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Special Issue "Friendly Residential Environments for Ageing in Place with Autonomy and Independence"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Aging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 October 2022) | Viewed by 15901

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Fermina Rojo-Pérez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Research Group on Ageing (GIE-CSIC), 28037 Madrid, Spain
Interests: ageing; age-friendly settings; active/healthy ageing; quality of life; wellbeing; residential environments; health emergencies.
Dr. Gloria Fernández-Mayoralas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Research Group on Ageing (GIE-CSIC), 28037 Madrid, Spain
Interests: ageing; active/healthy ageing; health conditions; physical and social environments; gender roles and intersectionality; quality of life; wellbeing
Dr. Diego Sánchez-González
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Geography, National Distance Education University (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: ageing; environmental gerontology; age-friendly environments; residential environments; active and healthy ageing; quality of life; dependence; disability; social services; health emergencies; social vulnerability; climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The issue will focus on theoretical and applied subjects about residential environments and their connections with personal and contextual factors, quality of life, and wellbeing as people age. Conceptual approaches, literature reviews, and methodological studies deserve a special mention, as well as the incorporation of new technologies, the management of health emergencies (COVID-19 pandemic), and climatic risks, which are of valuable interest to better understand the environmental dimensions of aging at home/in place. From multidisciplinary epigenetic approaches and environmental gerontology, studies on implications of the aging environments on therapeutic strategies will be accepted.

We have been invited to organize a Special Issue on Friendly Residential Environments for Aging in Place with Autonomy and Independence in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.849 in 2019). More detailed information can be found in the journal site https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Under the Aging in Place (AIP) paradigm, older people report their preference for aging in their usual environments, distinguishing between various geographic scales: micro (dwelling), meso (community and neighborhood of residence) and macro (support services). However, the unadaptability of environments to the changing needs of older residents could have adverse effects on their health and living conditions. In this sense, the Age-Friendly Cities and Communities program is designed to engage communities to be adapted to address the environmental and social factors that contribute, from a theoretical or applied perspective, to active and healthy aging and, consequently, to well-being and quality of life as people age.

This Special Issue will welcome contributions related to the residential environment of older people, their characteristics, and its influence on autonomy, independence, and quality of life in the aging process, such as studies connected with aging in place, age-friendly cities and communities, active and healthy aging, residential contexts (housing, long-term care settings, cohousing), residential social networks, residential services, and related topics, for older adults both with and without dementia. Theoretical approaches, literature reviews, and methodological studies deserve a special mention, as well as the application of quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods, or the incorporation of new technologies to better understand the environmental dimensions of aging at home. In addition, new studies on the therapeutic importance of environments in aging are accepted, from the multidisciplinary approaches of epigenetic and environmental gerontology. Precisely, some of the responses to health emergencies (COVID-19 pandemic) and climate hazards (floods, heat waves) will come from a better understanding within aging environments.

Dr. Fermina Rojo-Pérez
Dr. Gloria Fernández-Mayoralas
Dr. Diego Sánchez-González
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • age-friendly communities
  • residential environments
  • built environment
  • aging in place
  • active aging
  • healthy aging
  • housing
  • long-term care settings
  • cohousing
  • quality of life
  • therapeutic environments
  • health emergencies
  • climate change
  • public health
  • epigenetic
  • environmental gerontology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Validation of the Spanish Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in Long-Term Care Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 16183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192316183 (registering DOI) - 03 Dec 2022
Viewed by 118
Abstract
Fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the main psychological impacts of the actual pandemic, especially among the population groups with higher mortality rates. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) has been used in different scenarios to assess fear associated with [...] Read more.
Fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the main psychological impacts of the actual pandemic, especially among the population groups with higher mortality rates. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) has been used in different scenarios to assess fear associated with COVID-19, but this has not been done frequently in people living in long-term care (LTC) settings. The present study is aimed at measuring the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the FCV-19S in residents in LTC settings, following both the classical test theory (CTT) and Rasch model frameworks. The participants (n = 447), aged 60 years or older, were asked to complete the FCV-19S and to report, among other issues, their levels of depression, resilience, emotional wellbeing and health-related quality of life with validated scales. The mean FCV-19S score was 18.36 (SD 8.28, range 7–35), with higher scores for women, participants with lower education (primary or less) and higher adherence to preventive measures (all, p < 0.05). The Cronbach’s alpha for the FCV-19S was 0.94. After eliminating two items due to a lack of fit, the FCV-19S showed a good fit to the Rasch model (χ2 (20) = 30.24, p = 0.019, PSI = 0.87), with unidimensionality (binomial 95% CI 0.001 to 0.045) and item local independency. Question 5 showed differential item functioning by sex. The present study shows that the FCV-19S has satisfactory reliability and validity, which supports its use to effectively measure fear in older people living in LTC settings. This tool could help identify risk groups that may need specific health education and effective communication strategies to lower fear levels. This might have a beneficial impact on adherence to preventive measures. Full article
Article
Friendly Residential Environments and Subjective Well-Being in Older People with and without Help Needs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315832 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that friendly environments are associated with well-being and higher quality of life in older people. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between friendly environments and subjective well-being by segmenting the population according to the need for help in [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that friendly environments are associated with well-being and higher quality of life in older people. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between friendly environments and subjective well-being by segmenting the population according to the need for help in performing activities of daily living (ADLs) in a representative sample of people over 55 years of age in the Basque Country (Spain) (n = 2760). To determine the predictive power of friendliness on subjective well-being, two separate linear regression models were obtained according to the need for help in ADLs. The results obtained show a greater explanatory power of the model in the case of people who required help. However, in the case of people who do not need help, subjective health had a greater weight in the predictions. This paper’s findings support the greater importance of the characteristics of the physical and social environment, as people’s functional status worsens, with friendliness being an explanatory factor for people’s well-being as they age and their dependency increases. Full article
Article
Aging in the Right Place for Older Adults Experiencing Housing Insecurity: An Environmental Assessment of Temporary Housing Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214857 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Research on programs offering senior-specific housing supports and enabling “aging in the right place” (AIRP) for “older persons with experiences of homelessness” (OPEH) is limited. This paper presents an environmental assessment of a “transitional housing program” (THP) in Metro Vancouver, Canada, for OPEH [...] Read more.
Research on programs offering senior-specific housing supports and enabling “aging in the right place” (AIRP) for “older persons with experiences of homelessness” (OPEH) is limited. This paper presents an environmental assessment of a “transitional housing program” (THP) in Metro Vancouver, Canada, for OPEH to AIRP. Data were collected using Aging in the Right Place Environmental (AIRP-ENV) and Secondary Observation (AIRP-ENV-SO) audit tools designed to evaluate multi-unit housing for OPEH. The 241-item AIRP-ENV tool was used to assess the built environmental features of four multi-unit buildings of the THP. The AIRP-ENV-SO tool was used to collect contextual data on the function, safety, and land use of the surrounding neighborhood. Findings identified built environment and urban design features that support THP residents’ safety, security, accessibility, functionality, social activity, autonomy, and identity. The THP buildings were rated ‘Good’ for accessibility, functionality, autonomy and identity, while ‘Satisfactory’ or ‘Poor’ for safety, security, and social activity. Findings point to the built environmental features (e.g., size and layout of spaces) required in the THP to create opportunities for increased social engagement among residents and enhanced safety and security. The AIRP-ENV and AIRP-ENV-SO audit tools can help inform programs across the housing continuum to develop supportive built environments that promote AIRP for OPEH. Full article
Article
Best Practices from Eight European Dementia-Friendly Study Cases of Innovation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114233 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The concept of dementia-friendly cities and communities has achieved great dissemination in the international context since 2016. Although it is usually related with community networks and services, evidence and guidelines show the close relationship between the built environment design, health promotion, and the [...] Read more.
The concept of dementia-friendly cities and communities has achieved great dissemination in the international context since 2016. Although it is usually related with community networks and services, evidence and guidelines show the close relationship between the built environment design, health promotion, and the preservation of relationships with the local surroundings. Recent publications emphasize best practices in urban areas and care management. However, this is a very complex reality in each country depending on the sociosanitary services, the demographic, and geographic structure and many other different aspects including cultural ones. Moreover, design should also consider not only basic aspects such as habitability or universal accessibility, but also heritage, identity, and the feeling of normalized living. Knowledge about international experiences and innovative approaches is, as yet, an object of study as demographic ageing is still challenging all the welfare systems, especially in Europe. This study presents eight descriptive study cases in three different European countries—the United Kingdom, Belgium, and The Netherlands—to analyze the relationship between dementia-friendly initiatives and their intersection with design, urban planning and the provision of care. The results can provide strategic lines for development and innovation towards dementia-friendly societies and cities achieving SDG numbers 3 and 11 simultaneously. Full article
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Article
The Ancient Town Residential Environment of the Elderly in Xiangxi Tujia: Survey, Questions, and Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710820 - 30 Aug 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
This study uses behavioral observation, interviews, and questionnaire research to investigate the residential environment. It also evaluates the elderly in four representative ancient towns of Xiangxi, namely, Liye Ancient Town, Furong Ancient Town, Liexi Ancient Town, and Xichehe Ancient Town. It includes indoor [...] Read more.
This study uses behavioral observation, interviews, and questionnaire research to investigate the residential environment. It also evaluates the elderly in four representative ancient towns of Xiangxi, namely, Liye Ancient Town, Furong Ancient Town, Liexi Ancient Town, and Xichehe Ancient Town. It includes indoor air (CO2, PM2.5, PM10) and light intensity monitoring for the residential environment. The results showed that the elderly had a significant sense of frustration and loneliness. Of the elderyly, 70% believed the current living environment had an impact on healthy living, and 45% believed the safety and convenience of the living environment should be improved. More than 80% of the elderly were dissatisfied with their indoor acoustic environment, and more than 70% were dissatisfied with their home transportation. More than 85% of the elderly considered traditional wooden components and spaces to be the source of cultural identity. Furthermore, the average indoor PM2.5 concentration during the fire pit fire was 350–600 µg/m3, about 4.7–8 times the Chinese standard value. The average concentration of PM10 in all rooms was more than 400 µg/m3, approximately three times the Chinese standard value. Also, targeted environmental improvement strategies were proposed. The study results provided actual information to develop a systematic approach and a targeted design based on the needs to improve the residential environment of the elderly in ancient cities. Full article
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Article
Decision-Making Mechanism of Joint Activities for the Elderly and Children in Integrated Welfare Facilities: A Discussion Based on “Motivation–Constraint” Interaction Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610424 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
In China, joint activities for the elderly and children in integrated welfare facilities lack systematic decision procedures. By learning from the “leisure constraint” theory, the study puts forward six influencing indicators of motivation and constraint in the aspects of preliminary coordination, activity space [...] Read more.
In China, joint activities for the elderly and children in integrated welfare facilities lack systematic decision procedures. By learning from the “leisure constraint” theory, the study puts forward six influencing indicators of motivation and constraint in the aspects of preliminary coordination, activity space and effect. By using semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys analyzed by deviation value computation, the study analyzes the evaluation value of influencing factors in the decision procedure of potential activity cases, where administrators and nurses act as two decision makers. Further, it discusses the decision-making mechanism based on the “motivation–constraint” interaction model. Firstly, it analyzes the dominant forces in the decision procedure, which are “motivation oriented”, “negotiation oriented” and “constraint oriented”. Secondly, it reveals that administrators and nurses as two decision makers tend to give positive motivation evaluations and deliberative constraints evaluations, respectively. Additionally, it analyzes the decision procedures of activities with distinct feasibility differentiation. Thirdly, it positions the levels of occurrence potential as “should occur”, “occurred but should be improved”, “potentially could occur” and “hard to occur”. Eventually, it analyzes the requirements and potential for joint activities under different service modules, which provides a theoretical foundation for the systematic planning and development of the joint activities. Full article
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Article
Personal Characteristics for Successful Senior Cohousing: A Proposed Theoretical Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042241 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
This paper aims to propose an integrated theoretical model with which to identify the personal characteristics, behaviors, and competencies of individuals who have successfully seen a senior cohousing project through to the residential stability phase. Numerous early-stage senior cohousing projects are registered each [...] Read more.
This paper aims to propose an integrated theoretical model with which to identify the personal characteristics, behaviors, and competencies of individuals who have successfully seen a senior cohousing project through to the residential stability phase. Numerous early-stage senior cohousing projects are registered each year. However, only a few of them are actually built, and when they are, the construction process takes an average of 10 years. Would-be cohousing residents have to put their tenacity and other competencies to the test to overcome the obstacles in their path before their residential complex is completed. The model proposed here analyzes senior cohousing initiatives as entrepreneurial undertakings. To this end, it draws upon a comprehensive review of the literature on entrepreneurship to identify the personal characteristics, behaviors, and competencies typical of entrepreneurs. In this model, participants in senior cohousing projects make use of these entrepreneurial competencies to help them overcome the obstacles to completing their housing development. However, for the would-be cohousing residents, the objective is not simply to build the residential complex but to enjoy the satisfaction and well-being this housing typology offers. Here, too, we find their entrepreneurial competencies can play a role. Full article
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Article
A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Care Arrangements of Older People with Limited Physical Abilities Living Alone in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412996 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Older people with limited physical abilities, who live alone without cohabiting family members, need support ageing in place and to perform daily living activities. In this respect, both the available informal and formal care seem crucial. The present study aimed to explore the [...] Read more.
Older people with limited physical abilities, who live alone without cohabiting family members, need support ageing in place and to perform daily living activities. In this respect, both the available informal and formal care seem crucial. The present study aimed to explore the current role of the care arrangements of older people, especially if they have functional limitations. Qualitative interviews were carried out in 2019 within the “Inclusive ageing in place” (IN-AGE) research project, involving 120 older people who lived at home, alone, or with a private personal care assistant (PCA) in three Italian regions (Lombardy, Marche, and Calabria). A mixed-methods analysis was conducted. Results showed that support networks are still mainly made up of family members, but also of domestic home help (DHH) and PCAs, friends/neighbours, and public services, albeit the latter provide support in a residual way, while the former is not as intensive as it was in the past. Frequency and geographical/living proximity of help play a role, emerging also as a territorial differentiation. The paucity or absence of support, especially from the family, risks compromising the ability of ageing in place. It seems, thus, necessary to innovate and improve, in particular, home services, also through real formal and informal care integration. Full article
Article
Moving around a Large City in Latin America: The Mobility Challenges Faced by Older Adults with Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412984 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
A growing body of research has shown that barriers in the urban environment can be disabling by reducing the ability of older people to manage independently in the community, but also because they can negatively affect health by limiting the possibilities to move [...] Read more.
A growing body of research has shown that barriers in the urban environment can be disabling by reducing the ability of older people to manage independently in the community, but also because they can negatively affect health by limiting the possibilities to move outside the home. In this study, we ask how obstacles in the urban environment are associated with the need for help to go to places in the community. To respond to this question, we used the Annual Household Survey of the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2018, which had a specific questionnaire for people with disabilities. From this sample, we selected adults aged 65 years or older with difficulties in at least one of six domains: vision; hearing; upper and lower body mobility; cognition; self-care; and communication. The final sample consisted of 513 persons (weighted = 109,316). First, we conducted a principal component analysis identifying three factors from variables of obstacles to access and use the urban environment: transportation; outdoor spaces; and information. Second, through a logistic regression model, we observed a direct relationship between these factors and the need for help to move in the community, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and number of disabilities. This paper provides evidence on the significance of improving urban spaces to reduce dependent mobility. In Latin America, cities still face many challenges in becoming more age-friendly. Full article
Communication
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Association between Neighborhood Environment and Perceived Control in Older Adults: Findings from HRS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111344 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 905
Abstract
The current study examined how neighborhood environments are related to older adults’ perceived control over time. A longitudinal study design was employed using data sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2014 and 2018. In total, 3170 older adults, whose age ranged [...] Read more.
The current study examined how neighborhood environments are related to older adults’ perceived control over time. A longitudinal study design was employed using data sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2014 and 2018. In total, 3170 older adults, whose age ranged between 60 and 99 years at the baseline, were followed up with a 4-year lag. Measures included two domains of neighborhood characteristics: social cohesion and physical disorder (at baseline and follow-up) and perceived control (at follow-up). Path coefficients between the latent factors were examined using structural equation modeling. Results showed that there was a significant cross-sectional and longitudinal association between neighborhood social cohesion and older adults’ perceived control, while neighborhood physical disorder was cross-sectionally associated with perceived control. Study findings provide evidence for promoting social integration and social capital in their neighborhood that might contribute to older adults’ perceived competence and beliefs in control. Full article
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Article
Working at Green Care Farms and Other Innovative Small-Scale Long-Term Dementia Care Facilities Requires Different Competencies of Care Staff
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010747 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
The culture change movement within long-term care in which radical changes in the physical, social and organizational care environments are being implemented provides opportunities for the development of innovative long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate which competencies care [...] Read more.
The culture change movement within long-term care in which radical changes in the physical, social and organizational care environments are being implemented provides opportunities for the development of innovative long-term care facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate which competencies care staff working at green care farms and other innovative types of small-scale long-term dementia care facilities require, according to care staff themselves and managers, and how these competencies were different from those of care staff working in more traditional large-scale long-term dementia care facilities. A qualitative descriptive research design was used. Interviews were conducted with care staff (n = 19) and managers (n = 23) across a diverse range of long-term facilities. Thematic content analysis was used. Two competencies were mainly mentioned by participants working in green care farms: (1) being able to integrate activities for residents into daily practice, and (2) being able to undertake multiple responsibilities. Two other competencies for working in long-term dementia care in general were identified: (3) having good communication skills, and (4) being able to provide medical and direct care activities. This study found unique competencies at green care farms, showing that providing care in innovative long-term care facilities requires looking further than the physical environment and the design of a care facility; it is crucial to look at the role of care staff and the competencies they require. Full article
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Article
Non-Linear Effects of the Built Environment and Social Environment on Bus Use among Older Adults in China: An Application of the XGBoost Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189592 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Global aging has raised increasing concerns on the health and well-being of older adults. Public transport is a viable option to improve the mobility and quality of life among older adults. However, policies that promote the public transport use among older adults are [...] Read more.
Global aging has raised increasing concerns on the health and well-being of older adults. Public transport is a viable option to improve the mobility and quality of life among older adults. However, policies that promote the public transport use among older adults are rare. This study utilizes the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) decision tree to explore the non-linear associations of the built and social environment with bus use among older adults in China. The bus use of older adults was obtained from the Zhongshan Household Travel Survey (ZHTS) in 2012. Results show that non-linear relationships exist among all built environment and social environment characteristics. Within certain thresholds, the percentage of green space land use, land use mixture, bus-stop density, and dwelling unit density are positively related to bus use among older adults. Likewise, one social environment variable, the proportion of older adults in a neighborhood, is the key social environment variable. Furthermore, the dwelling unit density and proportion of older adults appear to have an inverse U-shaped relationship. Additionally, age, ownership of motorcycles, and distance from home to the nearest bus stop also show non-linearity. The findings presented in this paper facilitate effective planning interventions to promote bus use among older adults. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Association between Outdoor Environment and Outdoor Activities for Seniors Living in Old Residential Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147500 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Many seniors live in old residential communities (ORCs) with low-quality outdoor environment (OE), which hinders the residents’ outdoor daily activities (ODAs). This paper empirically investigates the association of OE on ODAs for seniors living in ORCs. A questionnaire was designed and distributed in [...] Read more.
Many seniors live in old residential communities (ORCs) with low-quality outdoor environment (OE), which hinders the residents’ outdoor daily activities (ODAs). This paper empirically investigates the association of OE on ODAs for seniors living in ORCs. A questionnaire was designed and distributed in six central districts of Nanjing city. A total of 258 questionnaires was finally collected, of which 60.08%, 29.46%, 9.69%, and 0.78% respondents were scattered into four age groups (61–69, 70–79, 80–89, and ≥90), respectively. Based on reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, the results show that: (1) social activities are mainly associated with noise; (2) leisure activities are significantly associated with road accessibility, slip-resistance measures, greenery, and staff; (3) utilitarian-type activities are significantly associated with stairway accessibility, slip-resistance measures, greenery, and seating; (4) there is a significant association between nature-exposure activities and layout, greenery, and poor air quality. The findings could guide Chinese officials when renewing ORCs by addressing the most important outdoor environmental factors associated with ODAs. Full article
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Article
The Importance of Age-Friendly City on Older People’s Continuity and Life Satisfaction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147252 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
According to continuity theory, successful aging is promoted when older people are able to continue familiar activities as a way to maintain self-identity. The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of both external resources provided by Taipei city and older [...] Read more.
According to continuity theory, successful aging is promoted when older people are able to continue familiar activities as a way to maintain self-identity. The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of both external resources provided by Taipei city and older adults’ internal resources in internal and external continuity and life satisfaction. The data were from the 2019 Taipei City Senior Citizen Condition Survey acquired through face-to-face interviews. Only the community-based sample without disability was included in the analysis (n = 1494). Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Both internal and external resources significantly promoted internal continuity (physical activity, Internet use, and lifelong learning) and external continuity (work, social connectedness, and social participation), and the effects of personal resources were larger. External continuity was positively related to life satisfaction. The effects of external resources on continuity and life satisfaction were stronger in older women than in older men. Age-friendly cities may provide support for activity continuity and promote well-being for older people. Policy suggestions are discussed. Full article
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