Data on serum biochemistry markers as a component of the first-trimester screening test in pregnant kidney graft recipients are limited. In the absence of a separate validated algorithm, biochemical testing is commonly used in the first-trimester screening in kidney transplant recipients. Therefore, the
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Data on serum biochemistry markers as a component of the first-trimester screening test in pregnant kidney graft recipients are limited. In the absence of a separate validated algorithm, biochemical testing is commonly used in the first-trimester screening in kidney transplant recipients. Therefore, the study aimed to analyze first-trimester serum biochemical markers and the first trimester combined screening results in pregnant kidney graft recipients. A retrospective study was carried out in pregnant women who underwent the first-trimester combined screening test performed per the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) protocol in 2009–2020. The study group included 27 pregnancies in kidney graft transplant recipients, and the control group was 110 patients with normal kidney function, matched according to age, body mass index (BMI), and gestational age. The biochemical serum markers (free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin [beta-hCG] and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A [PAPP-A]) were evaluated using the FMF-approved Roche Elecsys®
assay and exhibited as multiples of the median (MoM) values. Data on first-trimester screening test results, perinatal outcomes, and graft function (assessed using serum creatinine concentrations) were analyzed. The analysis of first-trimester screening parameters revealed no difference in nuchal translucency (NT) measurements and uterine artery flow. However, free beta-hCG MoM and PAPP-A values were higher in posttransplant pregnancies than in controls: 3.47 ± 2.08 vs. 1.38 ± 0.85 (p
= 0.035) and 1.46 ± 0.81 vs. 0.98 ± 0.57 (p
= 0.007), respectively. The false positive rate of trisomy 21 (T21) screening in graft recipients was 25.9% vs. 3% in the controls. The free β-hCG MoM values positively correlated with serum creatinine levels before (r = 0.653; p
< 0.001), during (r = 0.619; p
= 0.001), and after pregnancy (r = 0.697; p
< 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation for PAPP-A MoM values for postpartum serum creatinine concentration (r = −0.424, p
= 0.035). Our results show significantly higher serum concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in posttransplant pregnancies than in healthy controls, confirmed when exhibited as MoM values and their association with graft function was assessed by serum creatinine concentration. Taking those changes into account would reduce the high number of false positive test results in this group. The validated first-trimester screening algorithm that considers altered kidney function in pregnant kidney graft recipients remains to be developed.