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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 556 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We examined the relationships between walkability and health behaviors between and within identical twin pairs, considering both home (neighborhood) walkability and each twin’s measured activity space. Continuous activity and location data (via accelerometry and GPS) were obtained in 79 twin pairs. The Home Walk Score® (WS) (i.e., neighborhood walkability), and GPS WS were calculated for both within (WHN) and out of the neighborhood (OHN) physical activity using 1-mile Euclidean (air1mi) and network (net1mi) buffers. Home WS was associated with WHN GPS WS, and OHN GPS WS. Quasi-causal relationships (within-twin) were observed for home and GPS WS with walking, but not MVPA, DED, or BMI. The results support previous literature that neighborhood walkability has a positive influence on walking behaviors. View this paper
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15 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Role of Portion Size in the Context of a Healthy, Balanced Diet: A Case Study of European Countries
by Michele O. Carruba, Maurizio Ragni, Chiara Ruocco, Sofia Aliverti, Marco Silano, Andrea Amico, Concetta M. Vaccaro, Franca Marangoni, Alessandra Valerio, Andrea Poli and Enzo Nisoli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065230 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4028
Abstract
Over the past decades, a generalised increase in food portion sizes has probably contributed to the growing global obesity epidemic. Increasing awareness of appropriate portion sizes could contribute to reversing this trend through better control of calorie intake. In this study, a comparison [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, a generalised increase in food portion sizes has probably contributed to the growing global obesity epidemic. Increasing awareness of appropriate portion sizes could contribute to reversing this trend through better control of calorie intake. In this study, a comparison of standard portion sizes in European countries for various food categories shows a wide variability of their importance for food, nutrient, and energy consumption according to government and institutional websites. On the other hand, the overall averages appear to be largely in line with the values indicated by the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, which is the most comprehensive and detailed document among those evaluated. The exceptions are milk and yoghurt, for which the reference portions in Europe are generally higher, and vegetables and legumes, for which portions are smaller than those reported in the Italian document. Moreover, the portion sizes of staple foods (e.g., pasta and potatoes) vary according to different food traditions. It is reasonable to consider that the creation of harmonised standard reference portions common to the European countries, based on international guidelines and scientific evidence, would significantly contribute to consumers’ nutritional education and ability to make informed choices for a healthy diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption, Nutrition and Public Health)
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12 pages, 2871 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent Marker as a Tool to Improve Strategies to Control Contaminated Surfaces and Decrease Danger of Cross-Contamination in Dental Clinics, during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Eran Dolev, Ilana Eli, Ester Mashkit, Naftali Grinberg and Alona Emodi-Perlman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065229 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic posed an increased threat to dental personnel and patients. Close encounters with patients’ breath and saliva and the use of intraoral rotating instruments which disperse microscopic airborne particles both increase the possibility of environmental infection. In this study, fluorescent marker [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic posed an increased threat to dental personnel and patients. Close encounters with patients’ breath and saliva and the use of intraoral rotating instruments which disperse microscopic airborne particles both increase the possibility of environmental infection. In this study, fluorescent marker (FM) was used to assess and enhance surface cleanliness in the dental clinics and public areas of a major dental school. Initially, 574 surfaces in various areas of a dental school were marked with FM for 3 consecutive months to monitor the surface cleanliness. The initial evaluation results were visually presented to both students and para-dental and cleaning personnel during a designated educational session, and were used to stress the importance of preventing cross-contamination. Following educational intervention, 662 surfaces were re-examined for an additional 3 months, using the same method. A significant improvement in the surfaces’ cleanliness (ANOVA, F(1) = 10.89, p < 0.005) was observed post-intervention. The results were more prominent in students’ clinics, which were the students’ cleaning responsibility. The results show that fluorescent markers can serve as an educational tool to improve strategies to control contaminated surfaces in large clinics, such as dental schools. Their use can substantially decrease the hazard of cross-contamination during the pandemic and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing during and beyond COVID-19)
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20 pages, 2370 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Sports Involvement on Body Image Perception and Ideals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Luciana Zaccagni and Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065228 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
Concerns about body image may affect athletes, mainly because of specific sports models to achieve successful performance. This systematic review reports on body image dissatisfaction (BID) in athletes following the guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. From a total of 887 articles identified [...] Read more.
Concerns about body image may affect athletes, mainly because of specific sports models to achieve successful performance. This systematic review reports on body image dissatisfaction (BID) in athletes following the guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. From a total of 887 articles identified through a systematic search of electronic databases, 15 articles conducted on 2412 athletes were included in this review. To be eligible for inclusion, the studies must have been published in the last ten years up until September 2022 and analyze body image perception using body figure drawings and anthropometric profiles. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the adapted Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. These studies were compared through thematic analysis of BID to develop four general issues, including gender, sport type and level, and weight status. According to the meta-analyses, the significant medium and small effect sizes found for gender and weight status, respectively, indicated that male athletes had lower BID than females and that, among the latter, normal-weight athletes had a higher BID than underweight ones. The implications and limitations of the included studies are discussed extensively in this review, highlighting the need for further research on BID examined both in the social and the sports contexts. Sports activity should be carried out following healthy lifestyles, and promoting positive BI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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26 pages, 1073 KiB  
Review
Methodological Critique of Concussive and Non-Concussive Dual Task Walking Assessments: A Scoping Review
by Courtney Jade Mitchell and John Cronin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065227 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Objective: To understand the methodological approaches taken by various research groups and determine the kinematic variables that could consistently and reliably differentiate between concussed and non-concussed individuals. Methods: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL Complete via EBSCO, EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus were searched from inception [...] Read more.
Objective: To understand the methodological approaches taken by various research groups and determine the kinematic variables that could consistently and reliably differentiate between concussed and non-concussed individuals. Methods: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL Complete via EBSCO, EBSCOhost, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus were searched from inception until 31 December 2021, using key terms related to concussion, mild traumatic brain injury, gait, cognition and dual task. Studies that reported spatiotemporal kinematic outcomes were included. Data were extracted using a customised spreadsheet, including detailed information on participant characteristics, assessment protocols, equipment used, and outcomes. Results: Twenty-three studies involving 1030 participants met the inclusion criteria. Ten outcome measures were reported across these articles. Some metrics such as gait velocity and stride length may be promising but are limited by the status of the current research; the majority of the reported variables were not sensitive enough across technologies to consistently differentiate between concussed and non-concussed individuals. Understanding variable sensitivity was made more difficult given the absence of any reporting of reliability of the protocols and variables in the respective studies. Conclusion: Given the current status of the literature and the methodologies reviewed, there would seem little consensus on which gait parameters are best to determine return to play readiness after concussion. There is potential in this area for such technologies and protocols to be utilised as a tool for identifying and monitoring concussion; however, improving understanding of the variability and validity of technologies and protocols underpins the suggested directions of future research. Inertial measurement units appear to be the most promising technology in this aspect and should guide the focus of future research. Impact: Results of this study may have an impact on what technology is chosen and may be utilised to assist with concussion diagnosis and return to play protocols. Full article
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14 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Citizen Epidemic Prevention Information Literacy in the Post-Epidemic Era in Mainland China
by Quanyong Yi, Xu Liu, Shanshan Ding, Xinyue Yao and Lisha Luo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065226 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Improving citizen epidemic prevention information literacy is one of the most cost-efficient and important measures to improve people’s epidemic prevention abilities to effectively deal with future public health crises. Epidemic prevention information literacy is beneficial to improve individuals’ ability to deal with public [...] Read more.
Improving citizen epidemic prevention information literacy is one of the most cost-efficient and important measures to improve people’s epidemic prevention abilities to effectively deal with future public health crises. Epidemic prevention information literacy is beneficial to improve individuals’ ability to deal with public health crises in the future. By summarizing related domestic and international research, and utilizing an empirical methodology, we constructed an epidemic prevention information literacy assessment model with good reliability, validity, and model fit. The model is composed of four indicators: (1) “epidemic prevention information awareness”; (2) “epidemic prevention information knowledge”; (3) “epidemic prevention information ability”; (4) “epidemic prevention information morality”. We used the model to assess the epidemic prevention information literacy of Chinese citizens. The results showed the following: (1) the overall level of the epidemic prevention information literacy of Chinese citizens was comparatively high, however, its development was unbalanced, and the capability and moral levels of the epidemic prevention information were comparatively low; (2) the four dimensions of the epidemic prevention information literacy were different in terms of the citizens’ education levels and locations. We analyzed the probable causes of these problems, and we propose specific corresponding countermeasures. The research provides a set of methods and norms for the evaluation of citizen epidemic prevention information literacy in the post-epidemic era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education and Health)
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13 pages, 1050 KiB  
Article
Mercury Exposure in Women of Reproductive Age in Rondônia State, Amazon Region, Brazil
by Thayssa C. S. Bello, Rafael J. Buralli, Mônica P. L. Cunha, José G. Dórea, Fredi A. Diaz-Quijano, Jean R. D. Guimarães and Rejane C. Marques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065225 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Environmental contamination by mercury (Hg) is a problem of global scale that affects human health. This study’s aim was to evaluate Hg exposure among women of reproductive age residing in the Madeira River basin, in the State of Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon. This longitudinal [...] Read more.
Environmental contamination by mercury (Hg) is a problem of global scale that affects human health. This study’s aim was to evaluate Hg exposure among women of reproductive age residing in the Madeira River basin, in the State of Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon. This longitudinal cohort study used linear regression models to assess the effects on Hg levels of breastfeeding duration at 6 months, and of breastfeeding duration and number of new children at 2-year and 5-year. Breastfeeding duration was significantly associated with maternal Hg levels in all regression models (6 months, 2 years and 5 years) and no significant association was observed between the number of children and the change in maternal Hg levels in the 2-year and 5-year models. This longitudinal cohort study evaluated Hg levels and contributing factors among pregnant women from different communities (riverine, rural, mining and urban) in Rondônia, Amazon Region, for 5 years. A well-coordinated and designed national biomonitoring program is urgently needed to better understand the current situation of Hg levels in Brazil and the Amazon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Occupational Health in Brazil)
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14 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Social and Environmental Impact of Healthcare Technologies: Towards an Extended Social Return on Investment
by Maria Pinelli, Stefania Manetti and Emanuele Lettieri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065224 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability overall worldwide. Upper limb impairment is a common consequence for stroke survivors, having negative impact on their quality of life. Robotic rehabilitation, through repetitive and monitored movements, can improve their status. Developed by [...] Read more.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability overall worldwide. Upper limb impairment is a common consequence for stroke survivors, having negative impact on their quality of life. Robotic rehabilitation, through repetitive and monitored movements, can improve their status. Developed by a team of researchers at Politecnico di Milano, AGREE is an exoskeleton for upper limb rehabilitation at the stage gate between translational research and clinical validation. Since the cost of this device is particularly high, the present study aimed to provide a framework for assessing its value. The Social Return on Investment (SROI) method, able to grasp the economic, social and environmental impact of an activity, was applied, using expert opinions of a pool of clinical engineers and healthcare professionals from different Italian hospitals to obtain information. Environmental impacts were estimated through Life Cycle Assessment in terms of CO2 emissions and incorporated in the analysis. Considering a 5-year period, the SROI for a single exoskeleton was 3.75:1, and the SROI for the number of exoskeletons projected to be sold was 2.868:1, thus resulting largely in value for money. This study provides a model for combining economic, social and environmental outcomes that, besides contributing to theory, could be useful for decision-making. Full article
10 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Caregivers’ and Family Members’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) towards Epilepsy in Rural Limpopo and Mpumalanga, South Africa
by Ofhani Prudance Musekwa, Lufuno Makhado and Angelina Maphula
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065222 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Epilepsy, a common neurological disease, has a significant impact on people living with epilepsy (PLWE), their caregivers, and their family members. Research has consistently shown that the quality of life of PLWE is low. To expand on this knowledge, a non-experimental quantitative survey [...] Read more.
Epilepsy, a common neurological disease, has a significant impact on people living with epilepsy (PLWE), their caregivers, and their family members. Research has consistently shown that the quality of life of PLWE is low. To expand on this knowledge, a non-experimental quantitative survey study was conducted to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of caregivers and family members towards epilepsy and epilepsy-related seizures. The study sample consisted of 519 participants from two South African provinces (Limpopo and Mpumalanga), mostly aged 26–35 years. The study revealed that most respondents in Limpopo had no formal education, whereas in Mpumalanga, most had a secondary education. Most respondents (32.4%) reported always using a spoon to prevent tongue biting during seizures. However, 62.4% of respondents reported feeling unprepared to handle an epileptic seizure. Additionally, the majority (54.7%) showed a moderate level of knowledge about epilepsy. Many respondents had a negative attitude towards epilepsy, and there was uncertainty about proper practices during a seizure. In summary, the research highlights unsatisfactory knowledge and practices towards epilepsy and emphasizes the need for increased education and awareness among caregivers and family members. Significant educational investment is needed from medical services to improve epilepsy care, knowledge, and attitudes. Full article
21 pages, 2281 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Formation by Fungal Pathogens of Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the Presence of Bioprotective Agents
by Aleksandra Steglińska, Michael Sulyok, Regina Janas, Mieczysław Grzesik, Wiktoria Liszkowska, Dorota Kręgiel and Beata Gutarowska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065221 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
The potato is a crop of global importance for the food industry. This is why effective protection against pathogens is so important. Fungi as potato pathogens are responsible for plant diseases and a significant reduction in yields, as well as for the formation [...] Read more.
The potato is a crop of global importance for the food industry. This is why effective protection against pathogens is so important. Fungi as potato pathogens are responsible for plant diseases and a significant reduction in yields, as well as for the formation of mycotoxins. This study focuses on the effect of three natural biocides, yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima, lactic acid bacteria Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and aqueous garlic extract, on the improvement of the physiology of planted potato tubers and the reduction in mycotoxin formation. The secondary metabolites produced by the fungal pathogens of genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, and Phoma in the presence of these biocontrol agents were compared to profiles obtained from contaminated potatoes. Analysis of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry data showed the presence of 68 secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxins: alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altertoxin-I, aurofusarin, beauvericin, diacetoxyscirpenol, enniatin B, and sterigmatocystin. The studies showed that the applied biocontrol agents had a positive effect on the physiological parameters of potatoes (including root growth, stem growth, gas exchange, and chlorophyll content index) and on the reduction in the production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites by Fusarium, Alternaria, and Phoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Contamination and Food Safety)
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14 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitudes towards Prostate Cancer and Screening among Males in Limpopo Province, South Africa
by Ndivhuwo Maladze, Angelina Maphula, Mzamani Maluleke and Lufuno Makhado
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065220 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3202
Abstract
Inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes about prostate cancer (PC) negatively affect early screening practices among males. The PC mortality rate is increasing due to late reporting, screening, and treatment. This study explored the awareness, attitudes, and PC screening behaviours among males in the [...] Read more.
Inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes about prostate cancer (PC) negatively affect early screening practices among males. The PC mortality rate is increasing due to late reporting, screening, and treatment. This study explored the awareness, attitudes, and PC screening behaviours among males in the Limpopo, Thulamela municipality. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 245 males that were randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between sociodemographic variables, awareness, and attitudes towards PC. Our findings revealed that 64.1% demonstrated inadequate awareness about PC. The overall score (84.9%) showed a positive attitude towards PC. However, 87.4% had a negative attitude towards the effectiveness of treatment for PC. The majority (96.7%) of respondents had never undergone a PSA test, although 53.1% were willing to undergo a PSA test. There was a significant positive correlation between awareness of prostate cancer and attitudes toward prostate cancer (r = 0.280, p < 0.001). Health status predicted awareness about PC, while age and health status predicted attitudes towards PC among men. Rural community-based programmes and heightened awareness campaigns are needed to conscientize men about the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of PC in rural areas of Limpopo. Full article
6 pages, 983 KiB  
Brief Report
Wastewater Levels of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Associated with Influenza-like Illness Rates in Children—A Case Study in Larissa, Greece (October 2022–January 2023)
by Michalis Koureas, Kassiani Mellou, Alexandros Vontas, Maria Kyritsi, Ioannis Panagoulias, Anastasia Koutsolioutsou, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Matthaios Speletas, Dimitrios Paraskevis and Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065219 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant progress in the field of wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) of respiratory pathogens and highlighted its potential for a wider application in public health surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate whether monitoring of respiratory syncytial [...] Read more.
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant progress in the field of wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) of respiratory pathogens and highlighted its potential for a wider application in public health surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate whether monitoring of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in wastewater can provide a comprehensive picture of disease transmission at the community level. The study was conducted in Larissa (Central Greece) between October 2022 and January 2023. Forty-six wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant of Larissa and analyzed with a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based method. RSV and SARS-CoV-2 wastewater viral loads (genome copies/100,000 inhabitants) were analyzed against sentinel surveillance data on influenza-like illness (ILI) to identify potential associations. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that RSV wastewater viral load (lagged by one week) and ILI notification rates in children up to 14 years old were strongly associated (std. Beta: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.31–1.14), p = 0.002, R2 = 0.308). A weaker association was found between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and ILI rates in the 15+ age group (std. Beta: 0.56 (95% CI: 0.06–1.05), p = 0.032, R2 = 0.527). The results support the incorporation of RSV monitoring into existing wastewater-based surveillance systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Health: Infectious Disease Research)
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13 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Characteristics of Cancer Patients Attending at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
by Muluken Azage, Serkalem Zewudie, Martha H. Goedert and Engda G. Hagos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065218 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2544
Abstract
Background: Cancer has become a public health problem and a challenge in developing countries, including Ethiopia. There is scanty local data on cancer epidemiology in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to describe epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients attending Felege Hiwot Referral [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer has become a public health problem and a challenge in developing countries, including Ethiopia. There is scanty local data on cancer epidemiology in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to describe epidemiological characteristics of cancer patients attending Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Methods: This study was based on a patient cancer registry that took place in Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. It is the main referral hospital in the Amhara region, and serves more than 5 million people. The hospital has units including oncology for follow-up health care services. All confirmed cancer patients attending oncology units from July 2017 to June 2019 were included in the study. Global Moran’s I statistic was employed to assess spatial heterogeneity of cancer cases across districts. Getis–Ord Gi* statistics was performed to identify hot spot districts with high numbers of cancer cases. Results: In a two-year period, a total of 1888 confirmed cancer patients were registered. There was a significant variation of cancer patients between females (60.8% 95%CI 58.5 to 63.0%) and males (39.3% 95%CI 37.0 to 41.5%). The first three most frequent cancer types seen were breast (19.4%) and cervical cancer (12.9%), and lymphoma (15.7%). Breast and cervical cancer and lymphoma were the first three cancers type among women, whereas lymphoma, sarcoma, and lung cancer were the three most common cancer among men. Spatially, cancer cases were non-random in the study area (global Moran’s I = 0.25, z-score = 5.6, p-value < 0.001). Bahir Dar city administration (z = 3.93, p < 0.001), Mecha (z = 3.49, p < 0.001), Adet (z = 3.25, p < 0.01), Achefer (z = 3.29, p < 0.001), Dangila (z = 3.32, p < 0.001), Fogera (z = 2.19, p < 0.05), and Dera (z = 2.97, p < 0.01) were spatially clustered as hotspot with high numbers of cluster cases. Conclusions: We found that there is a variation in the cancer types with sex. This study provides an insight for further exploration of environmental and occupational exposure related factors for cancer to guide future cancer prevention and control programs. The current study also calls for expansion of cancer registry sites, including in rural areas in the region. Full article
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30 pages, 1115 KiB  
Review
Indigenous Cultural Safety Training for Applied Health, Social Work, and Education Professionals: A PRISMA Scoping Review
by Tammy L. MacLean, Jinfan Rose Qiang, Lynn Henderson, Andrea Bowra, Lisa Howard, Victoria Pringle, Tenzin Butsang, Emma Rice, Erica Di Ruggiero and Angela Mashford-Pringle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065217 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4931
Abstract
Anti-Indigenous racism is a widespread social problem in health and education systems in English-speaking colonized countries. Cultural safety training (CST) is often promoted as a key strategy to address this problem, yet little evidence exists on how CST is operationalized and evaluated in [...] Read more.
Anti-Indigenous racism is a widespread social problem in health and education systems in English-speaking colonized countries. Cultural safety training (CST) is often promoted as a key strategy to address this problem, yet little evidence exists on how CST is operationalized and evaluated in health and education systems. This scoping review sought to broadly synthesize the academic literature on how CST programs are developed, implemented, and evaluated in the applied health, social work and education fields in Canada, United States, Australia, and New Zealand. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, and ASSIA were searched for articles published between 1996 and 2020. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s three-step search strategy and PRISMA extension for scoping reviews were adopted, with 134 articles included. CST programs have grown significantly in the health, social work, and education fields in the last three decades, and they vary significantly in their objectives, modalities, timelines, and how they are evaluated. The involvement of Indigenous peoples in CST programs is common, but their roles are rarely specified. Indigenous groups must be intentionally and meaningfully engaged throughout the entire duration of research and practice. Cultural safety and various related concepts should be careful considered and applied for the relevant context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Health Disparities in Disadvantaged and Vulnerable Groups)
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15 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
A Mixed Methods, Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Exploring the Impact of a Secondary School Universal Free School Meals Intervention Pilot
by Victoria R. Carlisle, Patricia E. Jessiman, Katie Breheny, Rona Campbell, Russell Jago, Naomi Leonard, Marcus Robinson, Steve Strong and Judi Kidger
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065216 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3335
Abstract
Food insecurity amongst households with children is a growing concern globally. The impacts in children include poor mental health and reduced educational attainment. Providing universal free school meals is one potential way of addressing these impacts. This paper reports findings on the impact [...] Read more.
Food insecurity amongst households with children is a growing concern globally. The impacts in children include poor mental health and reduced educational attainment. Providing universal free school meals is one potential way of addressing these impacts. This paper reports findings on the impact of a universal free school meals pilot in two English secondary schools. We adopted a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design. The intervention schools were one mainstream school (n = 414) and one school for students with special educational needs (n = 105). Two other schools were used as comparators (n = 619; n = 117). The data collection comprised a cross sectional student survey during the pilot (n = 404); qualitative interviews with students (n = 28), parents (n = 20) and school staff (n = 12); and student observations of lunchtimes (n = 57). Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, and descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were conducted on the quantitative data. Self-reports of food insecurity were high at both intervention (26.6%) and comparator schools (25.8%). No effects of the intervention were seen in the quantitative findings on either hunger or food insecurity. Qualitative findings indicated that students, families and staff perceived positive impact on a range of outcomes including food insecurity, hunger, school performance, family stress and a reduction in stigma associated with means-tested free school meals. Our research provides promising evidence in support of universal free school meals in secondary schools as a strategy for addressing growing food insecurity. Future research should robustly test the impact of universal free school meals in a larger sample of secondary schools, using before and after measures as well as a comparator group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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25 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Development of an Australian FASD Indigenous Framework: Aboriginal Healing-Informed and Strengths-Based Ways of Knowing, Being and Doing
by Nicole Hewlett, Lorian Hayes, Robyn Williams, Sharynne Hamilton, Lorelle Holland, Alana Gall, Michael Doyle, Sarah Goldsbury, Nirosha Boaden and Natasha Reid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065215 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5666
Abstract
Aboriginal culture intuitively embodies and interconnects the threads of life that are known to be intrinsic to human wellbeing: connection. Therefore, Aboriginal wisdom and practices are inherently strengths-based and healing-informed. Underpinned by an Indigenist research methodology, this article presents findings from a collaboration [...] Read more.
Aboriginal culture intuitively embodies and interconnects the threads of life that are known to be intrinsic to human wellbeing: connection. Therefore, Aboriginal wisdom and practices are inherently strengths-based and healing-informed. Underpinned by an Indigenist research methodology, this article presents findings from a collaboration of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples to develop an Australian Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Indigenous Framework during 2021 to 2023. The FASD Indigenous Framework unfolds the changes that non-Aboriginal clinicians and Aboriginal peoples each need to make in their respective ways of knowing, being and doing in order to facilitate access to healing-informed, strengths-based and culturally responsive FASD knowledge, assessment, diagnosis and support services among Aboriginal peoples. Drawing on the Aboriginal practices of yarning and Dadirri, written and oral knowledges were gathered. These knowledges were mapped against Aboriginal cultural responsiveness and wellbeing frameworks and collaboratively and iteratively reflected upon throughout. This article brings together Aboriginal wisdom (strengths-based, healing-informed approaches grounded in holistic and integrated support) and Western wisdom (biomedicine and therapeutic models) in relation to FASD. From a place of still awareness (Dadirri), both forms of wisdom were drawn upon to create Australia’s first FASD Indigenous Framework, a new practice in the assessment and diagnosis of FASD, which offers immense benefit to equity, justice, support and healing for Aboriginal families with a lived experience of FASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness for Indigenous Peoples)
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18 pages, 1379 KiB  
Review
Volatile Organic Compounds: A Promising Tool for Bed Bug Detection
by Mohammad Akhoundi, Dahlia Chebbah, Nohal Elissa, Sophie Brun, Julie Jan, Isabelle Lacaze and Arezki Izri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065214 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2650
Abstract
The recent decades’ resurgence of bed bugs as a public health concern in industrialized countries has driven an increased interest on new sustainable insecticide-free methods to monitor and control these ectoparasites. Current methods of detection rely mainly on visual inspection or canine scent [...] Read more.
The recent decades’ resurgence of bed bugs as a public health concern in industrialized countries has driven an increased interest on new sustainable insecticide-free methods to monitor and control these ectoparasites. Current methods of detection rely mainly on visual inspection or canine scent detection, which are methods that are time-consuming, require experience, are non-specific or require costly mission repetitions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered an environmentally friendly alternative and a promising approach for bed bug detection. An overview of the released literature on VOCs, their chemical characteristics and their role in bed bugs’ intra- and inter-species communications allowed us to highlight the identification of 49 VOCs in Cimex lectularius (23 molecules) and C. hemipterus (26), which are emitted by both sexes during diverse compartments including aggregation (46), mating (11), defense (4), etc., and all life stages including exuviae or dead bed bugs as a principal indicator of infestation. The latter has a great importance for application of these semiochemicals in successful detection and control management of bed bugs and to prevent their further dispersion. This approach has the advantage of more reliability compared to conventional detection methods with no need for repeated inspections, household furniture moving or resident rehousing for bed bugs’ VOC detection, which are commonly performed by active or passive sampling with absorbing tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography-based analytical platforms. Full article
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19 pages, 3619 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Development of Underground Coal Resources in Shallow Groundwater Areas for Environment and Socio-Economic Considerations: A Case Study of Zhangji Coal Mine in China
by Ruiya Zhang and Yoginder P. Chugh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065213 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Coal resources in China are developed in several regions with shallow groundwater, and large mining-related surface subsidence can have negative impacts on agriculture, land and water resources as well as existing and future socio-economic resources. All these are important for sustainable resource development. [...] Read more.
Coal resources in China are developed in several regions with shallow groundwater, and large mining-related surface subsidence can have negative impacts on agriculture, land and water resources as well as existing and future socio-economic resources. All these are important for sustainable resource development. Dynamic subsidence reclamation (DSR) planning concepts are evaluated here for another case study with analyses over a 11-year period. In DSR topsoil, subsoil, farming, and water resources management are dynamically synergized concurrent with mining ahead of and behind the projected dynamic subsidence trough. The study area involved mining five longwall faces (and post-mining reclamation) to assess if DSR could have improved both the environment and socio-economic conditions for post-mining land use as compared to using traditional reclamation (TR) and TR-modified (TR(MOD)) approaches. The results show that: (1) Upon final reclamation, farmland area and water resources in DSR and TR (MOD) will have increased by 5.6% and 30.2% as compared to TR. Removing soils ahead of mining before they submerge into water is important for farmland reclamation and long-term economic development. (2) Due to topsoil and subsoil separation and storage in the DSR plan, reclaimed farmland productivity should recover quickly and agriculture production should be larger than TR and TR(MOD) plans. (3) For a simplified economic model, the total revenue in the DSR plan should be 2.8 times more than in TR and 1.2 times larger than in TR (MOD) plan. (4) The total net revenue of the TR(MOD) plan should be increased by 8.1% as compared with the TR plan. The benefits will be much greater for analyses over longer periods. Overall, the DSR plan will allow for an improved socio-economic environment for new businesses to support disrupted workforces during and after mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution and Remediation in Mining Areas)
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4 pages, 432 KiB  
Editorial
Risk-Reduction Research in Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: An Editorial
by Roger Jensen and David P. Gilkey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065212 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Occupational health and safety is one of the pillars of public health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Reduction Research in Occupational Safety and Ergonomics)
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15 pages, 5641 KiB  
Article
Research on Seawater Intrusion Suppression Scheme of Minjiang River Estuary
by Ziyuan Wang, Yiqing Guan, Danrong Zhang, Alain Niyongabo, Haowen Ming, Zhiming Yu and Yihui Huang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065211 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Seawater intrusion in the Minjiang River estuary has gravely endangered the water security of the surrounding area in recent years. Previous studies mainly focused on exploring the mechanism of intrusion, but failed to provide a scheme for suppressing seawater intrusion. The three most [...] Read more.
Seawater intrusion in the Minjiang River estuary has gravely endangered the water security of the surrounding area in recent years. Previous studies mainly focused on exploring the mechanism of intrusion, but failed to provide a scheme for suppressing seawater intrusion. The three most relevant determinants to chlorine level, which represented the strength of seawater intrusion, were determined using Pearson correlation analysis as being the daily average discharge, daily maximum tidal range, and daily minimum tidal level. Considering the lower requirement of sample data and the ability to handle high-dimensional data, the random forest algorithm was used to construct a seawater intrusion suppression model and was combined with a genetic algorithm. The critical river discharge for suppressing estuary seawater intrusion determined using this model. The critical river discharge was found to gradually increase with the maximum tidal range, which in three different tide scenarios was 487 m3/s, 493 m3/s, and 531 m3/s. The practicable seawater intrusion suppression scheme was built up with three phases to make it easier to regulate upstream reservoirs. In the scheme, the initial reading of river discharge was 490 m3/s, and it rose to 650 m3/s over six days, from four days before the high tide’s arrival to two days following it, and before falling down to 490 m3/s at the end. Verified with the 16 seawater intrusion events in the five dry years, this scheme could eliminate 75% of the seawater intrusion risk and effectively reduce the chlorine level for the remaining 25% of events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Science and Technology)
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21 pages, 5311 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Geographical Health Facilities Structure in Makassar City, Indonesia
by Adipandang Yudono, Firman Afrianto and Annisa Dira Hariyanto
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065210 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Cities across the world, during the last period, have been shocked by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The world of planning has since persevered in providing a response, in terms of how to anticipate this outbreak in the future. Various kinds of [...] Read more.
Cities across the world, during the last period, have been shocked by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The world of planning has since persevered in providing a response, in terms of how to anticipate this outbreak in the future. Various kinds of concepts have been issued, with various views and points of view. However, one of the needs for this planning is an appropriate evaluation of the geographic structure of existing health facilities, in order to properly provide consideration for future urban planning. This study attempts to provide an integrated model of how to evaluate the geographic structure of health facilities with a case study in Makassar City, Indonesia. By combining big data and spatial analysis, it is expected that it will find patterns and directions for acceptable health facilities planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning Technologies for Sustainable and Healthy Cities)
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10 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Too Close for Comfort: Stigma by Association in Family Members Who Live with Relatives with Mental Illness
by Joel O. Goldberg, Suzanne A. McKeag, Alison L. Rose, Heather Lumsden-Ruegg and Gordon L. Flett
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065209 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3252
Abstract
Stigma by association is described in qualitative research of family members who have relatives diagnosed with mental illness, depicting their sense of public shame for having these relationship ties. However, there have been relatively few empirical studies thus far, in part due to [...] Read more.
Stigma by association is described in qualitative research of family members who have relatives diagnosed with mental illness, depicting their sense of public shame for having these relationship ties. However, there have been relatively few empirical studies thus far, in part due to the isolation of family members affecting research recruitment. In order to address this gap, an online survey was administered to 124 family members, comparing those who live in the same home with their ill relative (n = 81) and those who do not (n = 43). A remarkable incidence of one in three family members reported experiencing stigma by association. Those living with an ill relative reported comparatively higher levels of stigma by association using an adapted questionnaire measure. Both groups experienced loneliness (moderate levels), but importantly, the cohabiting relatives perceived themselves as lacking support from friends and other family members. Correlational analyses revealed that those with heightened stigma by association reported heightened anti-mattering: that is, feeling that other people treat them as if they are insignificant and invisible. Anti-mattering was also associated with more loneliness and reduced social support. Our discussion focuses on the theme that family members who actually live with mentally ill relatives experience heightened social isolation that is under-recognized due to public stigma concerns, compounded by feeling their own lives do not matter to others. Public health implications are considered for the stigmatized family members who appear to be particularly marginalized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Consequences of Social Isolation and Loneliness)
14 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Risk and Resilient Functioning of Families of Children with Cancer during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Renee Gilbert, Carolyn R. Bates, Devanshi Khetawat, Meredith L. Dreyer Gillette and Rachel Moore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065208 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Previous literature highlights the impact of COVID-19 on family functioning. Less is known about the impact of the pandemic on families of pediatric cancer patients. In order to determine universal and unique risk and resilience factors of these families during the pandemic, a [...] Read more.
Previous literature highlights the impact of COVID-19 on family functioning. Less is known about the impact of the pandemic on families of pediatric cancer patients. In order to determine universal and unique risk and resilience factors of these families during the pandemic, a qualitative analysis was conducted on families currently receiving cancer treatment at a Midwestern hospital. Results of the data analysis depict ways in which these families have been impacted by and have adapted to COVID-19. These findings suggest that families of pediatric cancer patients have unique experiences in the context of COVID-19, in addition to universal experiences outlined in previous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Emotional Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic)
17 pages, 383 KiB  
Article
Pandemic Education—Insights into Teachers’ Perceptions of Hygiene Measures in Schools Due to COVID-19
by Flora Woltran, Katharina-Theresa Lindner and Susanne Schwab
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065207 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1905
Abstract
To prevent the spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and protect the health of school staff and students, Austrian education policymakers introduced several hygiene measures that posed new challenges for teachers. The current paper focuses on teachers’ perceptions of hygiene measures in schools during the [...] Read more.
To prevent the spread of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and protect the health of school staff and students, Austrian education policymakers introduced several hygiene measures that posed new challenges for teachers. The current paper focuses on teachers’ perceptions of hygiene measures in schools during the 2021–2022 school year. In Study 1, 1372 Austrian teachers participated in an online survey at the end of 2021. In Study 2, five teachers participated in an in-depth qualitative interview study. The quantitative results show that half the teachers felt a strong burden from the COVID-19 tests, but that the tests worked better when teachers had more teaching experience. Elementary and secondary school teachers, unlike special education teachers, had fewer problems implementing COVID-19 testing. The qualitative results suggest that teachers needed an acclimatization period for previously unfamiliar tasks, such as COVID-19 testing, to become accustomed to this newly implemented measure. Additionally, wearing facemasks was only evaluated positively in the context of self-serving strategies, while the protection of student health was not considered. In summary, the current study calls attention to the particular vulnerability of teachers and provides insights into the reality of schools in times of crisis that could be particularly helpful to education policymakers. Full article
11 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Frequency and Type of Procedures Performed in Nuclear Medicine Units on the Expected Radiological Hazard
by Katarzyna Matusiak, Justyna Wolna, Aleksandra Jung, Leszek Sadowski and Jolanta Pawlus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065206 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Nuclear medicine procedures play an important role in medical diagnostics and therapy. They are related to the use of ionizing radiation, which affects the radiological exposure of all of the persons involved in their performance. The goal of the study was to estimate [...] Read more.
Nuclear medicine procedures play an important role in medical diagnostics and therapy. They are related to the use of ionizing radiation, which affects the radiological exposure of all of the persons involved in their performance. The goal of the study was to estimate the doses associated with the performance of various nuclear medicine procedures in order to optimize workload management. The analysis was performed for 158 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy procedures, 24 bone scintigraphies, 9 thyroid scintigraphies (6 with use of 131I and 3 with 99mTc), 5 parathyroid glands and 5 renal scintigraphies. In this evaluation, two possible locations of thermoluminescent detectors, used for measurements, were taken into consideration: in the control room and directly next to the patient. It was shown how the radiological exposure varies depending on the performed procedure. For high activity procedures, ambient dose equivalent registered in the control room reached the level over 50% of allowed dose limit. For example, ambient dose equivalent obtained in control room when performing bone scintigraphy only was 1.13 ± 0.3 mSv. It is 68% of calculated dose limit in the examined time span. It has been shown that risk associated with nuclear medicine procedures is influenced not only by the type of procedure, but also by the frequency of their performance and compliance with the ALARA principle. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy accounted for 79% of all evaluated procedures. The use of radiation shielding reduced the obtained doses from 14.7 ± 2.1 mSv in patient’s vicinity to 1.47 ± 0.6 mSv behind the shielding. By comparing the results obtained for procedures and dose limits established by Polish Ministry of Health, it is possible to estimate what should be the optimal division of duties between staff, so that everyone receives similar doses. Full article
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18 pages, 391 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Burden, Quality of Life and Difficulties of Informal Primary Caregivers in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of the Contributions of Public Policies
by Tania Gaspar, Marta Raimundo, Sofia Borges de Sousa, Marta Barata and Tulia Cabrita
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065205 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
The study aimed to characterize and understand the difficulties experienced by informal caregivers from a bio-psychosocial and environmental perspective, taking into account the socio-demographic and health characteristics of the informal caregiver and the person cared for, quality of life, perceived burden, social support, [...] Read more.
The study aimed to characterize and understand the difficulties experienced by informal caregivers from a bio-psychosocial and environmental perspective, taking into account the socio-demographic and health characteristics of the informal caregiver and the person cared for, quality of life, perceived burden, social support, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the informal caregiver and the person cared for. The participants were 371 informal primary caregivers, 80.9% female, aged between 25 and 85 years, mean 53.17 (SD = 11.45) years. Only 16.4% of the informal caregivers benefited from monitoring and training for informal caregiver skills; 34.8% received information on the rights of the person being cared for; 7.8% received advice or guidance on the rights and duties of the informal caregiver; 11.9% of the caregivers benefited from psychological support; and 5.7% participated in self-help groups. A convenience sample was used, and data were collected via an online questionnaire. The main findings show that the major difficulties experienced by caregivers are related to social constraints, the demands of caring, and the reactions of the person cared for. The results reveal that the burden of the main informal caregivers is explained by the level of education, quality of life, level of dependence of the person cared for, level of difficulties, and social support. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted caregiving by increasing the perceived difficulty of accessing support services, such as consultations, services, and support; causing distress feelings in the caregiver, such as, anxiety and worry; increasing the needs and symptoms of the person cared for; and increasing the degree of isolation, for both, the informal caregiver and the person cared for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primary Care and Geriatric Nursing)
19 pages, 2323 KiB  
Article
Policy Changes in China’s Family Planning: Perspectives of Advocacy Coalitions
by Zhichao Li, Xihan Tan and Bojia Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065204 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
Studies on policy change focus on governmental decision-making from a technical rationality perspective, ignoring the fact that policy change is a complicated social construction process involving multiple actors. This study used the modified advocacy coalition framework to explain changes in China’s family planning [...] Read more.
Studies on policy change focus on governmental decision-making from a technical rationality perspective, ignoring the fact that policy change is a complicated social construction process involving multiple actors. This study used the modified advocacy coalition framework to explain changes in China’s family planning policy and discourse network analysis to show the debate on the birth control policy among multiple actors (central government, local governments, experts, media, and the public). It found that the dominant coalition and the minority coalition can learn and adjust deep core beliefs from each other; the sharing and flow of actors’ policy beliefs drive change in the network structure; and actors’ obvious preferential attachment when the promulgation of the central document, are all helpful in policy change. This study can explain macro-policy changes from a micro-perspective to reveal the process and mechanism of policy changes in China’s authoritarian regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family Planning and Reproductive Health)
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12 pages, 667 KiB  
Article
Noncompliance with Hypertension Treatment and Related Factors among Kumamoto Earthquake Victims Who Experienced the COVID-19 Pandemic during Postearthquake Recovery Period
by Ayako Ide-Okochi, Mu He, Hiroshi Murayama, Tomonori Samiso and Naoki Yoshinaga
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065203 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Survivors of the Kumamoto earthquake of 2016 experienced the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak while carrying additional burdens that might bring inadequate coping. This cross-sectional survey aimed to identify untreated and interrupted consultations among those with hypertension and related factors and to identify the [...] Read more.
Survivors of the Kumamoto earthquake of 2016 experienced the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak while carrying additional burdens that might bring inadequate coping. This cross-sectional survey aimed to identify untreated and interrupted consultations among those with hypertension and related factors and to identify the disaster’s long-term effects. Of the 19,212 earthquake survivors who had moved to permanent housing, 7367 (4196 women and 3171 men, mean age 61.8 ± 17.3 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of hypertension was 41.4%. The results of the logistic regression analysis with the significant independent variables in the bivariate analysis were: reduced income due to COVID-19 (AOR = 3.23, 95%CI = 2.27–4.58) and poor self-rated health (AOR = 2.49, 95%CI = 1.72–3.61) were associated with a risk of untreated or discontinued treatment. Moreover, living in rental, public or restoration public housing was also significantly associated with a higher risk of hypertension noncompliance (AOR = 1.92, 95%CI = 1.20–3.07; AOR = 2.47, 95%CI = 1.38–4.42; AOR = 4.12, 95%CI = 1.14–14.90). These results suggest that changes due to COVID-19, the extent of self-rated health and the type of permanent housing influence the hypertension consulting behaviour of earthquake survivors during recovery. It is crucial to implement long-term public support for the mental health, income and housing concerns of the survivors. Full article
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15 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Processing Speed and Reaction Time Outcome Measures in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome
by Emily K. Schworer, Mekibib Altaye, Deborah J. Fidler, Dean W. Beebe, Susan Wiley, Emily K. Hoffman and Anna J. Esbensen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065202 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Reliable and valid cognitive outcome measures, including examiner-administered and computer-facilitated assessments of processing speed and reaction time, are necessary for future clinical trials that include individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The current study evaluated the score distributions and psychometric properties of four examiner-administered [...] Read more.
Reliable and valid cognitive outcome measures, including examiner-administered and computer-facilitated assessments of processing speed and reaction time, are necessary for future clinical trials that include individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The current study evaluated the score distributions and psychometric properties of four examiner-administered and three computerized processing speed and reaction time measures. Participants included 97 individuals with DS, aged 6 to 17 (M = 12.6, SD = 3.3). Two examiner-administered measures (Differential Ability Scales-II Rapid Naming and Cat/dog Stroop Congruent) met most predetermined psychometric criteria. Other assessments demonstrated good test-retest reliability and had negligible practice effects but lacked adequate feasibility. Recommendations for using processing speed and reaction time assessments in research and suggestions for modifications of measures are discussed. Full article
10 pages, 1508 KiB  
Systematic Review
Management of Hypoplastic or Hypomineralized Defects with Resin Infiltration at Pediatric Ages: Systematic Review
by María Dolores Casaña-Ruiz, Laura Marqués Martínez and Esther García Miralles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065201 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Hypoplastic or hypomineralized enamel defects represent a recurrent reason for consultation within the pediatric population, causing great discomfort due to their aesthetic appearance, as well as their functional limitations. Current conservative dentistry requires minimally invasive treatments in order to treat such defects and [...] Read more.
Hypoplastic or hypomineralized enamel defects represent a recurrent reason for consultation within the pediatric population, causing great discomfort due to their aesthetic appearance, as well as their functional limitations. Current conservative dentistry requires minimally invasive treatments in order to treat such defects and provide successful, definitive solutions. A systematic review of the literature has been carried out in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. A search was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus, SciELO and Web of Science databases, completed with a manual search. The following variables were extracted from the selected studies: author, year, publication journal, type of study, sample, age of the participants and the materials used for its development. From the initial electronic search of the four databases, 282 articles were identified: 34 from PubMed, 240 from Scopus, 0 from SciELO and 8 from Web of Science. After eliminating duplicate articles, a total of 225 remained. After reading the title and abstract, 158 articles were eliminated, leaving 68. Upon reading the full text, the remaining studies were eliminated for not answering the research question or the inclusion criteria, leaving a total of 13 articles. Finally, 12 articles were used to carry out the systematic review. Treatments performed to date with the ICON™ system in pediatric patients have shown good results after their application. Since the variability of diagnostic methods has been observed, new diagnostic and assessment protocols should be created after treatment to objectify their effect on hypoplastic or hypomineralized enamel defects. In the same way, it has been described that treatment provides better results if combined with other opalustre-type or remineralizing materials. This review is registered in PROSPERO with the number CRD42021288738. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Health in Children and Adolescents)
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15 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Neighborhood Effect on Elderly Depression in Republic of Korea
by Ji-Hyon Hwang and Yong-Jin Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065200 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
This study analyzed the spatial distribution patterns of depression among vulnerable elderly across Republic of Korea. The average level of depression in the basic administrative districts was derived using the individual depression scores from the Health Interview Survey data. Results of the spatial [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the spatial distribution patterns of depression among vulnerable elderly across Republic of Korea. The average level of depression in the basic administrative districts was derived using the individual depression scores from the Health Interview Survey data. Results of the spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that the Moran’s I value was 0.3138, indicating the existence of a neighborhood effect in the depression of the vulnerable older adults at the regional level. Subsequently, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA were conducted for the hot spots where vulnerable older adult depression was concentrated. Based on the cluster analysis results, hot spots were the areas where the facilities that are necessary for the daily lives of older adults were insufficient and were categorized into three types. The findings indicate that environmental characteristics at the regional level should be considered in addition to the environmental characteristics of the house and neighborhood, which have been primarily addressed in previous studies. Full article
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