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Energies, Volume 15, Issue 3 (February-1 2022) – 579 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Achieving high capacities and milder conditions for hydrogen storage requires the design of improved and innovative materials and systems. The novel hybrid storage method provides a smart trade-off solution between high-pressure storage technology and compact solid-state hydrogen storage in hydride compounds for clean mobility. View this paper
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Article
Experimental Analysis of the R744/R404A Cascade Refrigeration System with Internal Heat Exchanger. Part 2: Exergy Characteristics
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031251 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This paper examines the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction rate of the R744/R404A cascade refrigeration system (CRS) using an internal heat exchanger in supermarkets according to various conditions affecting the system. A refrigerant of a low-temperature cycle uses R744 and a refrigerant of [...] Read more.
This paper examines the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction rate of the R744/R404A cascade refrigeration system (CRS) using an internal heat exchanger in supermarkets according to various conditions affecting the system. A refrigerant of a low-temperature cycle uses R744 and a refrigerant of a high-temperature cycle in the CRS uses R404A. Experiments were conducted by changing various conditions on the high- and low-temperature side, and exergy analysis was performed accordingly. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) the lower the total exergy destruction rate of the CRS, the higher the exergy efficiency of the system, and accordingly the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system is also improved. (2) In the CRS, since the optimum cascade evaporation temperature exists (about −16 °C), it can be said that the limit point, that is, the cascade evaporation temperature with the maximum COP of the system, is the optimum point at about −16 °C. Therefore, at this optimum point, the exergy destruction rate of the cascade heat exchanger becomes the minimum. In other words, it should be noted that when the cascade evaporation temperature is the optimum point, the exergy destruction rate of the R744 compressor and the cascade heat exchanger is minimal. The purpose of this study is to provide basic design data by analyzing the exergy characteristics according to various conditions on the high- and low-temperature side for optimal design of a CRS to which R744 is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exergy Analysis and Its Applications)
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Article
How to Reduce the Design of Disc-Shaped Heat Exchangers to a Zero-Degrees-of-Freedom Task
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031250 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The continuous quest for improving the performance of heat exchangers, together with ever more stringent volume and weight constraints, especially in enclosed applications like internal combustion engines and electronic devices, has stimulated the search for compact, high-performance units. One of the shapes that [...] Read more.
The continuous quest for improving the performance of heat exchangers, together with ever more stringent volume and weight constraints, especially in enclosed applications like internal combustion engines and electronic devices, has stimulated the search for compact, high-performance units. One of the shapes that has emerged from a vast body of research is the disc-shaped heat exchanger, in which the fluid to be heated/cooled flows through radial—often bifurcated—channels carved inside a metallic disc. The disc in turn exchanges thermal energy with the hot/cold source (the environment or another body). Several studies have been devoted to the identification of an “optimal shape” of the channels: most of them are based on the extremization of some global property of the device, like its monetary or resource cost, its efficiency, the outlet temperature of one of the fluids, the total irreversibility of the process, etc. The present paper demonstrates that-for all engineering purposes there is only one correct design procedure for such a heat exchanger, and that if a few basic rules of engineering common sense are adopted, this procedure depends solely on the technical specifications (type of operation, thermal load, materials, surface quality): the design in fact reduces to a zero-degree of freedom problem. The procedure is described in detail, and it is shown that a proper application of the constraints completely identifies the shape, size and similarity indices of both the disc and the internal channels. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that-in this, as in many similar cases-a straightforward application of prime principles and of diligent engineering rules, may generate “optimal” designs: these principles guarantee a sort of “embedded optimality”. Full article
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Article
Neutronic Analysis of Start-Up Tests at China Experimental Fast Reactor
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031249 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is a small, sodium-cooled fast reactor with 20 MW(e) of power. Start-up tests of the CEFR were performed from 2010 to 2011. The China Institute of Atomic Energy made some of the neutronics start-up-test data available to [...] Read more.
The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is a small, sodium-cooled fast reactor with 20 MW(e) of power. Start-up tests of the CEFR were performed from 2010 to 2011. The China Institute of Atomic Energy made some of the neutronics start-up-test data available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of an international neutronics benchmarking exercise by distributing the experimental data to interested organizations from the member states of the IAEA. This benchmarking aims to validate and verify the physical models and neutronics simulation codes with the help of the recorded experimental data. The six start-up tests include evaluating criticality, control-rod worth, reactivity effects, and neutron spectral characteristics. As part of this coordinated research, the IAEA performed neutronics calculations using the Monte Carlo codes Serpent 2 and OpenMC, which can minimize modeling assumptions and produce reference solutions for code verification. Both codes model a three-dimensional heterogeneous core with an ENDF/B-VII.1 cross-section library. This study presents the calculation results with a well-estimated criticality and a reasonably good estimation of reactivities. The description and analysis of the core modeling assumptions, challenges in modeling a dense SFR core, results of the first phase of this project, and comparative analysis with measurements are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nuclear Energy Systems)
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Article
Evaluation of the Melting Gasification Process for Recovery of Energy and Resources from Automobile Shredder Residues
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031248 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the applicability of an automobile shredder residue (ASR) as an energy and recycling resource. First, ASR gasification was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor (throughput = 1 kg/h) at different temperatures (800, 1000, and 1200 °C) and an equivalence [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the applicability of an automobile shredder residue (ASR) as an energy and recycling resource. First, ASR gasification was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor (throughput = 1 kg/h) at different temperatures (800, 1000, and 1200 °C) and an equivalence ratio of 0.1–0.5. Clay bricks were prepared with the solid residue obtained from the gasification process to address the issue of solid-residue production in pyrolysis. The syngas (H2 + CO) from ASR gasification had maximum and minimum yields of approximately 86 and 40 vol.%, respectively. Furthermore, the yield of syngas increased with the temperature and equivalence ratio (ER); therefore, the optimum conditions for the ASR gasification were determined to be a temperature of 1200 °C and an ER of 0.5. In addition, solid residues, such as char and ash, began to melt due to thermal heating in the range of 1300–1400 °C and were converted into melting slag, which was subsequently used to manufacture clay bricks. The absorption ratios and compressive strengths of the clay bricks were compared to those set by Korean Industrial Standards to evaluate the quality of the clay bricks. As a result, the manufactured clay bricks were estimated to have a compressive strength of over 22.54 N/mm2 and an absorption ratio of less than 10%. Additionally, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the melting–gasification process were estimated and compared with those from ASR incineration, calculated using the greenhouse gas equations provided by the Korean Ministry of Environment. As a result, it was revealed that the GHG emissions from the combined melting–gasification process (gasification, melting system, and clay-brick manufacturing) were approximately ten times higher than those from the ASR-incineration process. Thus, in terms of operation cost on the carbon capture process for GHG reduction, the combined melting–gasification process would be a more efficient process than that of incineration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Solid Waste Management)
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Article
Effect of Ground Electrodes on the Susceptibility to Damage of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) under Impulse Conditions
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031247 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
One of the requirements for the safe operation of customer premises equipment (CPE) is an adequate grounding system as a means to divert high fault currents to the ground. In this work we report on the results of an experimental study of the [...] Read more.
One of the requirements for the safe operation of customer premises equipment (CPE) is an adequate grounding system as a means to divert high fault currents to the ground. In this work we report on the results of an experimental study of the impulse characteristics at a charging voltage of 30 kV on the surge protective device connected to 16 earth electrodes and installed at two sites, giving various ground resistance at low voltages, RDC values. All of these grounding electrodes were installed and tested under the same charging voltage to determine the effectiveness of ground electrodes toward the damage of a modem at the premises. We observed that modems did not experience damage when the ground electrode of the distribution pole (DP) had an RDC below 30 Ω in general and below 46 Ω when ground electrodes installed in low resistivity soil were used. The impulse polarity did not affect the damage susceptibility of the CPE. Full article
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Article
Energy Recovery from Waste—Closing the Municipal Loop
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031246 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Municipal waste management in the EU has been challenged to a thorough transformation towards a Circular Economy. It is addressed by a number of quantitative policy targets, including a restriction on municipal waste landfilling to 10% in 2035. This paper presents the data [...] Read more.
Municipal waste management in the EU has been challenged to a thorough transformation towards a Circular Economy. It is addressed by a number of quantitative policy targets, including a restriction on municipal waste landfilling to 10% in 2035. This paper presents the data on municipal waste composition in a large Polish city, based on thorough waste sorting analyses. On average, 374 kg of municipal waste is collected per capita in Wroclaw, of which 41% are separately collected fractions. The approach to implement the EU recycling targets until 2035 is presented, including an increase of sorting and recycling efficiency and a significant share of recyclables being retrieved from the residual waste fraction. Notwithstanding the recycling targets, an important stream of residual waste remains, amounting to 200 k ton in 2020 and approx. 130 k ton in 2035, which is available for energy recovery. The respective LHV values range from 8.5 to 7.6 MJ/kg. The results indicate that the residual waste stream, after satisfying the recycling targets, is still suitable for energy recovery through the whole period until 2035. Moreover, it is a necessary step towards closing the materials cycling in the municipal sector and the only option so far to reduce landfilling sufficiently. Full article
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Review
Heat Transfer Characteristics of Conventional Fluids and Nanofluids in Micro-Channels with Vortex Generators: A Review
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031245 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
An effective way to enhance the heat transfer in mini and micro electronic devices is to use different shapes of micro-channels containing vortex generators (VGs). This attracts researchers due to the reduced volume of the electronic micro-chips and increase in the heat generated [...] Read more.
An effective way to enhance the heat transfer in mini and micro electronic devices is to use different shapes of micro-channels containing vortex generators (VGs). This attracts researchers due to the reduced volume of the electronic micro-chips and increase in the heat generated from the devices. Another way to enhance the heat transfer is using nanofluids, which are considered to have great potential for heat transfer enhancement and are highly suited to application in practical heat transfer processes. Recently, several important studies have been carried out to understand and explain the causes of the enhancement or control of heat transfer using nanofluids. The main aim upon which the present work is based is to give a comprehensive review on the research progress on the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of nanofluids for both single- and two- phase models in different types of micro-channels. Both experimental and numerical studies have been reviewed for traditional and nanofluids in different types and shapes of micro-channels with vortex generators. It was found that the optimization of heat transfer enhancement should consider the pumping power reduction when evaluating the improvement of heat transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Fast Real-Time RDFT- and GDFT-Based Direct Fault Diagnosis of Induction Motor Drive
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031244 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
This paper presents the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of a direct fault harmonic identification approach in a converter-fed electric drive for automated diagnosis purposes. On the basis of the analytical model of the proposed real-time direct fault diagnosis, the fault-related harmonic component [...] Read more.
This paper presents the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of a direct fault harmonic identification approach in a converter-fed electric drive for automated diagnosis purposes. On the basis of the analytical model of the proposed real-time direct fault diagnosis, the fault-related harmonic component is calculated using recursive DFT (RDFT) and Goertzel DFT (GDFT), applied instead of the full spectrum calculations required in the most popular FFT algorithm. The simulation model of an inverter sensorlessly controlled induction motor drive is linked with the induction machine rotor fault model for testing the sensitivity of the GDFT- and RDFT-based fault diagnosis to state variable estimation errors. According to the presented simulation results, the accuracy of the direct identification of a fault-related harmonic is sensitive to the quality of fault harmonic frequency estimation. The sensitivity analysis with respect to RDFT and GDFT algorithms is included. Based on the experimental setup with a sensorlessly controlled induction motor drive with the investigated rotor fault, fault diagnosis algorithms were implemented in the microprocessor by integration with the control system in one microcontroller and experimentally verified. The RDFT and GDFT approach has shown accurate and fast direct automated fault identification at a significantly decreased number of arithmetical operations in the microcontroller, which is convenient for the frequency-domain fault diagnosis in electric drives and supports fault-tolerant control system implementation. Full article
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Article
Multimodal Carbonates: Distribution of Oil Saturation in the Microporous Regions of Arab Formations
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031243 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
Perhaps as much as 50% of the oil-in-place in carbonate formations around the world is locked away in the easy to bypass microporosity. If some of this oil is unlocked by the improved recovery processes focused on tight carbonate formations, the world may [...] Read more.
Perhaps as much as 50% of the oil-in-place in carbonate formations around the world is locked away in the easy to bypass microporosity. If some of this oil is unlocked by the improved recovery processes focused on tight carbonate formations, the world may gain a major source of lower-rate power over several decades. Here, we overview the Arab D formation in the largest oil field on earth, the Ghawar. We investigate the occurrence of microporosity of different origins and sizes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pore casting techniques. Then, we present a robust calculation of the probability of invasion and oil saturation distribution in the nested micropores using mercury injection capillary pressure data available in the literature. We show that large portions of the micropores in Arab D formation would have been bypassed during primary drainage unless the invading crude oil ganglia were sufficiently long. We also show that, under prevailing conditions of primary drainage of the strongly water-wet Arab formations in the Ghawar, the microporosity there was invaded and the porosity-weighted initial oil saturations of 60–85% are expected. Considering the asphaltenic nature of crude oil in the Ghawar, we expect the invaded portions of the pores to turn mixed-wet, thus becoming inaccessible to waterflooding until further measures are taken to modify the system’s surface chemistry and/or create substantial local pore pressure gradients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies)
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Article
Impact of Signalized Intersections on CO2 and NOx Emissions of Heavy Duty Vehicles
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031242 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Pollutant emissions have been a topic of interest in the last decades. Not only environmentalists but also governments are taking rapid action to reduce emissions. As one of the main contributors, the transport sector is being subjected to strict scrutiny to ensure it [...] Read more.
Pollutant emissions have been a topic of interest in the last decades. Not only environmentalists but also governments are taking rapid action to reduce emissions. As one of the main contributors, the transport sector is being subjected to strict scrutiny to ensure it complies with the short and long-term regulations. The measures imposed by governments clearly involve all the stakeholders in the logistics sector, from road authorities and logistic operators to truck manufacturers. The improvement of traffic conditions is one of the perspectives in which the reduction of emissions is being addressed. Optimization of traffic flow, avoidance of unnecessary stops, control of the cruise speed, and coordination of trips in an energy-efficient way are necessary steps to remain compliant with the upcoming regulations. In this study, we have estimated the CO2 and NOx emissions in heavy-duty vehicles while traversing signalized intersections, and we examined the differences between various behavioral scenarios. We found a consistent trend indicating that avoiding a stop can potentially reduce CO2 and NOx emissions by up to 0.32kg and 1.8g, respectively. Furthermore, an upper bound for the yearly CO2 savings is provided for the case of The Netherlands. A reduction of 3.2% of the total CO2 emitted by heavy-duty vehicles is estimated. These results put traffic control in the main scene as a yet unexplored dimension to control pollutant emissions, enabling authorities to more accurately estimate cost–benefit plans for traffic control system investments. Full article
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Review
A Review of DC-AC Converters for Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031241 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
This paper comprehensively reviews the current status of multidisciplinary technologies in electric vehicles. Because the electric vehicle market will expand dramatically in the coming few years, research accomplishments in power electronics technology for electric vehicles will be highly attractive. Challenges in power electronics [...] Read more.
This paper comprehensively reviews the current status of multidisciplinary technologies in electric vehicles. Because the electric vehicle market will expand dramatically in the coming few years, research accomplishments in power electronics technology for electric vehicles will be highly attractive. Challenges in power electronics technology for driving electric vehicles, charging batteries, and circuit topologies are being explored. This paper aims primarily to address the practical issues of the future electric vehicles and help researchers obtain an overview of the latest techniques in electric vehicles, focusing on power electronics-based solutions for both current and future electric vehicle technologies. In this work, different medium-and high-voltage DC-AC inverter topologies are investigated and compared in terms of power losses and component requirements. Recent research on electric vehicle power converters is also discussed, with highlighting on soft-switching and multilevel inverters for electric vehicle motor drives. In this paper, a methodical overview and general classification of DC-AC power converters are presented. In specific topologies, drawbacks such as voltage stresses on active switches and control complications may occur, which can make them difficult for immediate commercialization. However, various modified circuit topologies have been recommended to overcome these drawbacks and enhance the system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning and Operation of Microgrids)
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Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of Parameters of Channels with Staggered Frustum of a Cone Based on Response Surface Methodology
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031240 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm were used to obtain optimum parameters of the channels with frustum of a cone with better flow and heat transfer performance. Central composite face-centered design (CCF) was applied [...] Read more.
In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm were used to obtain optimum parameters of the channels with frustum of a cone with better flow and heat transfer performance. Central composite face-centered design (CCF) was applied to the experimental design of the channel parameters, and on this basis, the response surface models were constructed. The sensitivity of the channel parameters was analyzed by Sobol’s method. The multi-objective optimization of the channel parameters was carried out with the goal of achieving maximum Nusselt number ratio (Nu/Nu0) and minimum friction coefficient ratio (f/f0). The results show that the root mean square errors (RSME) of the fitted response surface models are less than 0.25 and the determination coefficients (R2) are greater than 0.93; the models have high accuracy. Sobol’s method can quantitatively analyze the influence of the channel parameters on flow and heat transfer performance of the channels. When the response is Nu/Nu0, from high to low, the total sensitivity indexes of the channel parameters are frustum of a cone angle (α), Reynolds number (Re), spanwise spacing ratio (Z2/D), and streamwise spacing ratio (Z1/D). When the response is f/f0, the total sensitivity indexes of the channel parameters from high to low are Re, Z1/D, α and Z2/D. Four optimization channels are selected from the Pareto solution set obtained by multi-objective optimization. Compared with the reference channel, the Nu/Nu0 of the optimized channels is increased by 21.36% on average, and the f/f0 is reduced by 9.16% on average. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Heat Recovery Systems)
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Article
Accelerating Energy-Economic Simulation Models via Machine Learning-Based Emulation and Time Series Aggregation
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031239 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Energy-economic simulation models with high levels of detail, high time resolutions, or large populations (e.g., distribution networks, households, electric vehicles, energy communities) are often limited due to their computational complexity. This paper introduces a novel methodology, combining cluster-based time series aggregation and sampling [...] Read more.
Energy-economic simulation models with high levels of detail, high time resolutions, or large populations (e.g., distribution networks, households, electric vehicles, energy communities) are often limited due to their computational complexity. This paper introduces a novel methodology, combining cluster-based time series aggregation and sampling methods, to efficiently emulate simulation models using machine learning and significantly reduce both simulation and training time. Machine learning-based emulation models require sufficient and high-quality data to generalize the dataset. Since simulations are computationally complex, their maximum number is limited. Sampling methods come into play when selecting the best parameters for a limited number of simulations ex ante. This paper introduces and compares multiple sampling methods on three energy-economic datasets and shows their advantage over a simple random sampling for small sample-sizes. The results show that a k-means cluster sampling approach (based on unsupervised learning) and adaptive sampling (based on supervised learning) achieve the best results especially for small sample sizes. While a k-means cluster sampling is simple to implement, it is challenging to increase the sample sizes if the emulation model does not achieve sufficient accuracy. The iterative adaptive sampling is more complex during implementation, but can be re-applied until a certain accuracy threshold is met. Emulation is then applied on a case study, emulating an energy-economic simulation framework for peer-to-peer pricing models in Germany. The evaluated pricing models are the “supply and demand ratio” (SDR) and “mid-market rate pricing” (MMR). A time series aggregation can reduce time series data of municipalities by 99.4% with less than 5% error for 98.2% (load) and 95.5% (generation) of all municipalities and hence decrease the simulation time needed to create sufficient training data. This paper combines time series aggregation and emulation in a novel approach and shows significant acceleration by up to 88.9% of the model’s initial runtime for the simulation of the entire population of around 12,000 municipalities. The time for re-calculating the population (e.g., for different scenarios or sensitivity analysis) can be increased by a factor of 1100 while still retaining high accuracy. The analysis of the simulation time shows that time series aggregation and emulation, considered individually, only bring minor improvements in the runtime but can, however, be combined effectively. This can significantly speed up both the simulation itself and the training of the emulation model and allows for flexible use, depending on the capabilities of the models and the practitioners. The results of the peer-to-peer pricing for approximately 12,000 German municipalities show great potential for energy communities. The mechanisms offer good incentives for the addition of necessary flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Smart Energy Systems)
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Article
Simulation Research on a Cogeneration System of Low-Concentration Photovoltaic/Thermal Coupled with Air-Source Heat Pump
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031238 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
In this paper, a low-concentration photovoltaic/thermal (LCPV/T) coupled with air-source heat pump (AHP) system is proposed which fully utilizes the heat generated by LCPV/T and improves the performance of the AHP. The system is built and investigated in the Transient System Simulation Program [...] Read more.
In this paper, a low-concentration photovoltaic/thermal (LCPV/T) coupled with air-source heat pump (AHP) system is proposed which fully utilizes the heat generated by LCPV/T and improves the performance of the AHP. The system is built and investigated in the Transient System Simulation Program (TRNSYS) and an experimental room model is established to verify the feasibility of the system. The performance of the system is researched from the perspective of energy and exergy, and the system performance with LCPV/T and without LCPV/T is compared. Finally, the influence of the variation of key parameters of the system is studied. The results indicated that on the coldest day, the electrical efficiency of LCPV/T reached 10% which was equal to the electrical exergy efficiency. The maximum thermal efficiency was 31.88% while thermal exergy efficiency was 2.7%. The maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of AHP was 3.3, and the thermal exergy efficiency was 47%. The indoor temperature was maintained at about 20 °C in the heating season. When LCPV/T was adopted, the COP and thermal exergy efficiency of the AHP was generally higher than those without LCPV/T. In conclusion, the utilization of LCPV/T has a positive impact on the performance of the AHP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Photovoltaic Energy Systems for a Sustainable Future Ⅱ)
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Article
Design of Distributed Bragg Reflectors for Green Light-Emitting Devices Based on Quantum Dots as Emission Layer
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031237 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots as an active emission can be considered as a promising next generation for application in displays and lighting. We report a theoretical investigation of green emission at 550 nm of microcavity inorganic–organic light-emitting devices based on Zn [...] Read more.
Light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots as an active emission can be considered as a promising next generation for application in displays and lighting. We report a theoretical investigation of green emission at 550 nm of microcavity inorganic–organic light-emitting devices based on Zn (Te, Se) alloy quantum dots as an active layer. Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) has been applied as a bottom mirror. The realization of high-quality DBR consisting of both high and low refractive index structures is investigated. The structures applied for high refractive index layers are (ZrO2, SiNx, ZnS), while those applied for low index layers are (Zr, SiO2, CaF2). DBR of ZnS/CaF2 consisting of three pairs with a high refractive index step of (Δn = 0.95) revealed a broad stop bandwidth (178 nm) and achieved a high reflectivity of 0.914. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applications of Nanomaterials in Energy Systems)
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Article
Power Load Forecasting Considering Climate Factors Based on IPSO-Elman Method in China
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031236 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
In order to implement the national need for the optimal allocation of power resources, power load forecasting, as an important research topic, has important theoretical and practical significance. The purpose of this study is to construct a prediction model considering climate factors based [...] Read more.
In order to implement the national need for the optimal allocation of power resources, power load forecasting, as an important research topic, has important theoretical and practical significance. The purpose of this study is to construct a prediction model considering climate factors based on a large amount of historical data, and to prove that the prediction accuracy is related to both climate factors and load regularity. The results of load forecasting are affected by many climate factors, so firstly the climate variables affecting load forecasting are screened. Secondly, a load prediction model based on the IPSO-Elman network learning algorithm is constructed by taking the difference between the predicted value of the neural network and the actual value as the fitness function of particle swarm optimization. In view of the great influence of weights and thresholds on the prediction accuracy of the Elman neural network, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is used to optimize parameters in order to improve the prediction accuracy of ELMAN neural network. Thirdly, prediction with and without climate factors is compared and analyzed, and the prediction accuracy of the model compared by using cosine distance and various error indicators. Finally, the stability discriminant index of historical load regularity is introduced to prove that the accuracy of the prediction model is related to the regularity of historical load in the forecast area. The prediction method proposed in this paper can provide reference for power system scheduling. Full article
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Review
Critical Review on Robust Speed Control Techniques for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) Speed Regulation
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031235 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a highly efficient energy saving machine. Due to its simple structural characteristics, good heat radiation capability, and high efficiency, PMSMs are gradually replacing AC induction motors in many industrial applications. The PMSM has a nonlinear system [...] Read more.
The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a highly efficient energy saving machine. Due to its simple structural characteristics, good heat radiation capability, and high efficiency, PMSMs are gradually replacing AC induction motors in many industrial applications. The PMSM has a nonlinear system and lies on parameters that differ over time with complex high-class dynamics. To achieve the excessive performance operation of a PMSM, it essentially needs a speed controller for providing accurate speed tracking, slight overshoot, and robust disturbance repulsion. Therefore, this article provides an overview of different robust control techniques for PMSMs and reviews the implementation of a speed controller. In view of the uncertainty factors, such as parameter perturbation and load disturbance, the H∞ robust control strategy is mainly reviewed based on the traditional control techniques, i.e., robust H∞ sliding mode controller (SMC), and H∞ robust current controller based on Hamilton–Jacobi Inequality (HJI) theory. Based on comparative analysis, this review simplifies the development trend of different control technologies used for a PMSM speed regulation system. Full article
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Article
State of Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles under Dynamic Load Conditions
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031234 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
Among numerous functions performed by the battery management system (BMS), online estimation of the state of health (SOH) is an essential and challenging task to be accomplished periodically. In electric vehicle (EV) applications, accurate SOH estimation minimizes failure risk and improves reliability by [...] Read more.
Among numerous functions performed by the battery management system (BMS), online estimation of the state of health (SOH) is an essential and challenging task to be accomplished periodically. In electric vehicle (EV) applications, accurate SOH estimation minimizes failure risk and improves reliability by predicting battery health conditions. The challenge of accurate estimation of SOH is based on the uncertain dynamic operating condition of the EVs and the complex nonlinear electrochemical characteristics exhibited by the lithium-ion battery. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier experimentally validated for the SOH estimation of lithium-ion batteries. The ANN-based classifier model is trained experimentally at room temperature under dynamic variable load conditions. Based on SOH characterization, the training is done using features such as the relative values of voltage, state of charge (SOC), state of energy (SOE) across a buffer, and the instantaneous states of SOC and SOE. At implementation, due to the slow dynamics of SOH, the algorithm is triggered on a large-scale periodicity to extract these features into buffers. The features are then applied as input to the trained model for SOH estimation. The classifier is validated experimentally under dynamic varying load, constant load, and step load conditions. The model accuracies for validation data are 96.2%, 96.6%, and 93.8% for the respective load conditions. It is further demonstrated that the model can be applied on multiple cell types of similar specifications with an accuracy of about 96.7%. The performance of the model analyzed with the confusion matrices is consistent with the requirements of the automotive industry. The classifier was tested on a Texas F28379D microcontroller unit (MCU) board. The result shows that an average real-time execution speed of 8.34 µs is possible with a negligible memory occupation. Full article
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Article
Porewater Geochemical Assessment of Seismic Indications for Gas Hydrate Presence and Absence: Mahia Slope, East of New Zealand’s North Island
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031233 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 308
Abstract
We compare sediment vertical methane flux off the Mahia Peninsula, on the Hikurangi Margin, east of New Zealand’s North Island, with a combination of geochemical, multichannel seismic and sub-bottom profiler data. Stable carbon isotope data provided an overview of methane contributions to shallow [...] Read more.
We compare sediment vertical methane flux off the Mahia Peninsula, on the Hikurangi Margin, east of New Zealand’s North Island, with a combination of geochemical, multichannel seismic and sub-bottom profiler data. Stable carbon isotope data provided an overview of methane contributions to shallow sediment carbon pools. Methane varied considerably in concentration and vertical flux across stations in close proximities. At two Mahia transects, methane profiles correlated well with integrated seismic and TOPAS data for predicting vertical methane migration rates from deep to shallow sediment. However, at our “control site”, where no seismic blanking or indications of vertical gas migration were observed, geochemical data were similar to the two Mahia transect lines. This apparent mismatch between seismic and geochemistry data suggests a potential to underestimate gas hydrate volumes based on standard seismic data interpretations. To accurately assess global gas hydrate deposits, multiple approaches for initial assessment, e.g., seismic data interpretation, heatflow profiling and controlled-source electromagnetics, should be compared to geochemical sediment and porewater profiles. A more thorough data matrix will provide better accuracy in gas hydrate volume for modeling climate change and potential available energy content. Full article
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Article
Evaluation and Dynamic Evolution of the Total Factor Environmental Efficiency in China’s Mining Industry
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031232 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
The mining industry plays an extremely important strategic role in China’s economic and social development. In the new era of pursuing circular/green/efficient development, the evaluation of the total factor environmental efficiency (TFEE) of China’s mining industry is essential for alleviating resource waste and [...] Read more.
The mining industry plays an extremely important strategic role in China’s economic and social development. In the new era of pursuing circular/green/efficient development, the evaluation of the total factor environmental efficiency (TFEE) of China’s mining industry is essential for alleviating resource waste and environmental pollution. The Epsilon-Based Measure (EBM) model effectively solves the shortcomings of radial and non-radial DEA models. In addition, the Malmquist–Luenberger (ML) index can measure the dynamic change of efficiency value. Combining the EBM model and the ML productivity index, this paper evaluates the TFEE from the static and dynamic perspective in China’s 31 provincial mining industries over the period 2007–2016. The Theil index is employed to reveal the root of the overall provincial TFEE gap (OGTFEE) in China’s mining industry. The results show that the average total factor static environmental efficiency (TFSEE) of China’s provincial mining industry exhibits a low score of 0.6589 and with significant spatio-temporal differences. The provincial TFEE gap within four major areas (WGTFEE), especially that in east and west areas, is the main cause of the OGTFEE in China’s mining industry. Technical change contributes more to the TFEE decline in China’s mining industry. There are differences in improving the TFEE among China’s 31 provincial mining industries, and corresponding countermeasures can be formulated accordingly. This study provides theoretical and practical basis for the clean and green development of China’s mining industry. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study of Different Quality Oil Shales Developed in the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation, Yuqia Area, Northern Qaidam Basin, China
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031231 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Oil shales are developed in the Shale Member of the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation in the Qaidam Basin, China. The oil shales can be classified into three quality groups (low-, medium-, and high-quality oil shales) through a comprehensive analysis protocol that includes Rock-Eval [...] Read more.
Oil shales are developed in the Shale Member of the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation in the Qaidam Basin, China. The oil shales can be classified into three quality groups (low-, medium-, and high-quality oil shales) through a comprehensive analysis protocol that includes Rock-Eval pyrolysis, total organic carbon (TOC) content, proximate analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), major and trace element analyses, and maceral analysis. The low-quality oil shales mainly contain type II1 kerogen, the medium-quality oil shales mainly contain type I-II1 kerogen, and the high-quality oil shales mainly contain type I kerogen. All are immature to early thermally mature. The oil yield of the oil shales is directly related to their quality and are positively correlated with TOC content and calorific value. All studied samples were deposited under anaerobic conditions but in different paleoenvironments. The low-quality oil shales were mainly deposited in fresh-water environments, whereas the high-quality oil shales were usually developed in highly saline and reducing environments. Salinity stratification and evidence of algal blooms that are conducive to organic matter enrichment were identified in both medium- and high-quality oil shales, the latter having the highest paleoproductivity and the best preservation conditions. In summary, shale quality is controlled by a combination of factors, including algal abundance, preservation conditions, the existence of algal blooms and salinity stratification, and paleoproductivity. This study reveals how these different factors affect the quality of oil shales, which might provide an in-depth explanation for the formation process of lacustrine oil shales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
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Article
Assessment of the Effectiveness of Photovoltaic Panels at Public Transport Stops: 3D Spatial Analysis as a Tool to Strengthen Decision Making
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031230 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The potential of solar energy encourages research into new applications of this technology. Access to renewable energy is an important element of modern urban policies aimed at sustainable development and the energy security of residents but also limits energy production from conventional sources [...] Read more.
The potential of solar energy encourages research into new applications of this technology. Access to renewable energy is an important element of modern urban policies aimed at sustainable development and the energy security of residents but also limits energy production from conventional sources due to the pollution associated with them. More and more often, projects of new urban infrastructure facilities include integrated photovoltaic panels. Assessing solar potential is an important step when planning the layout of solar panels, and the increasing number of high-rise buildings increases shaded areas, sometimes even for most of the day. Therefore, a detailed shading analysis can be important for city decision makers, investors and local communities. The results of the 3D spatial analysis presented in the article can be used to optimize the location and analyse the profitability of photovoltaic installations in a city. The aim of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of photovoltaic panels on the shelters of public transport bus/tram stops. The proposed methodology for calculating the solar potential and shading may be a valuable extension of existing solutions in the field of planning installation power and the location of individual panels. The research methodology can be used in the future to support decision making and spatial planning related to the placement of photovoltaic panels. It was tested for bus shelters located in the centre of Warsaw (Poland). The results can also be used to assess the impact of alternatives to newly designed high-rise buildings and to plan the provision of photovoltaic panels to other city infrastructure facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Decision Making: Problems, Methods, and Tools)
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Article
Drivers and Challenges of Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Development in Thailand
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031229 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Recent developments in disruptive technologies along with the cost reduction of photovoltaics have been transforming business models in the electricity sector worldwide. The rise of prosumers has led to a more decentralized and open local green energy market through the emergence of peer-to-peer [...] Read more.
Recent developments in disruptive technologies along with the cost reduction of photovoltaics have been transforming business models in the electricity sector worldwide. The rise of prosumers has led to a more decentralized and open local green energy market through the emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading, where consumers and prosumers can buy or sell electricity through an online trading platform. P2P energy trading has the potential to make green energy more accessible at the local level, provide a customer choice that aligns with community values, and promote the use of renewable energy (RE) for local consumption. Although P2P energy trading has already been adopted in some countries, its implementation remains challenging in other countries, including Thailand. In this work, we investigated the drivers and challenges of implementing P2P energy trading in Thailand based on the perspectives of P2P energy trading pilot project developers participating in the regulatory sandbox program. A strategic framework was used to identify the respondents’ standpoints on the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTLE) factors that can influence the implementation of P2P energy trading. This can help businesses, policymakers, and regulators better understand drivers and barriers of P2P energy trading, which is a potential local energy market. This paper also provides policy recommendations for regulatory changes for the future development of P2P energy trading, including opening a third-party access (TPA) regime, enabling a liberalized market in the electricity market, and integrating the role and responsibilities of the prosumer for P2P energy trading into existing law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy & Society)
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Article
Electro-Hydraulic Variable-Speed Drive Networks—Idea, Perspectives, and Energy Saving Potentials
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031228 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Electro-hydraulic differential cylinder drives with variable-speed displacement units as their central transmission element are subject to an increasing focus in both industry and academia. A main reason is the potential for substantial efficiency increases due to avoidance of throttling of the main flows. [...] Read more.
Electro-hydraulic differential cylinder drives with variable-speed displacement units as their central transmission element are subject to an increasing focus in both industry and academia. A main reason is the potential for substantial efficiency increases due to avoidance of throttling of the main flows. Research contributions have mainly been focusing on appropriate compensation of volume asymmetry and the development of standalone self-contained and compact solutions, with all necessary functions onboard. However, as many hydraulic actuator systems encompass multiple cylinders, such approaches may not be the most feasible ones with respect to efficiency or commercial feasibility. This article presents the idea of multi-cylinder drives, characterized by electrically and hydraulically interconnected variable-speed displacement units essentially allowing for completely avoiding throttle elements, while allowing for hydraulic and electric power sharing as well as the sharing of auxiliary functions and fluid reservoir. With drive topologies taking offset in communication theory, the concept of electro-hydraulic variable-speed drive networks is introduced. Three different drive networks are designed for an example application, including component sizing and controls in order to demonstrate their potentials. It is found that such drive networks may provide simple physical designs with few building blocks and increased energy efficiencies compared to standalone drives, while exhibiting excellent dynamic properties and control performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Fluid Power Drive Technology)
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Article
Effect of Manufacturing Inaccuracies on the Wake Past Asymmetric Airfoil by PIV
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031227 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 322
Abstract
The effect of manufacturing geometry deviations on the flow past a NACA 64(3)-618 asymmetric airfoil is studied. This airfoil is 3D printed according to the coordinates from a public database. An optical high-precision 3D scanner, GOM Atos, measures the difference from the idealized [...] Read more.
The effect of manufacturing geometry deviations on the flow past a NACA 64(3)-618 asymmetric airfoil is studied. This airfoil is 3D printed according to the coordinates from a public database. An optical high-precision 3D scanner, GOM Atos, measures the difference from the idealized model. Based on this difference, another model is prepared with a physical output closer to the ideal model. The velocity in the near wake (0–0.4 chord) is measured by using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. This work compares the wakes past three airfoil realizations, which differ in their similarity to the original design (none of the realizations is identical to the original design). The chord-based Reynolds number ranges from 1.6×104 to 1.6×105. The ensemble average velocity is used for the determination of the wake width and for the rough estimation of the drag coefficient. The lift coefficient is measured directly by using force balance. We discuss the origin of turbulent kinetic energy in terms of anisotropy (at least in 2D) and the length-scales of fluctuations across the wake. The spatial power spectral density is shown. The autocorrelation function of the cross-stream velocity detects the regime of the von Karmán vortex street at lower velocities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation, Optimization, and Discussion of Turbulence)
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Article
A Quantitative Evaluation Method of Anti-Sloughing Drilling Fluid Inhibition for Deep Mudstone
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031226 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Wellbore instability resulting from deep mudstone hydration severely restricts the development of oil and gas resources from deep reservoir in western China. Accurate evaluation of drilling fluid inhibition properties plays an important role in selecting drilling fluid that can control deep mudstone hydration [...] Read more.
Wellbore instability resulting from deep mudstone hydration severely restricts the development of oil and gas resources from deep reservoir in western China. Accurate evaluation of drilling fluid inhibition properties plays an important role in selecting drilling fluid that can control deep mudstone hydration and then sustain wellbore stability. The previous evaluations are conducted by qualitative analysis and cannot consider the influence of complex hydration conditions of deep mudstone (high temperature, high pressure and flushing action). The study proposes a quantitative method to evaluate drilling fluid’s inhibition property for deep mudstone under natural drilling conditions. In this method, the cohesive strength of mudstone after hydration is adopted as the inhibition index of the tested drilling fluid. An experimental platform containing a newly designed HPHT (High pressure and high temperature) hydration experiment apparatus and mechanics characterization of mudstone after hydration based on scratch test is proposed to obtain the current inhibition index of tested drilling fluid under deep well drilling environments. Based on the mechanical–chemical wellbore stability model considering strength weakening characteristics of deep mudstone after hydration, a cross-correlation between drilling fluid density (collapse pressure) and required inhibition index (cohesive strength) for deep mudstone is provided as the quantitative evaluation criterion. Once the density of tested mud is known, one can confirm whether the inhibition property of tested mud is sufficient. In this study, the JDK mudstone of a K block in western China is selected as the application object of the proposed evaluation method. Firstly, the evaluation chart, which can demonstrate the required inhibition indexes of the tested fluids quantitatively with various densities for JDK mudstone, is constructed. Furthermore, the experimental evaluations of inhibition indexes of drilling fluids taken from two wells in K block are conducted under ambient and deep-well drilling conditions, respectively. In order to show the validity and advantage of the proposed method, a comparison between the laboratory evaluation results and field data is made. Results show that the laboratory evaluation results under deep-well drilling conditions are consistent with the field data. However, the evaluation under ambient conditions overestimates the inhibition property of the tested fluid and brings a risk of wellbore instability. The developed quantitative method can be a new way to evaluate and optimize the inhibition property of drilling fluid for deep mudstone. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Design of the Energy Storage Requirement of Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converters Using Numerical Integration and Iterative Solution
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031225 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Increasing the modulation index by utilizing the negative voltage states of full-bridge submodules (FBSMs) can greatly reduce capacitor usage of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), thereby optimizing the cost and volume. The hybrid MMC is composed of half-bridge submodules (HBSMs) and FBSMs, and the [...] Read more.
Increasing the modulation index by utilizing the negative voltage states of full-bridge submodules (FBSMs) can greatly reduce capacitor usage of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), thereby optimizing the cost and volume. The hybrid MMC is composed of half-bridge submodules (HBSMs) and FBSMs, and the capacitor voltages of the two types of submodules (SMs) have different shapes as long as negative voltage states exist. This condition greatly complicates the analysis and design of the energy storage requirement of the hybrid MMC, which utilizes the negative voltage states of FBSMs to boost the AC voltage. A numerical calculation method for solving the capacitor voltages and designing the capacitances of FBSMs and HBSMs is proposed in order to accurately determine the minimum energy storage requirement considering the difference between the energy variations in FBSMs and HBSMs. In the numerical calculation, the energy storage and voltage of the arm are decomposed into FBSM and HBSM parts. According to the physical switching process, the output voltages of FBSM and HBSM parts are determined separately. The one-cycle waveforms of the capacitor voltages are then obtained by numerical integration of the power flows in FBSM and HBSM parts. An iterative solution procedure and the termination criterion that can ensure the accuracy of the obtained one-cycle waveforms are also proposed. Using the numerical integration and iterative solution procedure as the kernel algorithm, the proposed method can accurately analyze the capacitor voltages of the FBSMs and HBSMs and determine the minimum energy storage requirement of the hybrid MMC. Furthermore, the proposed method is applicable for various operating working conditions and various proportions of FBSMs. The simulation results verify the feasibility and accuracy of the analysis and design method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modular Multi-Level Converters)
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Article
A Model of DC-DC Converter with Switched-Capacitor Structure for Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031224 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 392
Abstract
In this paper, a DC-DC converter with an innovative topology for automotive applications is proposed. The goal of the presented power converter is the electrical storage system management of an electric vehicle (EV). The presented converter is specifically compliant with a 400 V [...] Read more.
In this paper, a DC-DC converter with an innovative topology for automotive applications is proposed. The goal of the presented power converter is the electrical storage system management of an electric vehicle (EV). The presented converter is specifically compliant with a 400 V battery, which represents the high-voltage primary source of the system. This topology is also able to act as a bidirectional power converter, so that in this case, the output section is an active stage, which is able to provide power as, for example, in the case of a low-voltage battery or a supercapacitor. The proposed topology can behave either in step-down or in step-up mode, presenting in both cases a high gain between the input and output voltage. Simulation results concerning the proposed converter, demonstrating the early feasibility of the system, were obtained in a PowerSIM environment and are described in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converters Design, Control and Applications)
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Article
Hosting Capacity Calculation Deploying a Hybrid Methodology: A Case Study Concerning the Intermittent Nature of Photovoltaic Distributed Generation and the Variable Nature of Energy Consumption in a Medium Voltage Distribution Network
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031223 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The main methods employed for Hosting Capacity (HC) calculations are basically classified into deterministic, stochastic and time series. In this scenario, the authors herein propose a hybrid methodology, which shows efficiency and ease of implementation. Besides the method presented, it is also calculated [...] Read more.
The main methods employed for Hosting Capacity (HC) calculations are basically classified into deterministic, stochastic and time series. In this scenario, the authors herein propose a hybrid methodology, which shows efficiency and ease of implementation. Besides the method presented, it is also calculated a hosting capacity of a real feeder which was modeled and analyzed taking into consideration variations in load and power injected by distributed generation sources. The proposed hybrid method deploys just one time series with the feeder power demand data, which are easily obtained from the feeder’s origin substation. Low voltage loads were modeled by the ratio between their maximum demands and the feeder maximum demand, making easier to start up the grid model implementation. Hence, the advantages of the proposed methodology can be summarized in: (a) easy to obtain the input parameters; (b) agility in implementing the study; (c) higher processing speed and (d) results consistent with the time series method. Finally, in view of the advantages and obtained results, the proposed hybrid methodology shows itself as a promising and attractive tool for the studies of hosting capacity by the utilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Distribution Systems)
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Article
An Improved Finite Control Set Model Predictive Current Control for a Two-Phase Hybrid Stepper Motor Fed by a Three-Phase VSI
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031222 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
In this paper, an improved finite control set model predictive current control (FCS-MPCC) is proposed for a two-phase hybrid stepper motor fed by a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). The conventional FCS-MPCC selects an optimal voltage vector (VV) from six active and one [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved finite control set model predictive current control (FCS-MPCC) is proposed for a two-phase hybrid stepper motor fed by a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). The conventional FCS-MPCC selects an optimal voltage vector (VV) from six active and one null VVs by evaluating a simple cost function and then applies the optimal VV directly to the VSI. Though the implementation is simple, it features a large current ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD). The proposed improved FCS-MPCC builds an extended control set consisting of 37 VVs to replace the original control set with only seven VVs. The increase in the amount of VVs helps to regulate the current more accurately. In each control period, the improved FCS-MPCC takes advantage of deadbeat control to calculate a reference VV, and only the three VVs adjacent to the reference VV are predicted and evaluated, which decrease the computational workload significantly. Build waveform patterns for all VVs in the unbalanced circuit structure to modulate the optimal VV using discrete space vector modulation, which improves the current quality in reducing current ripple and THD. The comparative simulations and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives)
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