfide/Titanium Nitride@Co-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks/Nickel Foam for Supercapacitors
by Naixuan Zong, Junli Wang, Zhenwei Liu, Song Wu, Xiaoning Tong, Qingxiang Kong, Ruidong Xu and Linjing Yang
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112788 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
The metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with significant steadiness and a large specific surface area have been popular with supercapacitor material in recent years. However, its application in supercapacitors is restricted due to the low specific capacitance and poor conductivity. Herein, sulfur compounds with [...] Read more.
The metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with significant steadiness and a large specific surface area have been popular with supercapacitor material in recent years. However, its application in supercapacitors is restricted due to the low specific capacitance and poor conductivity. Herein, sulfur compounds with a high theoretical specific capacitance and highly conductive titanium nitride (TiN) were introduced into Co-based metal–organic frameworks/nickel foam (Co-MOF/NF) through a two-step hydrothermal technique (nickel sulfide/titanium nitride@ Co-based metal–organic frameworks/nickel foam). In detail, the fabricated nickel sulfide/titanium nitride@Co-based metal–organic frameworks/nickel foam (Ni3S2/TiN@Co-MOF/NF) electrode material exhibits a markedly high specific capacitance (2648.8 F g−1) at 1 A g−1, compared with that (770 F g−1) of the precursor Co-MOF/NF. And its mass specific capacitance is retained 88.3% (8 A g−1) after 5000 cycles. Furthermore, a non-symmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) composed of Ni3S2/TiN@Co-MOF/NF and AC exhibits excellent power density (801.8 W kg−1) and energy density (97.8 W h kg−1). Therefore, Ni3S2/TiN@Co-MOF/NF with excellent electrochemical properties and stability provides new ideas for the development of excellent supercapacitor electrode materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors)
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29 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Towards Energy Efficient Cloud: A Green and Intelligent Migration of Traditional Energy Sources
by Syed Muhammad Mohsin, Tahir Maqsood and Sajjad Ahmad Madani
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112787 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Geographically distributed cloud data centers (DCs) consume enormous amounts of energy to meet the ever-increasing processing and storage demands of users. The brown energy generated using fossil fuels is expensive and significantly contributes to global warming. Considering the environmental impact caused by the [...] Read more.
Geographically distributed cloud data centers (DCs) consume enormous amounts of energy to meet the ever-increasing processing and storage demands of users. The brown energy generated using fossil fuels is expensive and significantly contributes to global warming. Considering the environmental impact caused by the high carbon emissions and relatively high energy cost of brown energy, we propose the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), especially solar and wind energy, with brown energy to power cloud data centers. In our earlier study, we addressed the intermittency of renewable energy sources, where we replaced the random initialization of artificial neural network (ANN) edge weights with the harmony search algorithm (HSA)-optimized assignment of weights. This study incorporated reliably forecast solar and wind energy into the input parameters of our proposed green energy manager (GEM), for cost minimization, carbon emission minimization, and better energy management of cloud DCs, to make our current study more reliable and trustworthy. Four power sources, on-site solar energy and wind energy, off-site solar energy and wind energy, energy stored in energy storage devices, and brown energy, were considered in this study and simulations were carried out for three different cases. The simulation results showed that case 1 (all brown) was 58% more expensive and caused 71% higher carbon emissions than case 2.1 (cost minimization). Case 1 (all brown) was 39% more expensive and had 80% higher carbon emissions than case 2.2 (carbon emission minimization). The simulation results justify the necessity and importance of the GEM, and finally the results proved that our proposed GEM is less expensive and more environmentally friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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16 pages, 7557 KiB  
Article
Signal Order Optimization of Interconnects Enabling High Electromagnetic Compatibility Performance in Modern Electrical Systems
by Ludovica Illiano, Xiaokang Liu, Xinglong Wu, Flavia Grassi and Sergio Amedeo Pignari
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112786 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Flexible flat cables (FFCs) are a typical form of interconnect in modern electrical and electronic systems that facilitate signal transmission between components while minimizing harness volume. FFCs offer a practical connectivity solution in energy management applications, where sensors and displays are essential for [...] Read more.
Flexible flat cables (FFCs) are a typical form of interconnect in modern electrical and electronic systems that facilitate signal transmission between components while minimizing harness volume. FFCs offer a practical connectivity solution in energy management applications, where sensors and displays are essential for monitoring power consumption and performing advanced digital control. In FFCs, signal lines run parallel to each other, and the proximity between lines can cause interference among adjacent signals. Therefore, the arrangement of signals along different lines can significantly influence the overall transmission performance. In this paper, the order of signals within the FFC is optimized to ensure optimal transmission performance, avoiding electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and signal integrity (SI) issues. The problem is tackled by implementing a multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach, whose aim is to minimize near-end and far-end crosstalk, namely NEXT and FEXT. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by considering a minimized interconnection system involving an FFC. The Pareto-optimal solutions are identified, and worst-case and best-case conditions are highlighted. The results show improvements in EMC and SI, underlining the relevance of the proposed optimization strategy. The proposed strategy provides a valuable tool for designing high-performance interconnections in electrical and electronic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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21 pages, 4810 KiB  
Article
Assessing Open Circuit Voltage Losses in PEMFCs: A New Methodological Approach
by Francesco Mazzeo, Luca Di Napoli and Massimiliana Carello
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112785 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are increasingly used in the automotive sector. A crucial point for estimating the performance of such systems is open-circuit voltage (OCV) losses, among which the most influential are mixed potential, hydrogen crossover, and internal short circuits. These losses [...] Read more.
Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are increasingly used in the automotive sector. A crucial point for estimating the performance of such systems is open-circuit voltage (OCV) losses, among which the most influential are mixed potential, hydrogen crossover, and internal short circuits. These losses are often overlooked in the modeling of such electrochemical cells, leading to an inaccurate estimation of the real voltage that is calculated starting from the Nernst Equation. An innovative method is presented to estimate the losses based on the division of the membrane into two domains: solid and aqueous. The influence of the macro-parameters (temperature, pressure, and RH) was analyzed for each phenomenon and was linked to the membrane water content. For low levels of PEM hydration, internal short circuits were of the same order of magnitude as hydrogen crossover. The OCV model accuracy was assessed on a commercial stack, used on a vehicle prototype competing in the Shell Eco-Marathon challenge. The data of interest were obtained through laboratory tests and subsequent disassembly of the stack. A PEM thickness of 127 μm was measured corresponding to Nafion 115. For further validation, the model results were compared with data in the literature. Full article
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17 pages, 8087 KiB  
Article
Study of Performance Changes in Centrifugal Compressors Working in Different Refrigerants
by Yintao Wang and Jin Yan
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112784 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Centrifugal compressors are commonly used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The current generation of refrigerants in HVAC systems have very low ozone depletion potential, but most of them are still considered as containing high global warming potential (GWP) chemicals. Facing [...] Read more.
Centrifugal compressors are commonly used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The current generation of refrigerants in HVAC systems have very low ozone depletion potential, but most of them are still considered as containing high global warming potential (GWP) chemicals. Facing the regulatory pressure to eliminate the high-level GWP refrigerants, some of the existing HVAC systems will need to switch to low-GWP refrigerants. In this paper, we studied the performance changes in a refrigerant centrifugal compressor when switching from R134a to R1234ze(E) and R1234yf through a method that combined numerical simulation and an 1D meanline code. By combining these two methods, a reliable compressor performance change prediction was generated using limited results from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show that the property differences in the working fluid can significantly change the refrigerant compressor performance, including the compressor efficiency, pressure ratio, power consumption, working range and cooling capacity. Full article
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17 pages, 2553 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Possibilities of Using Woody Biomass Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Corn Cultivation
by Elżbieta Rolka, Andrzej Cezary Żołnowski, Mirosław Wyszkowski and Anna Skorwider-Namiotko
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112783 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Combustion of woody biomass in professional bioheating plants to generate heat and reduce the dust emissions from this process results in the formation of a huge mass of woody biomass ash (WBA). Due to WBA’s rich chemical composition and the assumptions of the [...] Read more.
Combustion of woody biomass in professional bioheating plants to generate heat and reduce the dust emissions from this process results in the formation of a huge mass of woody biomass ash (WBA). Due to WBA’s rich chemical composition and the assumptions of the circular economy, this mineral material should be used for environmental purposes to recover valuable macro- and micronutrients. The basis of the research was a pot experiment designed to assess the effect of six doses of WBA (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 g pot−1) on the growth, development, yield, and chemical composition of corn. Each pot contained 9 kg of soil. Observations show that the use of increasing doses of WBA had a positive effect on the height of corn plants, increasing its yield by 7 to 10% but reducing the dry matter content by 0.47 to 1.37% and the leaf greenness index (SPAD). Moreover, WBA application (T1–T5 treatments) had a positive effect on the content of macroelements (N, K, Mg, Ca, and Na) in corn biomass. A significant increase in the content of K (54%), Mg (38%), Ca (43%), and Na (19%) was observed. However, at the same time, a significant increase in the content of heavy metals—Ni, Cd, and Pb—was observed. Different results were obtained for P, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Co, whose content in corn decreased after WBA application to soil. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using WBA in an environmentally friendly way. However, due to the great diversity of this material in terms of the content of undesirable heavy metals, it is necessary to optimize its dosage and monitor its chemical composition. Considering the growing number of bioheating plants in our country in recent years and the resulting increase in the amount of WBA produced, it is necessary to develop a rational and environmentally friendly method for managing them in the future. The results of our research may provide partial indications of such solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A4: Bio-Energy)
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22 pages, 5524 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Film Cooling Adiabatic Effectiveness and Net Heat Flux Reduction on a Flat Plate Using Scale-Adaptive Simulation and Stress-Blended Eddy Simulation Approaches
by Rosario Nastasi, Nicola Rosafio, Simone Salvadori and Daniela Anna Misul
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2782; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112782 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The use of film cooling is crucial to avoid high metal temperatures in gas turbine applications, thus ensuring a high lifetime for vanes and blades. The complex turbulent mixing process between the coolant and the main flow requires an accurate numerical prediction to [...] Read more.
The use of film cooling is crucial to avoid high metal temperatures in gas turbine applications, thus ensuring a high lifetime for vanes and blades. The complex turbulent mixing process between the coolant and the main flow requires an accurate numerical prediction to correctly estimate the impact of ejection conditions on the cooling performance. Recent developments in numerical models aim at using hybrid approaches that combine high precision with low computational cost. This paper is focused on the numerical simulation of a cylindrical film cooling hole that operates at a unitary blowing ratio, with a hot gas Mach number of Mam = 0.6, while the coolant is characterized by plenum conditions (Mac = 0). The adopted numerical approach is the Stress-Blended Eddy Simulation model (SBES), which is a blend between a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes approach and a modeled Large Eddy Simulation based on the local flow and mesh characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability of the hybrid model to capture the complex mixing between the coolant and the main flow. The cooling performance of the hole is quantified through the film cooling effectiveness, the Net Heat Flux Reduction (NHFR), and the discharge coefficient CD calculation. Numerical results are compared both with the experimental data obtained by the University of Karlsruhe during the EU-funded TATEF2 project and with a Scale Adaptive Simulation (SAS) run on the same computational grid. The use of λ2 profiles extracted from the flow field allows for isolating the main vortical structures such as horseshoe vortices, counter-rotating vortex pairs (e.g., kidney vortices), Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities, and hairpin vortices. Eventually, the contribution of the unsteady phenomena occurring at the hole exit section is quantified through Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition methods (SPOD). Full article
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24 pages, 2912 KiB  
Review
Review of Main Projects, Characteristics and Challenges in Flexibility Markets for Services Addressed to Electricity Distribution Network
by Giacomo Viganò, Giorgia Lattanzio and Marco Rossi
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112781 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The expansion of distributed renewable resources, together with increased demand from the electrification of transport and heating sectors, impacts distribution networks significantly. Additionally, the emergence of non-programmable and intermittent generators is set to diminish the dominance of traditional rotating and programmable generation, thereby [...] Read more.
The expansion of distributed renewable resources, together with increased demand from the electrification of transport and heating sectors, impacts distribution networks significantly. Additionally, the emergence of non-programmable and intermittent generators is set to diminish the dominance of traditional rotating and programmable generation, thereby affecting the overall stability of the system. Nevertheless, the flexibility offered by distributed resources has the potential to alleviate the necessity for network reinforcement and contribute to system stability at competitive costs. Local flexibility procurement should be rooted in local markets, serving as mechanisms to address distribution congestion and coordinate the provision of flexibility for transmission network services. The multitude of existing systems and the interdependence of flexibility services have given rise to diverse solutions, still undergoing experimentation in various countries. This paper aims to scrutinize key projects that have established local flexibility markets, delineating their fundamental characteristics, the most common solutions, identifying prevalent barriers and suggesting potential future improvements. The investigation focuses on the most uncertain aspects of local markets: possible TSO-DSO coordination schemes, the time horizon for the acquisition of services and the baseline definition methodologies. Full article
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31 pages, 12281 KiB  
Article
Voltage and Current Unbalance Reduction in Power Networks with Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicles
by Krzysztof Dobrzynski and Stanislaw Czapp
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112780 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The current development of prosumer microsources and the expected spread of electric vehicles may cause the appearance of significant current and voltage unbalance in low-voltage (LV) networks. This unbalance, which is an unfavorable phenomenon, may occur when using single-phase photovoltaic (PV) microsources and [...] Read more.
The current development of prosumer microsources and the expected spread of electric vehicles may cause the appearance of significant current and voltage unbalance in low-voltage (LV) networks. This unbalance, which is an unfavorable phenomenon, may occur when using single-phase photovoltaic (PV) microsources and single-phase home chargers for electric vehicles. This paper presents a proposal for the symmetrization of the LV network using devices for the reconfiguration of phases in the power supply. Both the different locations of these devices and the different objective functions for device implementation are analyzed. The research was carried out on an example LV network, taking into account several variants of the development of PV microsources and home chargers for electric vehicles. The analysis indicates that the appropriate location of phase reconfiguration devices and the use of an appropriate objective function leads to a significant reduction in unfavorable unbalancing in the LV network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section E: Electric Vehicles)
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20 pages, 8590 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Frequency Stability with a Generic Model for IBR Penetration and the Implementation of Grid-Forming Control Strategies
by Adji Prastiantono, Umar Fitra Ramadhan, Donghwi Kim, Don Hur and Minhan Yoon
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112779 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a significant uptick in the integration of Inverter-Based Resources (IBRs) into the power grid, driven by the global shift toward renewable energy sources. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) has developed standardized models for these inverters to [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a significant uptick in the integration of Inverter-Based Resources (IBRs) into the power grid, driven by the global shift toward renewable energy sources. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) has developed standardized models for these inverters to facilitate their representation in system studies, playing a crucial role in evaluating IBRs, especially those modeled as grid-following inverters (GFLs). However, with the increasing prevalence of IBRs, the adjustment of grid interaction between grid-forming inverters (GFMs) and GFLs should be considered in terms of frequency stability assessment. This study investigates the optimization of synchronous generators and IBR operations in more detail. The IBR operation is evaluated with considerations for ratio and penetration. The findings suggest that with over 50% IBR penetration, GFL capacity should be reduced, and GFM capacity should be over 35% of IBR to maintain grid frequency stability. Moreover, this study also explains advanced prediction of frequency nadir, particularly the optimal ratio of WECC generic and GFM through the least squares method. Furthermore, the small-signal dynamic characteristics of WECC are studied at various gain values to investigate frequency droop control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research and Practice of Smart Electric Power Systems)
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0 pages, 136 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Li et al. Hybridizing Chaotic and Quantum Mechanisms and Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm with Least Squares Support Vector Regression Model in Electric Load Forecasting. Energies 2018, 11, 2226
by Ming-Wei Li, Jing Geng, Wei-Chiang Hong and Yang Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112778 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Text Correction [...] Full article
15 pages, 1649 KiB  
Article
Visible Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis by Heteroleptic Ni(II) Complexes with Chelating Nitrogen Ligands: Probing Ligand Substituent Position and Photosensitizer Effects
by Maria Kourmousi, Fotios Kamatsos and Christiana A. Mitsopoulou
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112777 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
This study aims to advance the field of green chemistry and catalysis by exploring alternatives to conventional non-renewable energy sources. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen as a potential fuel, with a focus on the catalytic properties of Ni(II) complexes when coordinated with o-phenylenediamine [...] Read more.
This study aims to advance the field of green chemistry and catalysis by exploring alternatives to conventional non-renewable energy sources. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen as a potential fuel, with a focus on the catalytic properties of Ni(II) complexes when coordinated with o-phenylenediamine and diimine ligands. We report the synthesis and comprehensive characterization, with various physical and spectroscopic techniques, of three heteroleptic Ni(II) complexes: [Ni(1,10-phenanthroline)(o-phenylene diamine)] (1), [Ni(2,2-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine)(o-phenylene diamine)] (2), and [Ni(5,5-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine)(o-phenylene diamine)] (3). The catalytic activity of these complexes for hydrogen evolution was assessed through photochemical studies utilizing visible light irradiation. Two distinct photosensitizers, fluorescein and quantum dots, were examined under diverse conditions. Additionally, their electrocatalytic behavior was investigated to elucidate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) mechanism, revealing a combined proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET)/electron-coupled proton transfer (ECPT) mechanism attributed to the chemical nature of the diamine ligand. The influence of ligand substituent position, ligand chemical nature, and photosensitizer type on catalytic performance was systematically studied. Among the complexes investigated, complex 2 demonstrated superior catalytic performance, achieving a turnover number (TON) of 3357 in photochemical experiments using fluorescein as a photosensitizer. Conversely, complex 1 exhibited the highest TON of 30,066 for HER when quantum dots were employed as the photosensitizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A5: Hydrogen Energy)
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17 pages, 3055 KiB  
Article
Investigating Performance of Hybrid Photovoltaic–Thermal Collector for Electricity and Hot Water Production in Nigeria
by Kar R. Awai, Peter King, Kumar Patchigolla and Sagar M. Jain
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112776 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The research work explores the impact of temperature on Silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels, considering Nigeria as a case study. It is found that high solar radiation in Nigeria increases the surface temperature of PV panels above 25 °C of the optimal operating temperature. [...] Read more.
The research work explores the impact of temperature on Silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels, considering Nigeria as a case study. It is found that high solar radiation in Nigeria increases the surface temperature of PV panels above 25 °C of the optimal operating temperature. The redundant energy gain from solar irradiance creates heat at the rear of solar panels and reduces their efficiency. Cooling mechanisms are therefore needed to increase efficiency. In this study, we demonstrated a unique hybrid system design employing a heat exchanger at the back of the panel, with water circulated through the back of the PV panel to cool the system. The system was simulated using TRNSYS at three locations in Nigeria—Maiduguri, Makurdi, and Port Harcourt. The results of the peak annual electrical power output in Maiduguri give a power yield of 1907 kWh/kWp, which is the highest, due to a high solar radiation average of 727 W/m2 across the year. For Makurdi, the peak annual electrical power output is 1542 kWh/kWp, while for Port Harcourt the peak power output is 1355 kWh/kWp. It was observed that the surface temperature of Polycrystalline Si-PV was decreased from 49.25 °C to 38.38 °C. The electrical power was increased from 1526.83 W to 1566.82 W in a day, and efficiency increased from 13.99% to 15.01%. Full article
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26 pages, 7298 KiB  
Article
Energy Storage Improves Power Plant Flexibility and Economic Performance
by Nenad Sarunac, Javad Khalesi, Mahfuja A. Khuda, Rick Mancini, Pramod Kulkarni and Joel Berger
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112775 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Most existing coal-fired power plants were designed for sustained operation at full load to maximize efficiency, reliability, and revenue, as well as to operate air pollution control devices at design conditions. Depending on plant type and design, these plants can adjust output within [...] Read more.
Most existing coal-fired power plants were designed for sustained operation at full load to maximize efficiency, reliability, and revenue, as well as to operate air pollution control devices at design conditions. Depending on plant type and design, these plants can adjust output within a fixed range in response to plant operating or market conditions. The need for flexibility driven by increased penetration of variable and non-dispatchable power generation, such as wind and solar, is shifting the traditional mission profile of thermoelectric power plants in three ways: more frequent shutdowns when market or grid conditions warrant, more aggressive load ramp rates (rate of output change), and a lower minimum sustainable load, which provides a wider operating range and helps avoid costly plant shutdowns. Recent studies have shown that the flexibility of a coal-fired power plant can be improved by energy storage. The objective of this work was to analyze a set of energy storage options and determine their impact on the flexibility and economics of a representative coal-fired power plant. The effect of three energy storage systems integrated with a coal power plant on plant flexibility and economics was investigated. The results obtained in this project show that energy storage systems integrated with a thermal power plant improve plant flexibility and participation in the energy and ancillary services markets, which improves plant financial performance. The study was funded by the U.S. Department Office of Fossil Energy FE-1 under award number DE-FE0031903. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D: Energy Storage and Application)
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21 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Research on a Three-Stage Dynamic Reactive Power Optimization Decoupling Strategy for Active Distribution Networks with Carbon Emissions
by Yuezhong Wu, Yujie Xiong, Xiaowei Peng, Cheng Cai and Xiangming Zheng
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112774 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The reactive power optimization of an active distribution network can effectively deal with the problem of voltage overflows at some nodes caused by the integration of a high proportion of distributed sources into the distribution network. Aiming to address the limitations in previous [...] Read more.
The reactive power optimization of an active distribution network can effectively deal with the problem of voltage overflows at some nodes caused by the integration of a high proportion of distributed sources into the distribution network. Aiming to address the limitations in previous studies of dynamic reactive power optimization using the cluster partitioning method, a three-stage dynamic reactive power optimization decoupling strategy for active distribution networks considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. First, a carbon emission index is proposed based on the carbon emission intensity, and a dynamic reactive power optimization mathematical model of an active distribution network is established with the minimum active power network loss, voltage deviation, and carbon emissions as the satisfaction objective functions. Second, in order to satisfy the requirement for the all-day motion times of discrete devices, a three-stage dynamic reactive power optimization decoupling strategy based on the partitioning around a medoids clustering algorithm is proposed. Finally, taking the improved IEEE33 and PG&E69-node distribution network systems as examples, the proposed linear decreasing mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to solve the mathematical model. The results show that all the indicators of the proposed strategy and algorithm throughout the day are lower than those of other methods, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed strategy and algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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18 pages, 2763 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Power Load Forecasting Using a VMD-Crossformer Model
by Siting Li and Huafeng Cai
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112773 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 265
Abstract
There are several complex and unpredictable aspects that affect the power grid. To make short-term power load forecasting more accurate, a short-term power load forecasting model that utilizes the VMD-Crossformer is suggested in this paper. First, the ideal number of decomposition layers was [...] Read more.
There are several complex and unpredictable aspects that affect the power grid. To make short-term power load forecasting more accurate, a short-term power load forecasting model that utilizes the VMD-Crossformer is suggested in this paper. First, the ideal number of decomposition layers was ascertained using a variational mode decomposition (VMD) parameter optimum approach based on the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). Second, the original data was decomposed into multiple modal components using VMD, and then the original data were reconstructed with the modal components. Finally, the reconstructed data were input into the Crossformer network, which utilizes the cross-dimensional dependence of multivariate time series (MTS) prediction; that is, the dimension-segment-wise (DSW) embedding and the two-stage attention (TSA) layer were designed to establish a hierarchical encoder–decoder (HED), and the final prediction was performed using information from different scales. The experimental results show that the method could accurately predict the electricity load with high accuracy and reliability. The MAE, MAPE, and RMSE were 61.532 MW, 1.841%, and 84.486 MW, respectively, for dataset I. The MAE, MAPE, and RMSE were 68.906 MW, 0.847%, and 89.209 MW, respectively, for dataset II. Compared with other models, the model in this paper predicted better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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25 pages, 8124 KiB  
Article
Study of Condensation during Direct Contact between Steam and Water in Pressure-Relief Tank
by Shasha Yin, Yingjie Wang, Yuan Yuan and Bei Li
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112772 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Direct contact condensation (DCC) is a phenomenon observed when steam interacts with subcooled water, exhibiting higher heat and mass transfer rates compared to wall condensation. It has garnered significant interest across industries such as nuclear, chemical, and power due to its advantageous characteristics. [...] Read more.
Direct contact condensation (DCC) is a phenomenon observed when steam interacts with subcooled water, exhibiting higher heat and mass transfer rates compared to wall condensation. It has garnered significant interest across industries such as nuclear, chemical, and power due to its advantageous characteristics. In the context of pressure-relief tanks, understanding and optimizing the DCC process are critical for safety and efficiency. The efficiency of pressure-relief tanks depends on the amount of steam condensed per unit of time, which directly affects their operational parameters and design. This study focuses on investigating the direct gas–liquid contact condensation process in pressure-relief tanks using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through experimental validation and a sensitivity analysis, the study provides insights into the influence of inlet steam parameters and basin temperature on the steam plume characteristics. Furthermore, steady-state and transient calculation models are developed to simulate the behaviour of the pressure-relief tank, providing valuable data for safety analysis and design optimization. There is a relatively high-pressure area in the upper part of the bubble hole of the pressure-relief tube, and the value increases as it is closer to the holes. The steam velocity in the bubbling hole near the 90° elbow position is higher. This study contributes to the understanding of steam condensation dynamics in pressure-relief tanks. When the steam emission and pressure are fixed, the equilibrium temperature increases linearly as the initial temperature increases (where a = 1, b = 20 in y = a x+ b correlation), the equilibrium pressure increases nearly exponentially, and the equilibrium gas volume decreases. When the steam emission and initial temperature are fixed, the equilibrium temperature does not change as the steam discharge pressure increases. The correlations between the predicted equilibrium parameters and the inlet steam parameters and tank temperature provide valuable insights for optimizing a pressure-relief tank design and improving the operational safety in diverse industrial contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Design and Analysis of Advanced Nuclear Reactors)
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20 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Production from Different Biomass Sources in Italy
by Amalia Zucaro, Giuliana Ansanelli, Antonietta Cerbone, Antonio Picarelli, Caterina Rinaldi, Tiziana Beltrani, Silvia Sbaffoni and Gabriella Fiorentino
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112771 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The European Union is targeting climate neutrality by 2050, with a focus on enhancing energy efficiency, expanding renewable energy sources, and reducing emissions. Within Italy’s electricity mix, bioenergy sources, namely biogas, solid biomass, and bioliquids, play a crucial territorial role. A comparative analysis [...] Read more.
The European Union is targeting climate neutrality by 2050, with a focus on enhancing energy efficiency, expanding renewable energy sources, and reducing emissions. Within Italy’s electricity mix, bioenergy sources, namely biogas, solid biomass, and bioliquids, play a crucial territorial role. A comparative analysis was conducted through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), utilizing national data from the ARCADIA project, to assess the environmental sustainability of the investigated bioenergy chains and identify the most convenient ones. The study revealed that, among the bioenergy sources, solid biomass emerges as the most environmentally friendly option since it does not rely on dedicated crops. Conversely, biogas shows the highest environmental impact, demonstrating less favorable performance across nine out of the sixteen evaluated impact categories. The LCA underscores that the cultivation of dedicated energy crops significantly contributes to environmental burdens associated with electricity generation, affecting both biogas and bioliquids performance. The cultivation process needs water and chemical fertilizers, leading to adverse environmental effects. These findings highlight the importance of prioritizing residual biomass for energy generation over dedicated crops. Utilizing forestry and agro-industrial residues, municipal solid waste, and used cooking oils presents numerous advantages, including environmental preservation, resource conservation and recovery, as well as waste reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Renewable Power Generation and Microgrids)
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26 pages, 9291 KiB  
Article
Economic Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy System Considering Wind–Solar Uncertainty and Power to Gas and Carbon Capture and Storage
by Yunlong Zhang, Panhong Zhang, Sheng Du and Hanlin Dong
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112770 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
With the shortage of fossil energy and the increasingly serious environmental problems, renewable energy based on wind and solar power generation has been gradually developed. For the problem of wind power uncertainty and the low-carbon economic optimization problem of an integrated energy system [...] Read more.
With the shortage of fossil energy and the increasingly serious environmental problems, renewable energy based on wind and solar power generation has been gradually developed. For the problem of wind power uncertainty and the low-carbon economic optimization problem of an integrated energy system with power to gas (P2G) and carbon capture and storage (CCS), this paper proposes an economic optimization scheduling strategy of an integrated energy system considering wind power uncertainty and P2G-CCS technology. Firstly, the mathematical model of the park integrated energy system with P2G-CCS technology is established. Secondly, to address the wind power uncertainty problem, Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is used to generate a large number of wind power scenarios, and the fast antecedent elimination technique is used to reduce the scenarios. Then, to establish a mixed integer linear programming model, the branch and bound algorithm is employed to develop an economic optimal scheduling model with the lowest operating cost of the system as the optimization objective, taking into account the ladder-type carbon trading mechanism, and the sensitivity of the scale parameters of P2G-CCS construction is analyzed. Finally, the scheduling scheme is introduced into a typical industrial park model for simulation. The simulation result shows that the consideration of the wind uncertainty problem can further reduce the system’s operating cost, and the introduction of P2G-CCS can effectively help the park’s integrated energy system to reduce carbon emissions and solve the problem of wind and solar power consumption. Moreover, it can more effectively reduce the system’s operating costs and improve the economic benefits of the park. Full article
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36 pages, 4468 KiB  
Article
A New Tailored Approach to Calculate the Optimal Number of Outdoor Air Changes in School Building HVAC Systems in the Post-COVID-19 Era
by Diana D’Agostino, Martina Di Mascolo, Federico Minelli and Francesco Minichiello
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112769 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Air conditioning systems can play a positive or negative role in the spread of COVID-19 infection. The importance of sufficient outdoor air changes in buildings was highlighted by the World Health Organization, therefore these should be guaranteed by mechanical ventilation systems or adequate [...] Read more.
Air conditioning systems can play a positive or negative role in the spread of COVID-19 infection. The importance of sufficient outdoor air changes in buildings was highlighted by the World Health Organization, therefore these should be guaranteed by mechanical ventilation systems or adequate air conditioning systems. The proposed case study concerns the optimal number of outdoor air changes to limit COVID-19 contagion for a school building in Central Italy. The Wells–Riley model is used to assess the risk of airborne infection, while energy consumption is calculated by a dynamic energy simulation software. The scope of the paper offers an innovative method to define the optimal ventilation strategy for the building’s HVAC system design to reduce the risk of infection with limited increases in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Results show that the desirable approach is the one in which the same low value of contagion risk is set in all rooms. This new approach results in significant energy savings, compared to the most common ones (setting the same high outdoor air rates for all rooms) to counteract the risk of infection. Finally, the zero-emission building target is verified by introducing a suitable photovoltaic system to offset pollutant emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
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17 pages, 5443 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Seagull Airfoil on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Small Wind Turbine
by Dean Sesalim and Jamal Naser
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112768 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Birds’ flight characteristics such as gliding and dynamic soaring have inspired various optimizations and designs of wind turbines. The implementation of biological wing geometries such as the airfoil profile of seabirds has improved wind turbine performance. However, the field can still benefit from [...] Read more.
Birds’ flight characteristics such as gliding and dynamic soaring have inspired various optimizations and designs of wind turbines. The implementation of biological wing geometries such as the airfoil profile of seabirds has improved wind turbine performance. However, the field can still benefit from further investigation into the aerodynamic characteristics of an inspired design. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of a seagull airfoil design on the aerodynamic performance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI wind turbine. By replacing its S809 airfoil with the laser-scanned profile of the seagull airfoil, the aerodynamic behavior at key locations of the NREL Phase VI wind turbine blade was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional environment using the Ansys Fluent 2022 R1 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The results were validated against the experimental data, and analysis of the torque outputs, pressure distributions, and velocity profiles that were generated by both the baseline and modified models demonstrated the ability of the seagull airfoil profile to modify regions of minimum and maximum local velocities to achieve highly favorable pressure differentials, significantly increasing the torque output of the NREL Phase VI wind turbine by 350, 539, 823, and 577 Nm at 10, 15, 20, and 25 m/s inlet velocities, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine and Wind Farm Flows)
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21 pages, 12732 KiB  
Article
Auxiliary Heat System Design and Off-Design Performance Optimization of OTEC Radial Inflow Turbine
by Yiming Wang, Yanjun Liu and Qiang Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112767 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
In this paper, solar energy is used as the auxiliary heat source of the ocean thermal energy radial inflow turbine, and the thermodynamic model of the circulation system is established. In addition, the ejector is introduced into the ocean thermal power generation system, [...] Read more.
In this paper, solar energy is used as the auxiliary heat source of the ocean thermal energy radial inflow turbine, and the thermodynamic model of the circulation system is established. In addition, the ejector is introduced into the ocean thermal power generation system, and the process simulation is carried out using Aspen Plus V12. To address performance attenuation of the radial turbine under varying working conditions, shape optimization of a 30 kW OTEC radial turbine was conducted. Finally, the off-design performance variation in the radial inflow turbine is analyzed in the presence of a solar auxiliary heat source. The results show that the use of an auxiliary heat source can effectively improve the cycle efficiency of the system and is also conducive to the stable operation of the radial turbine. Under the condition of auxiliary heat source, the system cycle efficiency is increased by 2.269%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J: Thermal Management)
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