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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 22 (November-2 2022) – 803 articles

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The long-term sequelae of COVID-19 (called long COVID-19) have been studied significantly during the last year of the pandemic; however, the study of these sequelae in populations living at different altitudes has not been carried out so far. Around the world, more than 150 million people live at above 2000 m of altitude, and Ecuador, a country of enormous biodiversity, has cities located at different elevations, making it the appropriate place to study the impact of this phenomenon.

The authors of Izquierdo-Condoy et al. consolidate data from a wide range of altitudes and provide helpful information about the impact of COVID-19 at different elevations and what the role of living at high altitudes could be in the sequelae of acute disease (long COVID-19) and the other characteristics of the inhabitants. View this paper

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Article
Development of a New Procedure for Evaluating Working Postures: An Application in a Manufacturing Company
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215423 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Musculoskeletal diseases represent a constant phenomenon in occupational health and safety (OHS) despite the large effort at governmental and technical levels. In the industrial context, numerous studies have dealt with the evaluation of the physical demand of workers. Moreover, numerous studies have investigated [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal diseases represent a constant phenomenon in occupational health and safety (OHS) despite the large effort at governmental and technical levels. In the industrial context, numerous studies have dealt with the evaluation of the physical demand of workers. Moreover, numerous studies have investigated the problem, providing tools for ergonomics analysis. However, practical approaches aimed at integrating ergonomics issues in risk assessment activities are still scarce. To reduce such a gap, the current study proposes a procedure for the evaluation of the static working postures of workers to be included in the risk assessment activities. Such an approach is based on the ISO 11226 standard, providing a practical checklist that can be used both at the workstation’s design stage and during risk assessment activities. Its effectiveness was verified through a case study at a manufacturing company. The results achieved showed that as well as the non-conformity of the workstations’ design, the lack of training of the operators on how to maintain a neutral posture while working can also lead to awkward postures of the trunk and head. Additionally, the proposed methodology allowed us to verify the correctness of each workstation based on the physical characteristics of the workers, providing a useful guideline for the company managers on how to properly assign working tasks. Full article
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Article
Booster or Killer? Research on Undertaking Transferred Industries and Residents’ Well-Being Improvements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215422 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Inter-regional industrial transfers would change the economic, societal, and ecological environment of the undertaking area profoundly. Some experts have recognized the ecological and environmental problems caused by industrial transfers. However, there are few studies on whether undertaking an industrial transfer will ultimately improve [...] Read more.
Inter-regional industrial transfers would change the economic, societal, and ecological environment of the undertaking area profoundly. Some experts have recognized the ecological and environmental problems caused by industrial transfers. However, there are few studies on whether undertaking an industrial transfer will ultimately improve the well-being of residents. There is a strong application value for exploring this issue under the domestic cycle in China. This paper uses the shift-share analysis method to measure China’s inter-provincial industrial transfer from 2004 to 2019. According to the subjective and objective indicators, the article measures the level of residents’ well-being. A spatial econometric model is used to empirically test the impact of undertaking transferred industries on residents’ well-being and its mechanism. The results show that: 1. There is a significant spatial positive correlation between the well-being of residents at the national level. The empirical results also indicated significant spatial correlations at the level of the three major economic belts in the east, central, west, and northeast; 2. From the perspective of China as a whole, the inter-regional industrial transfer improved the well-being of the residents significantly, but the indirect negative effect reduced the total effect; 3. From the regional perspective, undertaking a transferred industry could significantly improve the well-being of residents in the central and eastern regions. However, in the northeast and western regions, it showed a serious negative effect. We should enhance the orderly transfer of industries deeply, considering the ecological and environmental capacities of the undertaking area fully and strictly limiting the inter-regional transfer of polluting industries. Only in this way could the government improve the well-being of residents in the industrial transfer-out areas and undertake areas effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Policy and Governance Performance)
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Review
Proposal for an Integrative Cognitive-Emotional Conception of ADHD
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215421 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Although numerous efforts have been made to deepen our understanding of the etiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), no explanation of its origins, nor of its consequences, has yet found a consensus within the scientific community. This study performs a theoretical review [...] Read more.
Although numerous efforts have been made to deepen our understanding of the etiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), no explanation of its origins, nor of its consequences, has yet found a consensus within the scientific community. This study performs a theoretical review of various research studies and provides a reflection on the role of emotions in the origin of the disorder, at the neuroanatomical and functional level. To this end, theoretical models (single and multiple origin) and applied studies are reviewed in order to broaden the perspective on the relevance of the executive system in ADHD; it is suggested that this construct is not only composed and activated by cognitive processes and functions, but also includes elements of an emotional and motivational nature. Consequently, it is shown that ADHD is involved in social development and in a person’s ability to adapt to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotion Regulation in Children and Adolescents)
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Article
Community Health Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices towards Epilepsy in Sofala, Central Mozambique
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215420 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Background: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in the world, affecting 50 million people, with the majority living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A major focus of epilepsy treatment in LMICs has been task-sharing the identification and care for epilepsy by [...] Read more.
Background: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in the world, affecting 50 million people, with the majority living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A major focus of epilepsy treatment in LMICs has been task-sharing the identification and care for epilepsy by community health workers (CHWs). The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of CHWs towards epilepsy in Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and thirty-five CHWs completed a questionnaire that included socio-demographic characteristics and 44-items divided into six subscales pertaining to KAPs towards epilepsy (QKAP-EPI) across nine districts of Sofala, Mozambique. The internal consistency was examined to evaluate the reliability of the instrument (QKAP-EPI). The association between sociodemographic variables and QKAP-EPI subscales was examined using linear regression models. Results: The internal consistency was moderate for two subscales (causes of epilepsy, α = 0.65; medical treatment, α = 0.694), acceptable for cultural treatment (α = 0.797) and excellent for 2 subscales (safety and risks, α = 0.926; negative attitudes, α = 0.904). Overall, CHWs demonstrated accurate epilepsy knowledge (medical treatment: mean = 1.63, SD = 0.28; safety/risks: mean = 1.62, SD = 0.59). However, CHWs reported inaccurate epilepsy knowledge of the causes, negative attitudes, as well as culturally specific treatments for epilepsy, such as: “if a person with epilepsy burns when set on fire they cannot be treated”. Knowledge about how to manage epileptic seizures varied across the different emergency care practices, from the accurate belief that it is not advisable to place objects in the individual’s mouth during an epileptic seizure, to the wrong perception of the need to hold the person in seizures to control seizures. Heterogeneity in the level of epilepsy knowledge was observed among CHWs, when considering epilepsy according to the local names as treatable (“Dzumba”) and other forms as untreatable (“Nzwiti”). Conclusion: CHWs knowledge of medical treatment and epilepsy safety/risks were adequate. However, information on the causes of epilepsy, stigmatizing attitudes, cultural treatment, and some knowledge of epileptic seizure management were low. These areas of poor knowledge should be the focus of educating CHWs in increasing their ability to provide quality care for patients with epilepsy in Mozambique. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Adductor Canal Block on Medial Knee Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Single-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215419 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to confirm the efficacy of ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB) as a treatment option for medial knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: In total, 31 participants with medial knee pain due to KOA were randomized to either [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to confirm the efficacy of ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB) as a treatment option for medial knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: In total, 31 participants with medial knee pain due to KOA were randomized to either the ACB (ultrasound-guided ACB, n = 15) or placebo group (1 mL of 1% lidocaine, n = 16). The primary outcome was a numerical rating scale (NRS) for knee pain intensity comparing before and 4 weeks after injection. The secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), average daily number of analgesics consumed, average daily opioid consumption, and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test results before and 4 weeks after injection. Results: Participants’ baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the groups, except for age. At 4 weeks post-injection, the NRS score in the ACB group significantly improved compared to that in the placebo group (p = 0.009). However, the WOMAC, average daily number of analgesics consumed, average daily opioid consumption, and TUG test results did not show significant differences. Conclusion: ACB can be an effective treatment for reducing medial knee pain in patients with KOA. Full article
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Review
Effect of Gestational Pesticide Exposure on the Child’s Respiratory System: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215418 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Background: In recent years, concern has arisen worldwide about the potential adverse effects that could result from early-life exposure to pesticides. Asthma, bronchitis, and persistent cough in children have been linked to gestational exposure to pesticides. The respiratory effects of gestational exposure to [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, concern has arisen worldwide about the potential adverse effects that could result from early-life exposure to pesticides. Asthma, bronchitis, and persistent cough in children have been linked to gestational exposure to pesticides. The respiratory effects of gestational exposure to pesticides are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between pesticide exposure in pregnant women and its effect on the respiratory system of their children. Methods: A narrative review was carried out by means of a search in the main databases. Results: Findings of studies confirmed the effects of pesticides on the child’s health. These substances cross the placenta and become transmitters of exposure to the individual at the most sensitive stage of her development. Conclusions: Chronic exposure to pesticides in fetuses is associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection with Reproductive Health and Mental Health)
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Article
Effects of Household Resource Utilization Behaviors on Giant Panda Habitat under the Background of Aging: Evidence from Sichuan Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215417 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species for endangered wildlife conservation and is a specific relic species in China. Its habitat conservation has received widespread attention around the world. Since 2010, the phenomenon of an aging labor force gradually appeared within [...] Read more.
The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species for endangered wildlife conservation and is a specific relic species in China. Its habitat conservation has received widespread attention around the world. Since 2010, the phenomenon of an aging labor force gradually appeared within the Giant Panda Nature Reserve and its surrounding communities. Under the new labor force structure, households’ resource utilization behavior has had different characteristics, which has led an evolution in giant panda habitats. This study is based on a questionnaire and geographic data. It reveals the internal mechanisms of households’ resource utilization behavior impacting giant panda habitat patterns under the ongoing trend of labor force aging. The study shows that labor force aging has promoted rising ecological niche widths and falling ecological niche overlaps. These could drive a growth in giant panda habitat globally. From a spatial perspective, nature reserves with lower comprehensive ecological niche widths and higher ecological niche overlaps face greater conflict between conservation and development. However, the phenomenon of labor force aging mitigates these ecological conflicts to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing)
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Article
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Q235 Carbon Steel by Ectothiorhodospira sp.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215416 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The biological sulfur cycle is closely related to iron corrosion in the natural environment. The effect of the sulfur-oxidising bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp., named PHS-Q, on the metal corrosion behaviour rarely has been investigated. In this study, the corrosion mechanism of Q235 carbon steel [...] Read more.
The biological sulfur cycle is closely related to iron corrosion in the natural environment. The effect of the sulfur-oxidising bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp., named PHS-Q, on the metal corrosion behaviour rarely has been investigated. In this study, the corrosion mechanism of Q235 carbon steel in a PHS-Q-inoculated medium is discussed via the characterization of the morphology and the composition of the corrosion products, the measurement of local corrosion and the investigation of its electrochemical behaviour. The results suggested that, initially, PHS-Q assimilates sulfate to produce H2S directly or indirectly in the medium without sulfide. H2S reacts with Fe2+ to form an inert film on the coupon surface. Then, in localised areas, bacteria adhere to the reaction product and use the oxidation of FeS as a hydrogen donor. This process leads to a large cathode and a small anode, which incurs pitting corrosion. Consequently, the effect of PHS-Q on carbon steel corrosion behaviour is crucial in an anaerobic environment. Full article
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Article
Personal Goals, Barriers to Self-Management and Desired mHealth Application Features to Improve Self-Care in Multi-Ethnic Asian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215415 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
(1) Introduction: The ubiquity of mobile phones suggests the potential of mobile health applications to reach patients with type 2 diabetes and engage them to improve self-care. This study aimed to explore personal goals, barriers to self-management and desired mobile health application features [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: The ubiquity of mobile phones suggests the potential of mobile health applications to reach patients with type 2 diabetes and engage them to improve self-care. This study aimed to explore personal goals, barriers to self-management and desired mobile health application features to improve self-care among multi-ethnic Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. (2) Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 29). Patients were recruited from a multi-disciplinary center for diabetes and metabolism in Singapore, using a purposive sampling strategy. Various visual materials, collated from existing mobile health application features, were used to facilitate the discussion. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. (3) Results: A total of 29 patients participated in 11 focus group discussions or one-on-one interviews. Personal goals for self-management were centered around short-term outcome expectancy, such as better glucose control and a reduced number of medications. Self-management was hampered by competing priorities and limited healthy food options when at work, while a lack of tailored advice from healthcare providers further diminished competence. The desired mobile health app features to improve self-care behaviors included quantifiable goal-setting, personalized nudges based on tracked data, built-in resources from credible sources, in-app social support through virtual interaction with peers and healthcare providers, technology-driven novel data logging and user-defined nudges. (4) Conclusions: We identified a set of app features that may foster motivation to engage in lifestyle modification for patients with T2DM. The findings serve to inform the design of artificial intelligence-enabled mobile health application intervention aimed at improving diabetes self-care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Article
Enhanced Tooth Region Detection Using Pretrained Deep Learning Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215414 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) has led to the emergence of many new technologies in the healthcare industry. In dentistry, the patient’s panoramic radiographic or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are used for implant placement planning to find the correct [...] Read more.
The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) has led to the emergence of many new technologies in the healthcare industry. In dentistry, the patient’s panoramic radiographic or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are used for implant placement planning to find the correct implant position and eliminate surgical risks. This study aims to develop a deep learning-based model that detects missing teeth’s position on a dataset segmented from CBCT images. Five hundred CBCT images were included in this study. After preprocessing, the datasets were randomized and divided into 70% training, 20% validation, and 10% test data. A total of six pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) models were used in this study, which includes AlexNet, VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, DenseNet169, and MobileNetV3. In addition, the proposed models were tested with/without applying the segmentation technique. Regarding the normal teeth class, the performance of the proposed pretrained DL models in terms of precision was above 0.90. Moreover, the experimental results showed the superiority of DenseNet169 with a precision of 0.98. In addition, other models such as MobileNetV3, VGG19, ResNet50, VGG16, and AlexNet obtained a precision of 0.95, 0.94, 0.94, 0.93, and 0.92, respectively. The DenseNet169 model performed well at the different stages of CBCT-based detection and classification with a segmentation accuracy of 93.3% and classification of missing tooth regions with an accuracy of 89%. As a result, the use of this model may represent a promising time-saving tool serving dental implantologists with a significant step toward automated dental implant planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Dental Health: Digital Technology in Implant Dentistry)
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Article
Study Regarding the Optimal Dimension of Intraoral Bitewing Radiographs in Patients with Primary Dentition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215413 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of a radiographic plate to allow correct visualization of dental tissues and correct fit in the oral cavity of children with deciduous dentition. A quasi-experimental clinical study was carried out in children [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of a radiographic plate to allow correct visualization of dental tissues and correct fit in the oral cavity of children with deciduous dentition. A quasi-experimental clinical study was carried out in children of both sexes aged between 3 and 5 years. The study variables were the complete visualization of the dental structures, the surveillance of ischemia on soft tissues, stimulation of the gag reflex, and acceptance of the radiographic plate by the pediatric patient through a validated visual analogue scale that measures anxiety. The data obtained were subjected to a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis carried out for both study phases. A total of 80 children participated in the study. The optimal dimensions obtained for the radiographic plate were 19.5 mm in height and 27.3 mm in width. Visualization of the dental tissues during both phases was not statistically significant (p = 0.412). However, there were statistically significant differences regarding the presence of ischemia, gag reflex, and child rejection (p < 0.001). A smaller radiographic plate allows correct visualization of the coronal dental tissues without causing rejection, ischemia, or gag reflex in patients in the deciduous dentition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Dental Care in Relation to Public Health)
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Article
Fertility Intention to Have a Third Child in China following the Three-Child Policy: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215412 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 247
Abstract
China’s three-child policy was implemented in May 2021 to stimulate a rise in fertility levels. However, few previous studies have explored fertility intentions to have a third child and have only focused on childless or one-child populations, resulting in a gap in findings [...] Read more.
China’s three-child policy was implemented in May 2021 to stimulate a rise in fertility levels. However, few previous studies have explored fertility intentions to have a third child and have only focused on childless or one-child populations, resulting in a gap in findings between fertility intention and fertility behavior. Thus, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study on 1308 participants with two children. Results showed that only 9.6% of participants reported planning to have a third child and 80.2% of the population had heard of the policy but had no idea of the detailed contents. Participants with two daughters (OR = 3.722, 95% CI = 2.304–6.013) were willing to have one more child. Instrumental values (OR = 1.184, 95% CI = 1.108–1.265) and policy support (OR = 1.190, 95% CI = 1.124–1.259) were the facilitators. Perceived risk (OR = 0.883, 95% CI = 0.839–0.930) and higher educational level (OR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.533–0.900) were the leading barriers to having one more child. Therefore, the government should deepen parents’ understanding of the “three-child policy” and devise ways of reducing the negative impacts of having a third child to boost the intention to have more children. Our proposed approach can also be used to better understand the reasons for low fertility rates in other countries. Full article
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Article
Changes in Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Mortality: A 10-Year Follow-Up of a Polish-Population-Based HAPIEE Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215411 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Although the inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, research on the effect of changes in the SES throughout life on CVD risk in populations with different social backgrounds remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the [...] Read more.
Although the inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, research on the effect of changes in the SES throughout life on CVD risk in populations with different social backgrounds remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the relationship between childhood SES, adulthood SES, and changes in SES over time, and CVD incidence and mortality in a Polish urban population. In addition, the predictive performance of the SES index was compared with education alone. A cohort study with a 10-year follow-up was conducted, in which a random sample of 10,728 residents in Kraków aged 45–69 years were examined. The SES was assessed at baseline using data on education, parents’ education, housing standard at the age of 10 years, professional activity, household amenities, and difficulties in paying bills and buying food. SES categories (low, middle, and high) were extracted using cluster analyses. Information on new CVD cases was obtained from questionnaires in subsequent phases of the study and confirmed by reviewing clinical records. Data on deaths and causes were obtained from the residents’ registry, Central Statistical Office, and the participants’ families. The effect of the SES index on the risk of CVD was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. In male and female participants, the CVD incidence and mortality were observed to be 27,703 and 32,956 person-years (384 and 175 new CVD cases) and 36,219 and 40,048 person-years (159 and 92 CVD deaths), respectively. Childhood SES was not associated with CVD incidence and mortality. A protective effect of high adulthood SES against CVD mortality was observed in men and women (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.31–0.97; HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.75, respectively). In women, downward social mobility was related to 2.24 and 3.75 times higher CVD incidence and mortality, respectively. In men, a protective effect against mortality was observed in upward mobility (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.84). Model discrimination was similar for the SES index and education alone for the association with CVD incidence. In women, the SES index was a slightly better predictor of CVD mortality than education alone (C-index = 0.759, SE = 0.0282 vs. C-index = 0.783, SE = 0.0272; p = 0.041). In conclusion, high adulthood SES, but not childhood SES, may be considered to be a protective factor against CVD in urban populations in high-CVD-risk regions. No effects of critical periods in early life were observed on CVD risk. In later life, social mobility was found to affect CVD mortality in both men and women. In men, a protective effect of upward mobility was confirmed, whereas in women, an increased CVD risk was related to downward mobility. It can be concluded that CVD prevention may be beneficial if socioeconomic potentials are strengthened in later life. Full article
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Article
Do Smart Cities Represent the Key to Urban Resilience? Rethinking Urban Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215410 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The pandemic disrupted all activities, so it became necessary to understand, but also rethink, the complexity of economic resilience to better deal with future shocks. A component that can signal the resilience potential of a socio-economic system is smart city response, using technology [...] Read more.
The pandemic disrupted all activities, so it became necessary to understand, but also rethink, the complexity of economic resilience to better deal with future shocks. A component that can signal the resilience potential of a socio-economic system is smart city response, using technology to make services more efficient. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between smart cities and urban resilience to determine whether urban resilience is significantly influenced by urban smartness. Given the EU SDGs Strategy and the Implementation of RRF Programs, we have also identified the main driving forces that can amplify the impact of smart city development policies on local resilience. The results highlighted that at the European level, smart cities are significantly correlated with urban resilience; urban resilience is explained by the variation in urban smartness; resilience is correlated with all smart city dimensions, highly in (post-)pandemic, redefining a “new normal” in resilience approaches for smart cities. We also stressed the emerging, more complex content of the economic resilience concept and the new structural approach of smart cities resilience for the post-COVID-19 period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Life Challenges in XXI Century)
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Systematic Review
Active School-Based Interventions to Interrupt Prolonged Sitting Improve Daily Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215409 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is a negative routine for health, especially during advancing age. Promoting an active lifestyle and reducing SB is a global endeavor. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of active school-based programs to interrupt prolonged sitting [...] Read more.
Background: Sedentary behavior (SB) is a negative routine for health, especially during advancing age. Promoting an active lifestyle and reducing SB is a global endeavor. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of active school-based programs to interrupt prolonged sitting for daily physical activity (PA) and daily SB in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Clinical trials analyzing the effect of interrupting prolonged sitting with active breaks and classroom-based PA were included. Studies that implemented PA in class without interrupting prolonged sitting or those that implemented multimodal interventions were excluded. A systematic search was conducted in 6 databases: Medline, WOS, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and EMBASE. Primary outcomes were daily PA and daily SB, while moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was considered a secondary outcome. Results: Six studies were included, with a total of 976 participants between 6–14 years. The interventions were heterogeneous in duration of the sitting time interruption (5–30 min), frequency (1–3 times per-day up to three times per-week) and total duration (five days to three years). 50% of the studies scored “high risk” of bias. Three meta-analyses were performed for daily PA, MVPA and SB, showing a significant improvement in the daily PA and MVPA. Conclusions: School-based programs aimed to interrupt prolonged sitting could be a good strategy to improve daily PA and MVPA levels. (Registration number: CRD42022358933). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Physiotherapy Practice in Public Healthcare)
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Article
Health-Related Quality of Life in Children: The Roles of Age, Gender and Interpersonal Trust
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215408 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an interesting topic in health care sciences and psychology. Deeper insight into the internal mechanism of this effect through large samples is crucial to further understanding HRQoL and making targeted suggestions to improve HRQoL. The present study [...] Read more.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an interesting topic in health care sciences and psychology. Deeper insight into the internal mechanism of this effect through large samples is crucial to further understanding HRQoL and making targeted suggestions to improve HRQoL. The present study aims to investigate the mediating role of interpersonal trust between age and HRQoL from a developmental lens. The purpose of this study was to profile the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 generic scale in China and test the relationship between age and health-related quality of life, as well as the mediating role of interpersonal trust and the moderating role of gender. A sample of 6248 children completed measures of demography, health-related quality of life, and interpersonal trust. Regression analyses were performed to test the mediating role of interpersonal trust and the moderating role of gender. Age was associated with lower health-related quality of life and lower interpersonal trust. Similarly, gender differences were also noted, with boys reporting higher health-related quality of life and lower interpersonal trust than girls. Additionally, the health-related quality of life of girls declined more than that of boys with increasing age. Regression analyses revealed that age could predict decreased health-related quality of life via lower levels of interpersonal trust. What is more, the mediation effect was moderated by gender, with the observed mediation effect being stronger among boys than girls. The current study replicates age and gender differences in health-related quality of life and interpersonal trust. Moreover, this study explained how and when age affected the health-related quality of life of children, and provided a deeper understanding of the relation between age and health-related quality of life. Full article
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Article
Urbanization Impact on Regional Sustainable Development: Through the Lens of Urban-Rural Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215407 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The urban–rural system is an economically, socially, and environmentally interlinked space, which requires the integration of industry, space, and population. To achieve sustainable and coordinated development between urban and rural systems, dynamic land use change within the urban–rural system and the ecological and [...] Read more.
The urban–rural system is an economically, socially, and environmentally interlinked space, which requires the integration of industry, space, and population. To achieve sustainable and coordinated development between urban and rural systems, dynamic land use change within the urban–rural system and the ecological and social consequences need to be clarified. This study uses system resilience to evaluate such an impact and explores the impact of land use change, especially land conversion induced by urbanization on regional development through the lens of urban–rural resilience. The empirical case is based on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration (BTHUA) in China from 2000 to 2020 when there was rapid urbanization in this region. The results show that along with urbanization in the BTHUA, urban–rural resilience is high in urban core areas and low in peripheral areas. From the urban core to the rural outskirts, there is a general trend that comprehensive resilience decreases with decreased social resilience and increased ecological resilience in this region. Specifically, at the city level, comprehensive resilience decreases sharply from the urban center to its 3–5 km buffer zone and then remains relatively stable in the rural regions. A similar trend goes for social resilience at the city level, while ecological resilience increases sharply from the urban center to its 1–3 km buffer zone, and then remains relatively stable in the rural regions in this region, except for cities in the west and south of Hebei. This study contributes to the conceptualization and measurement of urban–rural resilience in the urban–rural system with empirical findings revealing the impact of rapid urbanization on urban–rural resilience over the last twenty years in the BTHUA in China. In addition, the spatial heterogeneity results could be used for policy reference to make targeted resilience strategies in the study region. Full article
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Article
Sensitivity of a Dynamic Model of Air Traffic Emissions to Technological and Environmental Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215406 - 21 Nov 2022
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Abstract
In this study, we introduce a sensitivity analysis of modelled CO2 aviation emissions to changes in the model parameters, which is intended as a contribution to the understanding of the atmospheric composition stabilization issue. The two variable dynamic model incorporates the effects [...] Read more.
In this study, we introduce a sensitivity analysis of modelled CO2 aviation emissions to changes in the model parameters, which is intended as a contribution to the understanding of the atmospheric composition stabilization issue. The two variable dynamic model incorporates the effects of the technological innovations on the emissions rate, the environmental feedback, and a non-linear control term on the passengers rate. The model parameters, estimated from different air traffic sources, are subject to considerable uncertainty. The stability analysis of Monte Carlo simulations revealed that, for certain values of the non-linear term parameter and depending on the type of flight, the passengers number at some equilibrium points exceeded its initial value, while the emissions level was below the initial corresponding one. The results of two global sensitivity analyses indicated that the influence of the non-linear term prevailed on the passengers number rate, followed distantly by the environmental feedback. For the emissions rate, the non-linear term contribution dominated, with the technological term influence placing second. Full article
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Article
Predictors of Psychological Distress across Three Time Periods during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215405 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Background: Since the onset of COVID-19, public health policies and public opinions changed from stringent preventive measures against spread of COVID-19 to policies accommodating life with continued, diminished risk for contracting COVID-19. Poland is a country that demonstrated severe psychological impact and negative [...] Read more.
Background: Since the onset of COVID-19, public health policies and public opinions changed from stringent preventive measures against spread of COVID-19 to policies accommodating life with continued, diminished risk for contracting COVID-19. Poland is a country that demonstrated severe psychological impact and negative mental health. The study aims to examine psychological impact and changes in levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among three cross-sectional samples of Polish people and COVID-19-related factors associated with adverse mental health. Methods: In total, 2324 Polish persons participated in repeated cross-sectional studies across three surveys: Survey 1 (22 to 26 March 2020), Survey 2 (21 October to 3 December 2020), and Survey 3 (3 November to 10 December 2021). Participants completed an online survey, including Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), demographics, knowledge, and concerns of COVID-19 and precautionary measures. Results: A significant reduction of IES-R scores was seen across surveys, while DASS-21 scores were significantly higher in Survey 2. There was significant reduction in the frequency of following COVID-19 news, recent COVID-19 testing, and home isolation from Survey 1 to 3. Being emale was significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores in Surveys 1 and 2. Student status was significantly associated with higher DASS-21 across surveys. Chills, myalgia, and fatigue were significantly associated with high IES-R or DASS-21 scores across surveys. Frequency of wearing masks and perception that mask could reduce risk of COVID-19 were significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores. Conclusion: Conclusions: The aforementioned findings indicate a reduction in the level of the measured subjective distress andin the frequency of checking COVID-19 news-related information across three periods during the pandemic in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Case Report
Exploratory Analysis of Sprint Force-Velocity Characteristics, Kinematics and Performance across a Periodized Training Year: A Case Study of Two National Level Sprint Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215404 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Objective: This case study aimed to explore changes to sprint force-velocity characteristics across a periodized training year (45 weeks) and the influence on sprint kinematics and performance in national level 100-meter athletes. Force-velocity characteristics have been shown to differentiate between performance levels in [...] Read more.
Objective: This case study aimed to explore changes to sprint force-velocity characteristics across a periodized training year (45 weeks) and the influence on sprint kinematics and performance in national level 100-meter athletes. Force-velocity characteristics have been shown to differentiate between performance levels in sprint athletes, yet limited information exists describing how characteristics change across a season and impact sprint performance, therefore warranting further research. Methods: Two male national level 100-meter athletes (Athlete 1: 22 years, 1.83 m, 81.1 kg, 100 m time: 10.47 s; Athlete 2: 19 years, 1.82 cm, 75.3 kg, 100 m time: 10.81 s) completed 12 and 11 force-velocity assessments, respectively, using electronic timing gates. Sprint mechanical characteristics were derived from 30-meter maximal sprint efforts using split times (i.e., 0–10 m, 0–20 m, 0–30 m) whereas step kinematics were established from 100-meter competition performance using video analysis. Results: Between the preparation (PREP) and competition (COMP) phase, Athlete 1 showed significantly large within-athlete effects for relative maximal power (PMAX), theoretical maximal velocity (v0), maximum ratio of force (RFMAX), maximal velocity (VMAX), and split time from 0 to 20 m and 0 to 30 m (−1.70 ≤ ES ≥ 1.92, p ≤ 0.05). Athlete 2 reported significant differences with large effects for relative maximal force (F0) and RFMAX only (ES: ≤ −1.46, p ≤ 0.04). In the PREP phase, both athletes reported almost perfect correlations between F0, PMAX and 0–20 m (r = −0.99, p ≤ 0.01), however in the COMP phase, the relationships between mechanical characteristics and split times were more individual. Competition performance in the 100-meter sprint (10.64 ± 0.24 s) showed a greater reliance on step length (r ≥ −0.72, p ≤ 0.001) than step frequency to achieve faster performances. The minimal detectable change (%) across mechanical variables ranged from 1.3 to 10.0% while spatio-temporal variables were much lower, from 0.94 to 1.48%, with Athlete 1 showing a higher ‘true change’ in performance across the season compared to Athlete 2. Conclusions: The estimated sprint force-velocity data collected across a training year may provide insight to practitioners about the underpinning mechanical characteristics which affect sprint performance during specific phases of training, plus how a periodized training design may enhance sprint force-velocity characteristics and performance outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological and Mechanical Performance Determinants in Running)
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Review
Clinicians’ Emotional Reactions toward Patients with Depressive Symptoms in Mood Disorders: A Narrative Scoping Review of Empirical Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215403 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to narratively review the empirical literature on clinicians’ emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses (i.e., countertransference) to depressive and other symptoms of patients with mood disorders. Therapist subjective responses (countertransference) can negatively affect both diagnostic and therapeutic processes, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to narratively review the empirical literature on clinicians’ emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses (i.e., countertransference) to depressive and other symptoms of patients with mood disorders. Therapist subjective responses (countertransference) can negatively affect both diagnostic and therapeutic processes, especially when they are not recognized and managed promptly. However, at the same time, countertransference recognition, processing, and management can help inform the diagnostic process and improve the therapy process and outcome. In the last couple of decades, the number of studies that empirically explore countertransference toward mood disordered patients, as well as its relationship with various characteristics of both patients and treatment, has increased. Current evidence suggests that patients with depression tend to elicit more positive feelings among clinicians than patients with other severe mental disorders such as borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia. Furthermore, it documents the existence of associations between patients’ severity of depressive symptoms and clinicians’ subjective reactions, although the results regarding which specific countertransference patterns are evoked in relation to the different phases of the treatment are not entirely consistent. Lastly, growing evidence suggests the presence of clinicians’ specific emotional reactions towards patients with suicidal ideation and behavior. Full article
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Article
Effect of the Use of Home and Community Care Services on the Multidimensional Health of Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215402 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Home and community care is an important way to actively respond to population aging and to promote healthy aging. This study aims to estimate the effect of using home and community care services on the multidimensional health of older adults. We used data [...] Read more.
Home and community care is an important way to actively respond to population aging and to promote healthy aging. This study aims to estimate the effect of using home and community care services on the multidimensional health of older adults. We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2018 and relied mainly on the propensity score matching method for data analysis. The results showed that using home and community care increased the probability of maintaining and improving physical health by 2.9%, decreased the score of depression by 0.471, and improved the score of cognitive function by 0.704. Using home and community care also increased the probability of actively participating in life by 4.1% and elevated the score of life satisfaction by 0.088. The heterogeneity analysis showed that the use of home and community care had a significant effect on promoting all health indicators in rural older adults and a more obvious promoting effect on the social adaptation of urban older adults. Using home and community care significantly promoted the multidimensional health of people aged 60 to 79 years but had no impact among people aged ≥ 80 years. The use of home and community care significantly improved all health indicators in non-disabled older adults. Whereas, it only improved the levels of cognitive function and life satisfaction in disabled older people. Using this form of care significantly improved all health indicators in those with low socio-economic status, but it only had a partial positive effect on the multidimensional health of those with high socio-economic status. Our results are of importance to the government as they may be used to further improve the quality of home and community care services for the targeted older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Article
Services as a Determinant of Botswana’s Economic Sustainability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215401 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 263
Abstract
In 2015, the services sector contributed about 58 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which was a significant increase from the 47.6 percent observed in 2005, and a shift from the mining, agriculture, and manufacturing sector. This increase [...] Read more.
In 2015, the services sector contributed about 58 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which was a significant increase from the 47.6 percent observed in 2005, and a shift from the mining, agriculture, and manufacturing sector. This increase calls to support services as the catalyst for sustained economic development as indicated by the structural transformation and modernization theories. The main objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between and the impact of services on the economic development in Botswana and make recommendations on how Botswana can apply well-directed policies to improve its services sector and diversify its impact on other sectors and GDP, making it less reliant on mining which is vulnerable to price volatilities. The paper applied econometric modeling and results of the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds test for cointegration indicate that services and other industries services, agriculture, industry, mining, and investment impact GDP over the short and long run. These variables impacted GDP and converged to equilibrium at the speed of 46.89 percent, with a percent change in services in the short and long run impacting GDP by 0.328 and 0.241 percentages, respectively, and the outcome of the Wald test indicated causality from services to GDP growth. The services sectors have contributed over 40 percent to the country’s GDP from 1995 to the present, though the sectors have not gone without challenges with limitations such as limited infrastructure development; poverty and inequality; unemployment of over 20 percent; disease, which has dampened productivity; and lack of proper governance and accountability, which has created a habitat for an increase in cases of corruption in state and private entities. The findings of the study with the lessons learned from other studies with similar findings recommend that the government of Botswana should formulate suitable policies and strategies for services diversification. This is by expanding the market for the sector in areas such as tourism that were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, escalating investments by instituting strategies to attract and grow domestic and foreign investments, and improve on management of institutions and resources. Full article
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Article
Violent Video Game Exposure and Problem Behaviors among Children and Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Deviant Peer Affiliation for Gender and Grade Differences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215400 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Based on problem behavior theory, a mediation model for gender and grade differences is explored in this study. The study examined gender and grade differences in the effects of violent video games and deviant peer affiliation on problem behaviors among children and adolescents. [...] Read more.
Based on problem behavior theory, a mediation model for gender and grade differences is explored in this study. The study examined gender and grade differences in the effects of violent video games and deviant peer affiliation on problem behaviors among children and adolescents. A total of 2118 children and adolescents from four primary and middle schools in China (M age = 13.08, SD = 2.17) were surveyed using an anonymous questionnaire on basic information, exposure to violent video games, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. The results showed that exposure to violent video games significantly positively predicted problem behaviors, and deviant peer affiliation played a mediating role. Significant gender and grade differences were found in the mediating effect. This finding helps understand the individual differences in the influencing factors of problem behaviors. Further, it has important implications for interventions to reduce problem behaviors among children and adolescents. Full article
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Article
Achievement Emotions in Selective Schools: Reexamining the Happy-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in an Extreme Case from the Chinese Collectivist Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215399 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Achievement emotions, defined as the emotions generated in the academic process or by achievement results, are critical for an individual’s mental health, personality development, and academic productivity. Referring to the well-known big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept, which describes the well-known phenomenon that students [...] Read more.
Achievement emotions, defined as the emotions generated in the academic process or by achievement results, are critical for an individual’s mental health, personality development, and academic productivity. Referring to the well-known big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept, which describes the well-known phenomenon that students in selective schools/classes tend to have lower academic self-concepts than those who are comparably competent but attend regular schools/classes, Pekrun and colleagues focused on German students and proposed a similar happy-fish-little-pond effect on achievement emotions in 2019. In our paper, we examined whether this effect exists in extreme cases. To maximize the positive reflected-glory effect of being in a selective school and minimize the negative social comparison contrast effects that result from being ranked low in the school, we conducted an investigation in the Chinese collectivist cultural setting and compared the achievement emotions of students from a highly selective senior middle school with those of students from a regular school where the top-ranking students fell short of the bottom-ranking students in the selective school in terms of academic performance. Through an analysis of variance and a moderated serial mediation model, our study revealed that the bottom-ranking students in the selective school had less positive achievement emotions, lower academic self-concepts, and more negative achievement emotions than the top-ranking students in the regular school, providing strong evidence that students rely more on social comparison than on objective self-evaluation standards to evaluate themselves. The implications of the results for educational policies are discussed. Full article
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Article
Low Resilience Was a Risk Factor of Mental Health Problems during the COVID-19 Pandemic but Not in Individuals Exposed to COVID-19: A Cohort Study in Spanish Adult General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215398 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Background: The aim is to analyze whether people with low resilience are at higher risk of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spanish adults. Methods: a longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Resilience was measured with the CD-RISC. Mental health problems [...] Read more.
Background: The aim is to analyze whether people with low resilience are at higher risk of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spanish adults. Methods: a longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Resilience was measured with the CD-RISC. Mental health problems that were assessed included: Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors (STB), and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results: we found statistically significant differences between groups and resilience scores in MDE [F (3; 48.40) = 19.55], GAD [F (3; 19.63) = 6.45] and STB [F (3; 111.74) = 31.94]. Multivariable analyses showed individuals with very low resilience were at a 5-fold risk of Incidence of MDE and a 4-fold risk of STB. Persistent group presented a 21-fold risk of MDE and 54-fold risk of STB. No evidence of higher risk was found for GAD. Individuals with low resilience and exposed to COVID-19 were not at higher risk. Individuals with low resilience were at higher risk of PTSD in general population [β(95% CI) = −3.25 (−3.969 to −2.54)], but not for individuals with COVID-19. Conclusions: in the general population, having low or very low resilience increases the risk of suffering MDE, STB, and PTSD, but not GAD during the COVID-19 pandemic, and not in the population with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Trauma, Disasters, Mental Health and Resilience)
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Article
Immobilization of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Cellulosic Wooden Sawdust for Competitive Nudrin Elimination from Environmental Waters as a Green Strategy: Box–Behnken Design Optimization
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215397 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The role of engineering in our society is not to just to continue creating chemicals, but sharing the responsibility for environmentally sound appropriate design of substances for a circular economy. Concerning this contemporary strategy, waste wooden sawdust (WSD) as a biobased by-product is [...] Read more.
The role of engineering in our society is not to just to continue creating chemicals, but sharing the responsibility for environmentally sound appropriate design of substances for a circular economy. Concerning this contemporary strategy, waste wooden sawdust (WSD) as a biobased by-product is augmented with magnetite (Mag) nanoparticles to meet the concept of cyclic application of resources in environmentally relevant photocatalytic reactions. The physical properties of the prepared WSD:Mag material were characterized to emphasis their structure and morphology by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), then the prepared catalyst was applied in augmentation with hydrogen peroxide as a type of photocatalyst in the form of Fenton’s reaction system to oxidize Nudrin pesticide in queues media. Twinned WSD:Mag has been verified to exhibit higher performance than pristine single-phase catalysts. System parameters, i.e., pH, hydrogen peroxide, catalyst dozing, and temperature, were studied to check their effect on the reaction activity. In the present study, further promotion of photocatalytic activity of twinned WSD:Mag was obtained by optimizing the process parameters at the optimal reaction time of 30 min. The optimal results investigated via Box–Behnken design regression model based on response surface mythology (RSM) showed that the photocatalytic activity of the twinned catalyst could reach 94% at pH 2.5 and 386 and 38 m/L of H2O2 and WSD:Mag, respectively. The regression coefficient and probability obtained from analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to check the adequacy of the applied model, and were 92% and 0.02, respectively. Additional confirmatory tests were carried out under optimum conditions for verification and agreed with the predicted values. Experimental data analysis revealed that the reaction is well fitted with the second-order reaction model. Thermodynamic parameters highlighted the oxidation reaction is non-spontaneous at high temperature and exothermic in nature and proceeds at a low activation energy barrier (31.46 kJ/mol). Catalyst recyclability was also checked, which confirmed catalyst sustainability and high removal rates (78%) after six cycles of use. This work introduces a new concept to design a promising environmentally benign photocatalyst with high potential for applicability to environmental remediation of agricultural effluents with a view to a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Science and Engineering: Feature Review Papers)
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Communication
Infodemiologists Beware: Recent Changes to the Google Health Trends API Result in Incomparable Data as of 1 January 2022
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215396 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 245
Abstract
In an ever-increasingly online world, many Internet users seek information from online search engines such as Google. Accessing such search activity allows infodemiologists a glimpse into the collective online mind. Tools such as Google Trends and Google Health Trends (GHT) can be used [...] Read more.
In an ever-increasingly online world, many Internet users seek information from online search engines such as Google. Accessing such search activity allows infodemiologists a glimpse into the collective online mind. Tools such as Google Trends and Google Health Trends (GHT) can be used to gauge search activity in key geographical regions and for specific periods of time. Recently, Google implemented changes to the GHT platform. Evidence is provided here for an initial exploration of how this change impacted the data obtained from GHT. Comparing 177 weekly probabilities for short search sessions of 421 Freebase IDs in thirty geographies extracted from GHT both before and after the implemented change, a low correlation (median of all Spearman ρ = 0.262 [IQR 0.04; 0.53]) between these data was observed for the year 2022. In general, the extracted values are higher after the implemented changes, compared to the values extracted before the change. Future research using the GHT API should not attribute increases in GHT data from 1 January 2022 onward as being reflective of increased search activity for a specific keyword, but rather attribute it to the implemented change to the GHT sampling strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mass Communication, Digital Media, and Public Health)
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Article
Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Member’s Satisfaction towards National Health Insurance: An Evidence from the Philippines
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215395 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The National Health Insurance, “PhilHealth”, is the healthcare provider for Filipino citizens in the Philippines. The study focused on determining the effects of members’ satisfaction with PhilHealth among Filipino members. The study utilized 10 latent variables from the integrated Service Quality (SERVQUAL) and [...] Read more.
The National Health Insurance, “PhilHealth”, is the healthcare provider for Filipino citizens in the Philippines. The study focused on determining the effects of members’ satisfaction with PhilHealth among Filipino members. The study utilized 10 latent variables from the integrated Service Quality (SERVQUAL) and Expectation-Confirmation Theory (ECT). There are 500 respondents that are used and analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and a Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN). Utilizing SEM, it was revealed that Reliability, Responsiveness, Socio-Economic Factors, Expectation, Perceived Performance, Confirmation of Beliefs, and Members’ Satisfaction are significant factors in the satisfaction of PhilHealth members. Utilizing DLNN, it was found that Expectation (EX) is the most significant factor, and it is consistent with the results of the SEM. The government can use the findings of this study for the improvement of PhilHealth. The framework that is used for the analysis can be extended and can apply to future research with regard to its provided services. The overall results, framework, and concept utilized may be applied by other service industries worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Article
Do Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Affect Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Bone Strength and Bone Biomarkers in Female Children and Adolescent Football Players? A One-Season Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215394 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The aim was to compare changes in body composition, physical fitness, and bone biomarkers in female children and adolescent football players with different Vitamin D levels. Twenty-two players were classified into two groups according to 25(OH)D concentrations: 11 with deficient/insufficient 25(OH)D levels (IVD; [...] Read more.
The aim was to compare changes in body composition, physical fitness, and bone biomarkers in female children and adolescent football players with different Vitamin D levels. Twenty-two players were classified into two groups according to 25(OH)D concentrations: 11 with deficient/insufficient 25(OH)D levels (IVD; <30 ng/mL) and 11 with sufficient 25(OH)D levels (SVD; ≥30 ng/mL). Body composition parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner. The following physical fitness tests were applied: maximal isometric knee extension (MIF), long jump, 30-m sprint, and 20-m shuttle run test (VO2max). Electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were used to analyze bone biomarkers and 25(OH)D. All variables were registered at the beginning and the end of the football season. The increase in subtotal bone mineral density (BMD) was higher in players with SVD than those with IVD (p = 0.030). Only players with SVD improved their MIF of the left leg (p = 0.005); whereas, only players with IVD decreased their 30-m sprint performance (p = 0.007) and VO2max (p = 0.046). No significant between- and within-group differences were found for bone biomarkers. SVD might cause an extra improvement of subtotal BMD in female children and adolescent football players. Moreover, it seems that the 25(OH)D concentration could be an important parameter for physical fitness improvement in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Sports Injury)
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