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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 23 (December-1 2022) – 823 articles

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Article
Sleep Traits, Night Shift Work and Lung Cancer Risk among Women: Results from a Population-Based Case-Control Study in France (The WELCA Study)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316246 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Circadian rhythm disruption due to night shift work and/or sleep disorders is associated with negative health outcomes including cancer. There is only scant evidence of an association with lung cancer, unlike breast and prostate cancer. We explore the role of sleep disorders and [...] Read more.
Circadian rhythm disruption due to night shift work and/or sleep disorders is associated with negative health outcomes including cancer. There is only scant evidence of an association with lung cancer, unlike breast and prostate cancer. We explore the role of sleep disorders and night shift work in lung cancer risk among women in a population-based case-control study, including 716 lung cancer cases and 758 controls. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with sleep duration per day (<7 h, 7–7.9 h, ≥8 h), a summary index of sleep disorders, chronotype, and night shift work exposure metrics. When compared to women with an average sleep duration of 7–7.9 h per day, the OR was 1.39 (95% CI 1.04–1.86) in long sleepers (≥8 h) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.86–1.56) in short sleepers (<7 h). Overall, lung cancer was not associated with the sleep disorder index, nor with night shift work, regardless of the duration of night work or the frequency of night shifts. However, elevated OR associated with the sleep disorder index were found in the subgroup of current smokers. The U-shaped association of lung cancer with sleep duration was more particularly pronounced among women who worked at night ≥5 years. Our findings suggested that sleep patterns are associated with lung cancer risk in women with a potential modifying effect by night shift work duration or tobacco smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circadian Rhythm and Sleep, Lifestyle and Health)
Article
The Roles of Anxiety and Self-Esteem in the Risk of Eating Disorders and Compulsive Buying Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316245 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
In contemporary society, following the sudden changes that occur, different forms of addiction are becoming popular. Of note are the new addictions and concepts of poly-dependencies that involve common behaviors and trap people who suffering from them in a vicious circle. The main [...] Read more.
In contemporary society, following the sudden changes that occur, different forms of addiction are becoming popular. Of note are the new addictions and concepts of poly-dependencies that involve common behaviors and trap people who suffering from them in a vicious circle. The main goal of this study is to investigate the possible mediating role that self-esteem had between trait anxiety and two specific new addictions: compulsive buying behavior and eating disorders. Furthermore, it was verified through a multigroup analysis that trait anxiety had a greater effect on eating disorders in a group of compulsive consumers. Three-hundred and fifty-two participants (67.9% women) were enrolled to participate in this study. The results showed that there was a direct effect of trait anxiety on eating disorders and on compulsive buying behavior; self-esteem mediated the effect of trait anxiety on eating disorders and compulsive buying behavior with specific differences; multi-group analysis showed differences in anxiety’s effect on eating disorders between compulsive and non-compulsive consumers; the group of compulsive consumers revealed a significant and stronger effect of trait anxiety on eating disorders in all domains identified. Further research is recommended to better understand the predictors of these disorders and to contribute to a more effective preventive intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology Related to Addiction Behavior)
Article
Stress and Alcohol Intake among Hispanic Adult Immigrants in the U.S. Midwest
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316244 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Alcohol intake and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) among recent and very recent Hispanic immigrants are not well characterized, in particular in the context of perceived stress among such groups. The objective of the present study was to shed light on alcohol intake and [...] Read more.
Alcohol intake and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) among recent and very recent Hispanic immigrants are not well characterized, in particular in the context of perceived stress among such groups. The objective of the present study was to shed light on alcohol intake and AUD overall, as well as potential modifications derived from varying levels of stress and socioeconomic status (SES). The study population was immigrants with six or fewer months of having arrived in the American Midwest, and members of their peer networks who had been in the U.S. for 2+ years. We found that AUD and alcohol intake spanned from very high to a considerable proportion who abstained; perceived stress did not have an obvious impact on AUD or alcohol intake. Moreover, neither New vs. Established immigrant statuses, or SES levels, were associated with AUD or alcohol intake. Future research should examine in a more finely-grained approach the components of SES to verify if the complex circumstances of recent immigrants are in fact amenable to SES classification using standard quantification approaches—even using the functional descriptions of the SES surrogates we used. Full article
Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in a Sample of the Lebanese Population Regarding Cholera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316243 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
The evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practices towards an emerging disease is an essential component of public health preventive measures during an outbreak. In October 2022, an outbreak of cholera was reported in Lebanon, which is the first to be reported in the [...] Read more.
The evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practices towards an emerging disease is an essential component of public health preventive measures during an outbreak. In October 2022, an outbreak of cholera was reported in Lebanon, which is the first to be reported in the Middle Eastern country for 30 years. This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge as well as attitude and practice of the general public in Lebanon towards cholera. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed via an online link to individuals living in Lebanon during October–November 2022. The survey instrument comprised items to assess the sociodemographic data; questions on knowledge about cholera symptoms, transmission, and prevention; as well as attitude and practice questions. Our study involved 553 participants, with a median age of 24 years and a majority of females (72.5%). The results showed that the majority of respondents correctly identified diarrhea as a symptom of cholera and recognized the spread via contaminated water and food. Having a university level education compared with secondary school or less (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.09), being married compared with single (aOR = 1.67), and working in the medical field compared with unemployed (aOR = 4.19) were significantly associated with higher odds of having good cholera knowledge. Having good knowledge compared with having a poor level of cholera knowledge (aOR = 1.83) and older age (aOR = 1.03) were significantly associated with higher odds of having a good attitude towards cholera. The current study showed an overall high knowledge score on cholera among the Lebanese population. Nevertheless, gaps in cholera knowledge were identified and should be addressed, particularly among workers in the medical field. Thus, we recommend targeted health education to the general population that aims to strengthen the health resilience in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Diseases and Their Association with Microbiology)
Article
Dietary Intakes of Elite Male Professional Rugby Union Players in Catered and Non-Catered Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316242 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
In professional rugby union, it is common for players to switch between catered and non-catered dietary environments throughout a season. However, little is known about the difference in dietary intake between these two settings. Twelve elite male professional rugby union players (28.3 ± [...] Read more.
In professional rugby union, it is common for players to switch between catered and non-catered dietary environments throughout a season. However, little is known about the difference in dietary intake between these two settings. Twelve elite male professional rugby union players (28.3 ± 2.9 y, 188.9 ± 9.5 cm, 104.1 ± 13.3 kg) from the New Zealand Super Rugby Championship completed seven-day photographic food diaries with two-way communication during two seven-day competition weeks in both catered and non-catered environments. While no significant differences were observed in relative carbohydrate intake, mean seven-day absolute energy intakes (5210 ± 674 vs. 4341 ± 654 kcal·day−1), relative protein (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 g·kgBM·day−1) and relative fat (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.5 ± 0.3 g·kgBM·day−1) intakes were significantly higher in the catered compared to the non-catered environment (respectively) among forwards (n = 6). Backs (n = 6) presented non-significantly higher energy and macronutrient intakes within a catered compared to a non-catered environment. More similar dietary intakes were observed among backs regardless of the catering environment. Forwards may require more support and/or attention when transitioning between catered and non-catered environments to ensure that recommended dietary intakes are being achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sport, Performance and Physical Fitness)
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Article
The Relationship between Mindfulness and Social Adaptation among Migrant Children in China: The Sequential Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316241 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Social adaptation of migrant children is not only related to the physical and mental health and development of individuals, but also reflects the level of urban social integration and stable development. Mindfulness has a protective effect on individual social adaptation. Self-esteem and resilience [...] Read more.
Social adaptation of migrant children is not only related to the physical and mental health and development of individuals, but also reflects the level of urban social integration and stable development. Mindfulness has a protective effect on individual social adaptation. Self-esteem and resilience were found to be positively associated with mindfulness and social adaptation. Based on the Positive Youth Development Perspective, this study aimed to explore whether self-esteem and resilience sequentially mediated the associations among mindfulness and social adaptation. A total of 526 migrant children were assessed with the questionnaires regarding mindfulness, self-esteem, resilience, and social adaptation. The results indicated that mindfulness was positively associated with social adaptation of migrant children. Self-esteem and resilience played the sequential mediating roles between mindfulness and social adaptation. The present study revealed the influence and mechanism of mindfulness on social adaptation and provided some guidance for the intervention programs to promote migrant children’s adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescents)
Article
Motives and Barriers for Regular Physical Activity among Medical Students from the Western Balkans (South-East Europe Region)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316240 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple beneficial effects on students’ health, effectively reducing the risk of various non-communicable diseases. Various factors play a role in an individual’s motivation to engage in and maintain regular PA. So far, no research dealing with the motives [...] Read more.
Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple beneficial effects on students’ health, effectively reducing the risk of various non-communicable diseases. Various factors play a role in an individual’s motivation to engage in and maintain regular PA. So far, no research dealing with the motives and barriers for regular PA among medical students has been conducted in the countries of the Western Balkans. The aim of this study was to identify the motives and barriers related to regular PA and compare them with different demographic, socioeconomic, and individual lifestyle factors among Western Balkans medical students. The research was conducted in a form of a cross-sectional study. It included 2452 medical students from 14 faculties in five countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, and Serbia). The most commonly reported motive of medical students for regular PA is to feel better, followed by stress reduction, to look better, the desire to lose weight, and to control chronic disease. PA improvement motives are more frequently associated with the female gender, more advanced years of study, a normal weight, above average household income, and a non-smoking status. Faculty obligations are the most common barrier for regular PA among medical students, followed by other barriers, such as financial situation, current life situation, and health conditions. Barriers are more frequently reported by male students who are overweight or obese, who have a below average income, and are smokers. It is necessary for public health authorities to examine and take into account the perceived motives and barriers when forming activities and policies that aim at increasing the level of PA, in order to enhance the health of the student population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivation and Health Outcomes for Physical Activity)
Article
Gender Difference in Fear and Anxiety about and Perceived Susceptibility to COVID-19 in the Third Wave of Pandemic among the Japanese General Population: A Nationwide Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316239 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Existing research suggested gender differences in fear and anxiety about and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 and previous infectious disease pandemics. We analyzed whether women felt fear and anxiety about and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 more frequently than men in Japan. We conducted a [...] Read more.
Existing research suggested gender differences in fear and anxiety about and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 and previous infectious disease pandemics. We analyzed whether women felt fear and anxiety about and perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 more frequently than men in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using internet survey data collected during the third wave of the pandemic in Japan. The subjects were enrolled from the Japanese general population: 11,957 men and 11,559 women. Fear and anxiety specifically related to COVID-19 were evaluated with the Japanese version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FoCS). The question “How likely do you think you will be infected with COVID-19?” was used to assess the perceived susceptibility to COVID-19. Women had higher mean (standard deviation) FoCS scores [18.6 (5.6) vs. 17.5 (5.9), d = 0.190] and reported the median or higher FoCS score (57.4% vs. 51.4%, φ = 0.060) and perceived susceptibility (13.6% vs. 11.5%, φ = 0.032) more frequently than men. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) adjusted for age, having a spouse, comorbidities, watching commercial TV stations’ news programs, employment status, and household income were 1.24 (1.17–1.32) and 1.27 (1.16–1.38), respectively. We observed that women were more anxious and fearful about and perceived the susceptibility to infectious diseases more frequently than men even one year after the pandemic occurred in Japan, although the effect size was small. Full article
Article
A Randomized Trial of a Swimming-Based Alternative Treatment for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316238 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental childhood disorder extending from ages 1–2 to 12–13, associated with impairment across multiple domains, including social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. Little is known about alternative treatments for this disorder. Interest has grown [...] Read more.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental childhood disorder extending from ages 1–2 to 12–13, associated with impairment across multiple domains, including social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. Little is known about alternative treatments for this disorder. Interest has grown in physical activity as a potential intervention for rehabilitating children with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the impact of adapted swimming activity on cognitive functions, academic performance, and related behavior of Tunisian children with ADHD. The study was conducted on school children aged 9 to 12 years (n = 40, 5 female and 35 male) diagnosed with ADHD. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group (exercise intervention) or the control group. The Hayling test was used to assess cognitive performance, the Children Behavior Check List (CBCL) was used to assess ADHD-related behavior, and the change in reading and numeracy proficiency was assessed pre- and post-intervention. After 12 weeks of the intervention, the results revealed that there were significant improvements in behavior (p < 0.001), inhibition process (p < 0.001), and academic performance (p < 0.001) in the experimental group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that adapted swimming activity may have positive implications for cognitive function, behavior, and academic performance. This research may provide preliminary support for alternative therapeutic interventions that could be used by practitioners. Moreover, the results support active practice of recreational physical activities as a strategy to support children in overcoming ADHD deficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Pedagogy and Physical Education Practises for Health)
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The Follow-Up of Eating Disorders from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316237 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Eating disorders (EDs) are common among children and adolescents and are characterized by excessive concerns for physical appearance, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the follow-up of EDs from adolescence to adulthood, analyzing [...] Read more.
Eating disorders (EDs) are common among children and adolescents and are characterized by excessive concerns for physical appearance, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the follow-up of EDs from adolescence to adulthood, analyzing persistence, relapses, and associated comorbidities. We searched scientific articles in PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Embase through two research strings, one for quantitative outcomes (recovery/persistence, relapse, and remission) and one for the other outcomes (psychiatric and medical comorbidities, substance use, and social–relational complications). From a total of 8043 retrieved articles, we selected 503 papers after exclusion of duplicates and title/abstract screening. After a full-text evaluation, we included 16 studies eligible for this review. We performed a meta-analysis describing the quantitative results, and we created a narrative synthesis for the qualitative outcomes. Results: Our results confirm that EDs can persist in early adulthood in 40.7% of cases with a relapse percentage of 24.5%. Individuals with an ED more frequently present with an empathy deficit and comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. EDs are chronic and complex disorders, more frequent in females. In most cases, EDs reduce the autonomy of individuals who present many difficulties in affirming their independence from parental family. Full article
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Article
A Low-Cost Method Shows Potentially Toxic Element Levels in Dust Correlated with Elevated Blood Levels of These Chemicals in Children Exposed to an Informal Home-Based Production Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316236 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Dust is recognized as a route of exposure to environmental pollutants. The city of Limeira, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, is a production center for jewelry and fashion jewelry, where part of this jewelry production is home-based, informal, and outsourced. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Dust is recognized as a route of exposure to environmental pollutants. The city of Limeira, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, is a production center for jewelry and fashion jewelry, where part of this jewelry production is home-based, informal, and outsourced. The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE: Cr, Sn, Mn, Sb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As) in dust among children from households of informal workers using electrostatic dust cloths (EDC). Dust samples were collected in 21 exposed and 23 control families using EDC from surfaces where dust deposits had accumulated for approximately 14 days. In exposed families, dust samples were also collected from welders’ workstations. PTE concentrations were then determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results raised concerns in relation to Cr, As, and Cd exposure among children within the informal home-based production environment. Blood PTE concentrations in children showed a moderate correlation with levels of Cr (Rho 0.40), Zn (Rho −0.43), and As (Rho 0.40), and a strong correlation with Cd (Rho 0.80) (p < 0.05), detected in dust. In conclusion, analyzing dust collected using EDC proved a potentially low-cost tool for determining PTE in dust. In addition, the results confirmed that informal home-based work poses a risk for children residing in these households. Public policies are needed to assist these families and promote better conditions of occupational health and safety for the whole family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Occupational Health in Brazil)
Article
Percent Body Fat-Related Disparities of Serum Ferritin on the Risk of Lipid Metabolism Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316235 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Objective: This study examined the association between serum ferritin and dyslipidemia in children and adolescents with different degrees of obesity. Method: In this multi-stage, stratified, randomized, sampling cross-section cohort study, demographic data were collected by questionnaire from 4320 children and adolescents (aged 6–17 [...] Read more.
Objective: This study examined the association between serum ferritin and dyslipidemia in children and adolescents with different degrees of obesity. Method: In this multi-stage, stratified, randomized, sampling cross-section cohort study, demographic data were collected by questionnaire from 4320 children and adolescents (aged 6–17 years) in Shanghai, China. Anthropometric measures and percent body fat (PBF) were recorded. Serum lipid parameters were detected by an automatic biochemical method, and ferritin levels were measured by an automatic immunoassay. Results: Our results showed 70.6%, 13.9%, and 15.5% of participants had a healthy body fat, low fat, and overweight/obese, respectively. Increasing ferritin quartiles were independently associated with a greater hazard of dyslipidemia, especially in overweight/obese participants, and the OR (95% CI) was 3.01 (1.29–7.00), 3.58 (1.59–8.04), and 5.66 (2.57–12.46) across the ferritin quartiles after adjustment for confounders. Ferritin was only a predictive value for dyslipidemia in overweight/obese participants (AUC = 0.64) and was consistent in boys (AUC = 0.61) and girls (AUC = 0.68). The significant positive correlation between ferritin value and lipid abnormalities profiles (except for low HDL-C) mainly appeared in the overweight/obesity group. Conclusion: The results showed that serum ferritin can be considered an independent risk factor for dyslipidemia in children and adolescents with obesity. Highlights: Ferritin overload had a greater risk of dyslipidemia, especially in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. Full article
Article
The Belt and Road Initiative, Public Health Expenditure and Economic Growth: Evidence from Quasi-Natural Experiments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316234 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) involve society, economy, and environment, and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an important path to implement the SDGs. Moreover, the BRI is a vision for economic development of countries along the route. Although [...] Read more.
The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) involve society, economy, and environment, and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an important path to implement the SDGs. Moreover, the BRI is a vision for economic development of countries along the route. Although many studies documented the effect of the BRI on environment and economic performance, few studies have discussed the effect of the BRI on social and economic benefits. Therefore, we introduce the public health expenditure to explore the relationship between the BRI and the public health and economic growth of countries along the route from the dual perspective of social development and economic growth. Based on a panel data from 171 countries from 2010 to 2018, the current research explores whether the BRI can boost public health and promote economic growth in the belt-road countries. As a result, we found that the BRI boosted the expenditure of public health and effectively spurred economic growth in the belt-road countries. Furthermore, the effect of the BRI on the economic growth in the countries along the route depends on the level of public health expenditure in each country; the positive effect of the BRI on economic growth is significant when the public health expenditure level is moderate instead of low or high. The findings provide theoretical and practical insights into the SDGs of the BRI. Full article
Article
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Pollution Characteristics in Agricultural Soils of the Pearl River Delta Region, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316233 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
In order to investigate the pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agricultural soil, 240 agricultural soil topsoil samples were collected from nine Pearl River Delta cities from June to September 2019. In addition, 72 samples were collected for vertical soil [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agricultural soil, 240 agricultural soil topsoil samples were collected from nine Pearl River Delta cities from June to September 2019. In addition, 72 samples were collected for vertical soil profiles, which soil profiles were excavated to a depth of 80 cm. After sample preparation, GC-MS was used for the separation of compounds on a HP-5MS quartz capillary column. ArcGIS software was used to map the spatial distribution. Health risk assessment was conducted using USEPA standard. The results showed that the total concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 43.4 to 5630 ng/g, with an average of 219 ng/g. The spatial distribution showed that most of the seriously polluted areas were in the coastal area, near the port, and there was point source pollution in the Gaoming of Foshan. Vertically distributed display Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhaoqing, Shenzhen and Dongguan increased and then decreased from bottom to bottom, showing a low-high-low pattern, the concentration of PAHs in Zhongshan and Foshan decreased with the soil depth, while the concentration of PAHs in Guangzhou and Huizhou was enriched with human activities. The PAHs components in soil samples were mainly medium and high rings (4–6 rings). The analysis of the origin of PAH in soil samples showed that the mixture of incomplete combustion sources of fossil fuels such as coal and biomass and traffic emission sources were the main sources of soil PAHs. A small amount can be attributed to oil sources such as oil spills. The human health risk assessment showed no cancer risk for children, while for adults, may cause a potential risk of cancer, which needs to be noticed. Spearman correlation analysis showed that PAH content was significantly correlated with SOC (p < 0.01) and pH (p < 0.05). Port transport, road emissions and industrial production make the area a pollution hot topic, and supervision should be strengthened to protect the environment and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Waste Treatment, Biohazards, and Management)
Article
Comparative Biomonitoring of Arsenic Exposure in Mothers and Their Neonates in Comarca Lagunera, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316232 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Multiple comorbidities related to arsenic exposure through drinking water continue to be public problems worldwide, principally in chronically exposed populations, such as those in the Comarca Lagunera (CL), Mexico. In addition, this relationship could be exacerbated by an early life exposure through the [...] Read more.
Multiple comorbidities related to arsenic exposure through drinking water continue to be public problems worldwide, principally in chronically exposed populations, such as those in the Comarca Lagunera (CL), Mexico. In addition, this relationship could be exacerbated by an early life exposure through the placenta and later through breast milk. This study conducted a comparative analysis of arsenic levels in multiple biological samples from pregnant women and their neonates in the CL and the comparison region, Saltillo. Total arsenic levels in placenta, breast milk, blood, and urine were measured in pregnant women and their neonates from rural areas of seven municipalities of the CL using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation methodology. The average concentrations of tAs in drinking water were 47.7 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L in the exposed and non-exposed areas, respectively. Mean levels of tAs were 7.80 µg/kg, 77.04 µg/g-Cr, and 4.30 µg/L in placenta, blood, urine, and breast milk, respectively, in mothers, and 107.92 µg/g-Cr in neonates in the exposed group, which were significantly higher than those in the non-exposed area. High levels of urinary arsenic in neonates were maintained 4 days after birth, demonstrating an early arsenic exposure route through the placenta and breast milk. In addition, our study suggested that breastfeeding may reduce arsenic exposure in infants in arsenic-contaminated areas. Further studies are necessary to follow up on comorbidities later in life in neonates and to provide interventions in this region. Full article
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Article
Clinical Outcomes of a Non-Compliant Balloon Dilatation Catheter: MOZEC™ NC Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316231 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
The present study sought to assess the clinical outcomes of the Mozec™ Non-compliant (NC) Rx PTCA balloon dilatation catheter (BDC) (Meril Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, India) for dilatation of coronary lesions. This was a post-marketing, single-centre, single-arm, retrospective study. In total, 57 [...] Read more.
The present study sought to assess the clinical outcomes of the Mozec™ Non-compliant (NC) Rx PTCA balloon dilatation catheter (BDC) (Meril Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, India) for dilatation of coronary lesions. This was a post-marketing, single-centre, single-arm, retrospective study. In total, 57 patients who had undergone post-dilatation with the Mozec™ NC Rx PTCA balloon dilatation catheter were evaluated. The primary endpoint was procedural success defined as (i) successful delivery of the investigational device to and across the target lesion; (ii) successful inflation, deflation, and withdrawal of the investigational device; (iii) absence of vessel perforation, flow-limiting vessel dissection, increase in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow from baseline, clinically significant arrhythmia requiring medical treatment; and (iv) achievement of final TIMI flow grade 3 after percutaneous coronary intervention of the target lesion after single or multiple attempts to cross the target lesion. Procedural success was achieved in 57 (100%) patients. There were no incidences of major adverse cardiac events (MACE)/target lesion failure (TLF). Mozec™ NC Rx PTCA balloon dilatation catheter has demonstrated favourable outcomes for the dilatation of routine and complex coronary lesions in a small cohort, as evidenced by its 100% procedural success rate and absence of MACE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Myocardial Infarction: Prevention and Treatment)
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Comparison of Skinfold Thickness Measured by Caliper and Ultrasound Scanner in Normative Weight Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316230 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Obesity is a major issue affecting not only adults but also children in many places of the world. There are numerous methods for estimating the body fat percentage, however, all of those methods are different in terms of availability, accuracy, and the cost [...] Read more.
Obesity is a major issue affecting not only adults but also children in many places of the world. There are numerous methods for estimating the body fat percentage, however, all of those methods are different in terms of availability, accuracy, and the cost of an individual examination. The aim of this study was to compare two relatively easy and widespread measurement methods for assessing skinfold thickness: the BodyMetrix BX2000 ultrasound machine and a classic GPM caliper. Fifty-eight young women aged 19–24 years with normative body weight participated in the study. We found that although the measurements performed by both methods are positively correlated, the obtained values were different. In seven out of nine measured points, these differences were statistically significant. The measurements of skin fat folds with a caliper showed a higher value of subcutaneous tissue compared to ultrasound measurements. Only the values of measurements on the pectoral and mid-axillary did not differ between the methods. We conclude that due to the significant discrepancies in the values of measured skinfold thickness, appropriate measurement tools and dedicated formulas estimating the amount of body fat should be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Junior to Senior—Physiotherapy Connects Generations)
Article
Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors in Relation to Age, Type of Surgery and Length of Time since First Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316229 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
(1) Background: Quality of life assessment is a critical aspect of breast cancer patient outcomes, as diagnosis, prognosis and treatment can have a major impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the sample and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Quality of life assessment is a critical aspect of breast cancer patient outcomes, as diagnosis, prognosis and treatment can have a major impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the sample and to verify the relationship between quality of life (QOL) in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) and their age, type or surgery and time since treatment; (2) Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 183 women diagnosed with BC, aged 30–80 years in Mexico. Women’s QOL was assessed using two questionnaires, The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and The Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-BR23). (3) Results: the results show significant differences in several items when the variable age is taken into account, indicating that younger women have poorer social and sexual function, as well as poorer sexual enjoyment and lower expectations of the future. The type of surgery also indicates a significantly better QOL in those women who receive conservative treatment versus a mastectomy; the time elapsed since surgery does not show any significant results, except for sexual functioning and breast-related symptoms where >5 years implies better scores on the items. (4) Conclusions: in conclusion, it is important to take into account the characteristics of women with BC, particularly at the time of treatment, in order to mitigate the impact of the disease on their QOL with the help of a multidisciplinary team. Full article
Article
Statistical Measurements and Club Effects of High-Quality Development in Chinese Manufacturing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316228 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Advanced manufacturing is the pillar for building a modern economic system. We measured the level of high-quality development of manufacturing (HQDM) in China, and found that it has gone through the three stages of expansion, cultivation, and promotion. Spatially, it is characterized as [...] Read more.
Advanced manufacturing is the pillar for building a modern economic system. We measured the level of high-quality development of manufacturing (HQDM) in China, and found that it has gone through the three stages of expansion, cultivation, and promotion. Spatially, it is characterized as “high in the east, low in the west” and “fast in the west, slow in the east”, and presents non-equilibrium characteristics. To overcome the subjective bias introduced by artificially set clubs, we utilize a data-driven nonlinear time-varying factor model for clustering into four convergent clubs, where provinces with higher intensity of environmental regulation and environmental preference tend to move closer to the clubs with a higher level of HQDM. We reveal the convergence patterns and regional differences in HQDM, which provides a new perspective for determining the trends of high-quality manufacturing development, thus allowing for policy recommendations targeted at narrowing the manufacturing development gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development)
Article
Network Diversity and Health Change among International Migrants in China: Evidence from Foreigners in Changchun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316227 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Objective: Is the migration process likely to lead to sustained changes in individual social networks and health status? There are many controversies about the relationship between migrants’ networks and migrants’ health. An important reason may be that the constraints of specific social contexts [...] Read more.
Objective: Is the migration process likely to lead to sustained changes in individual social networks and health status? There are many controversies about the relationship between migrants’ networks and migrants’ health. An important reason may be that the constraints of specific social contexts on immigrant networks and health consequences are neglected. This study distinguished two types of social networks of international immigrants to China—their Chinese networks (Chinese-Net) and home-country networks (Motherland-Net). In addition, the study investigated the construction basis of immigrant social networks and health effects based on the Chinese context. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017, 2018, and 2019. The survey was carried out by an on-site questionnaire survey of foreigners in China in the entry-exit hall of the National Immigration Administration. The survey asked foreigners about their immigration experience, labor and employment, social networks, and access to health care. Results and conclusions: Immigrants from more developed countries are more likely to succeed in establishing Chinese-Net and reduce the dependence on Motherland-Net. The Japanese and South Korean immigrants tended to be associated with their home-country compatriots, excluding the Chinese from social contacts and immigration networks. The mixed residence of non-home-country immigrants reduces both the Motherland-Net and Chinese-Net of international immigrants. From the perspective of the health effect, the establishment and expansion of Chinese-Net did not present the “bright side” of encouraging immigrants to reach a better health status. In contrast, Motherland-Net has a stronger explanatory power for the health changes in immigrants. Full article
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Article
Does Back Squat Exercise Lead to Regional Hypertrophy among Quadriceps Femoris Muscles?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316226 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
The present study investigated effects of squat resistance training on intermuscular hypertrophy of quadriceps femoris muscles (i.e., rectus femoris, RF; vastus intermedius, VI; vastus medialis, VM; and vastus lateralis, VL). Eighteen university students (age: 24.1 ± 1.7 years, 9 females) underwent 7 weeks [...] Read more.
The present study investigated effects of squat resistance training on intermuscular hypertrophy of quadriceps femoris muscles (i.e., rectus femoris, RF; vastus intermedius, VI; vastus medialis, VM; and vastus lateralis, VL). Eighteen university students (age: 24.1 ± 1.7 years, 9 females) underwent 7 weeks of parallel squat training (2 days/week) preceded by a 2-week familiarization period. Squat strength (1RM) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of four quadriceps muscles were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. At posttest, 1RM and CSA of quadriceps muscles significantly increased (p < 0.01), with moderate-to-large effect (ES = 1.25–2.11) for 1RM (8.33 ± 6.64 kg), VM CSA (0.12 ± 0.08 cm2), and VL CSA (0.19 ± 0.09 cm2) and small effect (ES = 0.89–1.13) for RF CSA (0.17 ± 0.15 cm2) and VI CSA (0.16 ± 0.18 cm2). No significant differences were found in the changes of CSA between muscles (F = 0.638, p = 0.593). However, the squat 1RM gain was significantly associated only with the changes in CSA of the VL muscle (r = 0.717, p < 0.001). The parallel squat resulted in significant growth of all quadriceps muscles. However, the novelty of this study is that the increase in strength is associated only with hypertrophy of the VL muscle. Full article
Review
The Effects and Costs of Personalized Budgets for People with Disabilities: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316225 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
This article reviews the peer-reviewed and grey literature published from January 1985 to November 2022 that has quantitatively evaluated the effects of personalized budgets for people with disabilities (PwDs), in terms of a range of benefit and cost outcomes. Benefit metrics of interest [...] Read more.
This article reviews the peer-reviewed and grey literature published from January 1985 to November 2022 that has quantitatively evaluated the effects of personalized budgets for people with disabilities (PwDs), in terms of a range of benefit and cost outcomes. Benefit metrics of interest comprised measures of well-being, service satisfaction and use, quality of life, health, and unmet needs. A search was conducted using the PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ASSIA, and Social Care Online databases. Based on inclusion criteria and a quality assessment using the Downs and Black Checklist, a final count of 23 studies were identified for in-depth review. Given the heterogeneous nature of the studies, a narrative synthesis, rather than a formal meta-analysis, was undertaken. Taking the relatively scarce and often methodologically limited evidence base at face value, the findings suggest that—overall—personalized budget users tend to benefit in terms of well-being and service satisfaction outcomes, with the exception of mixed effects for people with mental health conditions. Only a minority of studies have investigated the cost-effectiveness or costs-only of personalized budgets, finding mixed results. Two out of the three cost-effectiveness studies find personal budgets to be more cost-effective than alternative options, meaning that the possibly higher costs of personalized budgets may be more than outweighed by additional benefits. Some evidence looking at service use and/or costs only also points to significant reductions in certain service use areas, which at least hints at the potential that personalized budgeting may—in some cases—entail reduced costs. Further research is needed to explore the generalizability of these conclusions and to better capture and understand the factors driving the observed heterogeneity in some of the results. Full article
Article
Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Medical Facilities Based on Public Transportation Networks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316224 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Aiming to look at the problems of the unreasonable layout of medical facilities and low coverage of primary medical services. This paper selects tertiary grade A hospitals, general hospitals, specialized hospitals, community-level hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in the main urban areas of Chongqing [...] Read more.
Aiming to look at the problems of the unreasonable layout of medical facilities and low coverage of primary medical services. This paper selects tertiary grade A hospitals, general hospitals, specialized hospitals, community-level hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in the main urban areas of Chongqing as research objects. The nearest analysis, kernel density, mean center, and standard deviational ellipse method were used to analyze the spatial differentiation characteristics of medical facilities and public transportation stations. Spatial accessibility was assessed from the perspective of service area ratios and service population ratios by constructing multiple modes of transportation (pedestrian systems, bus lines, rail lines). The results show that (1) the spatial layout of medical facilities in the main urban area of Chongqing is unbalanced; and the spatial distribution of medical facilities is characterized by “large agglomeration, small dispersion” and “multi-center group”; (2) the sub-core circle is centered on the Southwest University Area in Beibei District, the University Town Area in Shapingba, the Yudong Area and Lijiatuo Area in Banan District, the Pingan Light Rail Station Area in Dadukou District, the Chongqing No. 8 Middle School Area in Jiulongpo District, the Tea Garden Area in Nanan District, and the Jiangbei Airport Area in Yubei District; (3) the medical facilities with the weakest average accessibility are tertiary grade A hospitals, and the strongest are pharmacies; (4) the areas with vital average accessibility are Yuzhong District, Shapingba District, Dadukou District, and Nanan District. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Sustainable Urban Space: A Sustainability Approach)
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Article
Analyst Site Visits and Corporate Environmental Information Disclosure: Evidence from China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316223 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
Compared with developed countries, emerging economy countries are facing more severe environmental challenges. Therefore, effective disclosure of corporate environmental information is an important concern for emerging economies to cope with environmental issues. There is a growing volume of literature documenting that analyst site [...] Read more.
Compared with developed countries, emerging economy countries are facing more severe environmental challenges. Therefore, effective disclosure of corporate environmental information is an important concern for emerging economies to cope with environmental issues. There is a growing volume of literature documenting that analyst site visits can urge corporations to provide high-quality financial information to investors. However, whether analyst site visits can also improve the quality of environmental information is still unclear. In the Chinese setting, where environmental information has attracted much attention, we explore the interaction between analyst site visits and environmental information disclosure. With three regression methods of the ordinary least squares model, two-stage least square model, and difference-in-difference model, we establish regressions to verify the relationships between them by using empirical data from 2012 to 2019 in China. The results show that analyst site visits are significantly positively correlated with corporate environmental information disclosure. This positive relation is more pronounced when corporations are in economically developed and highly market-oriented areas, in poor air quality areas, and for corporations with good, reasonable internal governance. In addition, we find that analyst site visits affect the quality of environmental information disclosure through the intermediary effect of media attention. In the robustness test, further evidence also indicates that the interaction between analyst site visits and corporate environmental information disclosure was more significant before the COVID-19 lockdown policy was implemented in Wuhan. Our findings suggest that governments should provide support for analysts to conduct site visits and formulate regulations on mandatory disclosure of environmental information by different regions as soon as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Policy and Governance Performance)
Article
Suit the Remedy to the Case—The Effectiveness of COVID-19 Nonpharmaceutical Prevention and Control Policies Based on Individual Going-Out Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316222 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Nonpharmaceutical policies for epidemic prevention and control have been extensively used since the outbreak of COVID-19. Policies ultimately work by limiting individual behavior. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of policies by combining macro nonpharmaceutical policies with micro-individual going-out [...] Read more.
Nonpharmaceutical policies for epidemic prevention and control have been extensively used since the outbreak of COVID-19. Policies ultimately work by limiting individual behavior. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of policies by combining macro nonpharmaceutical policies with micro-individual going-out behavior. For different going out scenarios triggered by individual physiological safety needs, friendship needs, and family needs, this paper categorizes policies with significant differences in intensity, parameterizes the key contents of the policies, and simulates and analyzes the effectiveness of the policies in different going-out scenarios with simulation methods. The empirical results show that enhancing policy intensity can effectively improve policy effectiveness. Among different types of policies, restricting the times of going out is more effective. Further, the effect of controlling going out based on physiological safety needs is better than other needs. We also evaluate the policy effectiveness of 26 global countries or regions. The results show that the policy effectiveness varies among 26 countries or regions. The quantifiable reference provided by this study facilitates decision makers to establish policy and practices for epidemic prevention and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Global Health)
Article
Age-Based Differences in Sleep Quality, Pre-Sleep Arousal, and Psychosocial Factors during the Second Wave Lockdown of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Georgia—A Higher Vulnerability of Younger People
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316221 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply disrupted sleep and mental health of people around the world. We aimed to investigate age-based differences in the prevalence of and relationship between sleep quality, pre-sleep arousal, and psychosocial factors during the second wave lockdown of the COVID-19 [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply disrupted sleep and mental health of people around the world. We aimed to investigate age-based differences in the prevalence of and relationship between sleep quality, pre-sleep arousal, and psychosocial factors during the second wave lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Georgia. Data were collected through an online survey (n = 1117). Participants were categorized into four age groups: 18–29, 30–41, 42–53, and 54–70 years. The youngest participants reported the most prevalent disruption of sleep behavior. Overall, 58.3% of respondents were poor sleepers. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score was highest in the youngest age group but the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the PSQI component scores for subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction, all being worse in young respondents. We also observed a significantly higher prevalence rate of worse sleep quality in the youngest age group, relative to the pre-pandemic period. On the other hand, the oldest respondents showed significantly greater use of sleeping medications. Significantly higher levels of somatic and cognitive pre-sleep arousal, perceived stress, feeling depressed, anxious, and socially isolated were reported by the youngest age group. Study findings indicate a higher vulnerability of younger people to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessment of pre-sleep arousal and implementation of specific, age-based interventions may prove beneficial to improve possible consequences of the pandemic on sleep and mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Sexual Violence and Substance Use Diagnosed in Emergency Department Discharges in Hawaii, 2005–2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316220 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 49
Abstract
Background: Substance use (SU) and sexual violence (SV) present unique challenges when contextualizing their relationship due to underreporting of SU and SV. Both are significant public health concerns with a large magnitude and expense to the overall U.S. and to the state of [...] Read more.
Background: Substance use (SU) and sexual violence (SV) present unique challenges when contextualizing their relationship due to underreporting of SU and SV. Both are significant public health concerns with a large magnitude and expense to the overall U.S. and to the state of Hawaii, which is identified as a high-intensity drug-trafficking area. Since substance users have a higher risk for sexual violence than the general public, this study aims to analyze the proportion and demographics of emergency department (ED) visit individuals reporting sexual violence with or without substance use disorder and examine how the number of ED visits of individuals diagnosed with SV and SU disorder compare to all individuals. Methods: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project was used to examine the relationship between SV and SU. The database contained 3.5 million observations for 24 Hawaii hospitals from 2005–2014. The data was summarized in descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were run to assess statistical significance for variables of interest. Results: A greater proportion of individuals reporting sexual violence also reported substance use disorders compared to the general population of individuals. While 8% of all ED visits were related to SU, 17% of ED visits involving SV were also related to SU, demonstrating a statistically significant association between SV and SU. Conclusions: There is a greater need to further understand the complexity of the relationship between substance use and sexual violence. Sexual violence and substance use disorders share a complex relationship; survivors of sexual abuse may develop a substance use disorder, and those who use drugs and alcohol may be at an increased risk for sexual violence. Results from this study demonstrate visits for individuals reporting sexual violence have a greater proportion of substance use disorder than visits for the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence between Intimate Partners and Violence against Women)
Article
Evolution and Simulation of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Sustainability Assessment in Karst Areas: A Case Study of Guizhou Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316219 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 39
Abstract
Against the background of “carbon neutrality” and sustainable development goals, it is of great significance to assess the carbon storage changes and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems in order to maintain the coordinated sustainable development of regional ecological economies and the balance of terrestrial [...] Read more.
Against the background of “carbon neutrality” and sustainable development goals, it is of great significance to assess the carbon storage changes and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems in order to maintain the coordinated sustainable development of regional ecological economies and the balance of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage in Guizhou from 2010 to 2020 was assessed with the InVEST model. Using the PLUS model, the distribution of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage by 2030 and 2050 was predicted. The current sustainable development level of the terrestrial ecosystem of Guizhou was evaluated after establishing an index system based on SDGs. The results showed the following: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage decreased by 1106.68 × 104 Mg. The area and carbon storage of the forest and farmland ecosystems decreased while the area and carbon storage of the grassland and settlement ecosystems increased. (2) Compared with 2020, the terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage will be reduced by 4091.43 × 104 Mg by 2030. Compared with 2030, the terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage will continue to decrease by 3833.25 × 104 Mg by 2050. (3) In 2020, the average score of the sustainable development of the terrestrial ecosystem was 0.4300. Zunyi City had the highest sustainable development score of 0.6255, and Anshun had the lowest sustainable development score of 0.3236. Overall, the sustainable development of the terrestrial ecosystem of Guizhou was found to be high in the north, low in the south, high in the east, and low in the west. The sustainable regional development of the terrestrial ecosystem of Guizhou was found to be unbalanced, and the carbon storage of the terrestrial ecosystem will keep decreasing in the future. In order to improve the sustainable development capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem, the government needs to take certain measures, such as returning farmland to forests and grasslands, curbing soil erosion, and actively supervising. Full article
Article
Pre-Service University Training, Body Expression and Self-Concept
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316218 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 45
Abstract
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past few decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a BE program was applied with university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) [...] Read more.
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past few decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a BE program was applied with university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE program affected the university students’ self-concept (SC). Thus, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, with dimensions closely related to the BE program characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. The men reported lower SC values than the women before the program’s implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was greater in the men, so the program may have had an equalizing effect between the groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected the women. Full article
Article
How to Use Biomechanical Job Exposure Matrices with Job History to Access Work Exposure for Musculoskeletal Disorders? Application of Mathematical Modeling in Severe Knee Pain in the Constances Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316217 (registering DOI) - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 51
Abstract
Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders related to work might be caused by the cumulative effect of occupational exposures during working life. We aimed to develop a new model which allows to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations in application to severe [...] Read more.
Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders related to work might be caused by the cumulative effect of occupational exposures during working life. We aimed to develop a new model which allows to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations in application to severe knee pain. Methods: From the CONSTANCES cohort, 62,620 subjects who were working at inclusion and coded were included in the study. The biomechanical job exposure matrix “JEM Constances” was used to assess the intensity/frequency of heavy lifting and kneeling/squatting at work together with work history to characterize the association between occupational exposure and severe knee pain. An innovative model G was developed and evaluated, allowing to compare the accuracy of duration of work and intensity/frequency associations. Results: The mean age was 49 years at inception with 46 percent of women. The G model developed was slightly better than regular models. Among the men subgroup, odds ratios of the highest quartile for the duration and low intensity were not significant for both exposures, whereas intensity/duration were for every duration. Results in women were less interpretable. Conclusions: Though higher duration increased strength of association with severe knee pain, intensity/frequency were important predictors among men. Exposure estimation along working history should have emphasis on such parameters, though other outcomes should be studied and have a focus on women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Significance of Biostatistics in Public Health)
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