Next Issue
Volume 20, January-1
Previous Issue
Volume 19, December-1
 
 
ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 24 (December-2 2022) – 728 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases in frequency with age and occurs in individuals with various co-morbidities. The relationship between AD and other diseases is of particular interest because the co-morbidities may serve as early risk signs for subsequent AD development, may share a treatable etiology, and may help to slow disease progression in patients. Analyzing relationships between active AD cases and comorbid conditions introduces the difficulty in calculating time at risk and the complications in controlling for it. Fortunately, advances in database access, linking, and analysis enable new population and sample definitions and analyses. These new analyses remove the time-at-risk problem, as well as the complications of the spectrum of AD progression, allowing new insights into the relationships between AD and various co-morbidities. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Adsorption of Fluoride onto Acid-Modified Low-Cost Pyrolusite Ore: Adsorption Characteristics and Efficiencies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417103 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Fluoride concentrations in the groundwater continue to be a major cause for concern in Thailand, particularly in the country’s north and west. The process of removing fluoride through adsorption has captured the attention of the abundance of ore in the mining industry. For [...] Read more.
Fluoride concentrations in the groundwater continue to be a major cause for concern in Thailand, particularly in the country’s north and west. The process of removing fluoride through adsorption has captured the attention of the abundance of ore in the mining industry. For the purpose of this investigation, the utilization of the adsorbent pyrolusite, which is a manganese mineral largely composed of MnO2, was a major component. Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of original pyrolusite ore (PA-1) and acid-modification PA (PA-2) created as low-cost adsorption materials for fluoride removal. The results of the adsorption rate in both PAs showed a fast rate of adsorption within 60 min of reaching equilibrium. According to the results of the adsorption capacity (qe) tests, PA that had been treated with an acid solution (PA-2) had the capacity to contain more fluoride (qe = 0.58 mg/g) than the PA that had been used initially (PA-1) (qe = 0.11 mg/g). According to the findings of an isotherm, primary adsorption behavior is determined by the effect that surface components and chemical composition have on porous materials. This is the first current study that provides a comparison between pyrolusite from Thailand’s mining industry and basic modified pyrolusite regarding their ability to remove a fluoride contaminant in synthetic groundwater by an adsorption process. Such an approach will be able to be used in the future to protect the community from excessive fluoride concentrations in household and drinking water treatment technology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differences in Cognitive Function in Women and Men with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy with or without Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417102 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the differences in cognitive function between women and men with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with and without diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), and the factors associated with cognitive function in each [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse the differences in cognitive function between women and men with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with and without diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), and the factors associated with cognitive function in each sex. A cross-sectional study of 149 patients with DMT2 and DPN was performed. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, Test Your Memory (TYM) for cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life (SF-12v2) and sleep characteristics (MOS-sleep) were measured. A high percentage of women presented cognitive impairment (50% vs. 36.1%) and they scored lower on the TYM (mean = 40.77; SD = 6.03 vs. mean = 42.49; SD = 6.05). Women with DNP scored lower on calculation tasks (3.17 vs. 3.52) than men with DNP, while women without DNP scored lower on retrograde memory (2.70 vs. 3.74), executive function (3.83 vs. 4.25) and similarities (2.51 vs. 3.12) than men without DNP. Being older (B = −0.181) and presenting cardiovascular risk factors (B = −5.059) were associated with worse cognitive function in women, while in men this was associated with older age (B = −0.154), a longer duration of diabetes (B = −0.319) and the presence of depression (B = −0.363). Women with and without DNP obtained worse results in cognitive function. However, the presence of pain had a greater impact on the different dimensions in men. Full article
Article
Client Views of Contingency Management in Gambling Treatment: A Thematic Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417101 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Low levels of treatment access and poor retention among those with gambling problems suggests a need to improve treatment. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention involving the identification of target behaviours and the provision of incentives when targets are met. There exists [...] Read more.
Low levels of treatment access and poor retention among those with gambling problems suggests a need to improve treatment. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention involving the identification of target behaviours and the provision of incentives when targets are met. There exists a substantial evidence base for CM increasing abstinence and attendance in substance misuse treatment, but this has not been widely extended to gambling treatment setting. This study sought to explore the views of clients about CM for the treatment of problematic and disordered gambling. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 gambling treatment clients who were, or had previously been, engaged in treatment in Great Britain. Participants were provided with an explanation of CM, two hypothetical scenarios, and two structured questionnaires to facilitate discussion. Thematic analysis was used to interpret findings. Some participants felt that clients could manipulate CM while in treatment to obtain money to gamble, and that mechanisms of CM could trigger recovering clients into relapse. Participants also identified potential benefits of CM to achieve treatment goals, by enhancing motivation and engagement while in treatment, and helping bring people into treatment earlier. Gambling treatment clients broadly supported the use of incentives for treatment. CM is seen as a facilitator of extended engagement in treatment, and an encouragement for clients to make progress in the treatment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Article
Relationship, Discourse and Construction: The Power Process and Environmental Impact of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces as a World Heritage Site
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417100 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The coexistence of conservation and degradation is a challenge for protected areas, and unequal political and social power is the mechanism underlying this conservation paradox. The World Heritage site of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (HHRT) has important natural and cultural value, but [...] Read more.
The coexistence of conservation and degradation is a challenge for protected areas, and unequal political and social power is the mechanism underlying this conservation paradox. The World Heritage site of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (HHRT) has important natural and cultural value, but despite the enormous investment in protecting the site, the rice terraces continue to degrade, and much of the degradation has been unexpected. This study attempts to reveal the mechanism of these unintended protection outputs from the perspective of power relations. After reviewing the literature on the political ecology of protected areas, this study further considers the conceptual framework of power in view of the ambiguity of the concept and integrates the themes from research on protected areas into the power analysis framework of political ecology. Three aspects of the power process and environmental impact of heritage sites are analyzed: the actor network, conservation discourse and natural reconstruction. The results reveal that power among actors in the HHRT has changed over the course of continuous interaction, power has been produced and re-established in different relational networks, and the exercise of power has changed and reshaped the natural environment of the heritage site through a series of spatial planning decisions. Conservation discourse related to heritage is an important way for actors to establish and exercise power. However, due to spatial differences in the allocation of power, local development opportunities are unbalanced. In this unbalanced relationship, in order to maintain or strive for development opportunities and achieve economic development, residents of the HHRT have reshaped the natural environment by changing their farming methods and traditional planting methods, posing a potential threat to the sustainable development of the heritage site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ecological Study of Sick Building Syndrome among Healthcare Workers at Johor Primary Care Facilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417099 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Introduction: Persistent exposure to indoor hazards in a healthcare setting poses a risk of SBS. This study determines the prevalence of and risk factors for SBS among healthcare workers in health clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across four health clinics from [...] Read more.
Introduction: Persistent exposure to indoor hazards in a healthcare setting poses a risk of SBS. This study determines the prevalence of and risk factors for SBS among healthcare workers in health clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across four health clinics from February 2022 to May 2022. As part of the study, self-administered questionnaires were completed to determine symptoms related to SBS. An indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment was conducted four times daily for fifteen minutes at five areas in each clinic (laboratory, lobby, emergency room, pharmacy, and examination room). Result: Most of the areas illustrated poor air movement (<0.15 m/s), except for the laboratory. The total bacterial count (TBC) was above the standard limit in both the lobby and emergency room (>500 CFU/m3). The prevalence of SBS was 24.84% (77) among the healthcare workers at the health clinics. A significant association with SBS was noted for those working in the examination room (COR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.31; 6.27) and those experiencing high temperature sometimes (COR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.11; 0.55), varying temperature sometimes (COR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.003), stuffy air sometimes (COR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.005; 0.64), dry air sometimes (COR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.007; 0.64), and dust sometimes (COR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.11; 0.60) and everyday (COR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14; 0.81). Only healthcare workers in the examination room (AOR = 3.17; 95% CI = 1.35; 7.41) were found to have a significant risk of SBS when controlling for other variables. Conclusion: SBS is prevalent among healthcare workers at health clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment for Occupational Safety and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Trajectories of Job Burnout among Bus Drivers in China: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417098 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize job burnout in longitudinal trajectories among bus drivers and examine the impact of variables related to job burnout for trajectories. A longitudinal study was conducted in 12,793 bus drivers in Guangdong province, China, at 3-year follow-up assessments. Growth [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize job burnout in longitudinal trajectories among bus drivers and examine the impact of variables related to job burnout for trajectories. A longitudinal study was conducted in 12,793 bus drivers in Guangdong province, China, at 3-year follow-up assessments. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to estimate latent classes of burnout trajectories and multinomial logistic regression models were applied to predict membership in the trajectory classes. In general, there was a decrease in job burnout in 3 years [slope = −0.29, 95%CI = (−0.32, −0.27)]. Among those sub-dimensions, reduced personal accomplishment accounted for the largest proportion. GMM analysis identified five trajectory groups: (1) moderate-decreased (n = 2870, 23%), (2) low-stable (n = 5062, 39%), (3) rapid-decreased (n = 141, 1%), (4) moderate-increased (n = 1504, 12%), and (5) high-stable (n = 3216, 25%). Multinomial logistic regression estimates showed that depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and insomnia were significant negative predictors, while daily physical exercise was a significantly positive predictor. We found an overall downward trend in bus drivers’ burnout, particularly in the sub-dimension of personal accomplishment. Mentally healthier drivers and those who were usually exercising were more resilient to occupational stress and less likely to suffer burnout. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Aging Drivers and Vehicles on the Injury Severity of Crash Victims
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417097 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Against a general trend of increasing driver longevity, the injuries suffered by vehicle occupants in Spanish road traffic crashes are analyzed by the level of severity of their bodily injuries (BI). Generalized linear mixed models are applied to model the proportion of non-serious, [...] Read more.
Against a general trend of increasing driver longevity, the injuries suffered by vehicle occupants in Spanish road traffic crashes are analyzed by the level of severity of their bodily injuries (BI). Generalized linear mixed models are applied to model the proportion of non-serious, serious, and fatal victims. The dependence between vehicles involved in the same crash is captured by including random effects. The effect of driver age and vehicle age and their interaction on the proportion of injured victims is analyzed. We find a nonlinear relationship between driver age and BI severity, with young and older drivers constituting the riskiest groups. In contrast, the expected severity of the crash increases linearly up to a vehicle age of 18 and remains constant thereafter at the highest level of BI severity. No interaction between the two variables is found. These results are especially relevant for countries such as Spain with increasing driver longevity and an aging car fleet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Telerehabilitation in the Transitional Care of Patients with Sequelae Associated with COVID-19: Perception of Portuguese Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417096 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic brought many changes and challenges to health professionals, due to a lack of knowledge when dealing with the disease, fear of contagion, and the sequelae that characterize long COVID. To deal with this situation, respiratory rehabilitation programs are recommended in [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic brought many changes and challenges to health professionals, due to a lack of knowledge when dealing with the disease, fear of contagion, and the sequelae that characterize long COVID. To deal with this situation, respiratory rehabilitation programs are recommended in face-to-face and/or telerehabilitation modalities. (1) Background: This study had as its primary aim identifying the aspects/components to be considered in the planning and implementation of telerehabilitation interventions that guarantee transitional care for people with long COVID-19 after hospitalization and as a secondary aim identifying the positive aspects of telerehabilitation. (2) Methods: The method used to answer the research question was a focus group, carried out online with eight nurses specialized in rehabilitation nursing. The answers to the semi-structured interview were subjected to content analysis, and qualitative data analysis software (WebQDA®) was used to organize and analyze the findings. (3) Results: Four categories emerged from the content analysis: coordination between care levels; transitional care telerehabilitation intervention; advantages of telerehabilitation; and opportunities. (4) Conclusions: These findings make an important contribution to the reorganization of transitional care, allowing the identification of central aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of telerehabilitation programs for people with long COVID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Caring for Patients in the Time of COVID-19)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Withdrawing Antipsychotics for Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Experiences and Views of Prescribers
by , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417095 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
International current best practice recommends the discontinuation of antipsychotics for challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), due to lack of evidence of efficacy and risks of harmful side-effects. In clinical practice, discontinuation may be difficult. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
International current best practice recommends the discontinuation of antipsychotics for challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), due to lack of evidence of efficacy and risks of harmful side-effects. In clinical practice, discontinuation may be difficult. The aim of this study was to gain insight into prescribers’ practice by investigating their experiences with the discontinuation of long-term antipsychotics for challenging behaviour. From professionals’ associations thirty-four registered ID physicians, psychiatrists and specialist mental healthcare nurses were recruited who completed an online questionnaire in this survey–study. Almost all participants had attempted to deprescribe antipsychotics for their patients with ID. Sixty-five percent of participants achieved complete discontinuation in 0–25% of their patients, but none in over 50%. Barriers were a lack of non-pharmaceutical treatments for challenging behaviours and caregivers’ and/or family concern. Seventy percent of participants indicated that their institutions had encouraged implementing their discontinuation policies in line with the new Dutch Act on Involuntary care and a new Dutch multidisciplinary guideline on problem behaviour in adults with ID. Support and facilitation of clinicians from institutions’ managers and political and professional bodies may be helpful in further implementation of best practice in the treatment of challenging behaviour in people with ID. Full article
Article
Impact of the Digital Economy on PM2.5: Experience from the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River Basin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417094 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 458
Abstract
The development of the digital economy holds great significance for alleviating haze pollution. To estimate the impact of the digital economy on haze pollution, this paper explores the spatiotemporal evolutionary characteristics of the digital economy and PM2.5 concentration in the middle and [...] Read more.
The development of the digital economy holds great significance for alleviating haze pollution. To estimate the impact of the digital economy on haze pollution, this paper explores the spatiotemporal evolutionary characteristics of the digital economy and PM2.5 concentration in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin from 2011 to 2019 and conducts regression analysis by combining a fixed effect (FE) model and the spatial Durbin model (SDM). Moreover, this study divides the mitigation effect of haze pollution into a direct effect and a spatial spillover effect, and it further analyzes the mechanism from the perspectives of technological innovation and the industrial structure. The empirical results show that the development level of the digital economy increases year by year and that the concentration of PM2.5 decreases year by year. The digital economy level and PM2.5 concentration in the downstream region are higher than those in the middle region, and the digital economy is negatively correlated with haze pollution. Similarly, the spatial spillover effect of the digital economy is conducive to curbing haze pollution. The robustness test also supports this conclusion. In addition, there is regional heterogeneity in the impact of the digital economy on haze pollution. The direct effect and spatial spillover effect of the digital economy on haze pollution in the downstream region are greater than those in the middle region. This study suggests that to realize air pollution prevention and control, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of digital infrastructure and create a good digital economy development environment based on local conditions. Encouraging the development of digital technological innovation and promoting industrial digital transformation hold great significance for alleviating haze pollution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Recreational Swimming Intervention during the Whole School Year Improves Fitness and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents with Overweight and Obesity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417093 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
The benefits of swimming as a treatment for overweight children are undefined. We investigated the effects of recreational swimming on cardiometabolic risk in children/adolescents with normal and excess weight. Participants (n = 49, 26 girls, 10.3 ± 1.8 y) were grouped as [...] Read more.
The benefits of swimming as a treatment for overweight children are undefined. We investigated the effects of recreational swimming on cardiometabolic risk in children/adolescents with normal and excess weight. Participants (n = 49, 26 girls, 10.3 ± 1.8 y) were grouped as ‘eutrophic swimming’ (EU-Swim, n = 14); ‘excess weight swimming’ (EW-Swim, n = 20) with an ‘obese swimming’ subgroup (OB-Swim, n = 10); and ‘excess weight sedentary’ (EW-Sed, n = 15) with an ‘obese sedentary’ subgroup (OB-Sed, n = 11). Swimming (50 min, twice/week, moderate-vigorous intensity) was an extra activity during the school year (6 + 3 months with a 3-month school break). Nutritional status, blood pressure (BP), physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, biochemical variables, autonomic modulation, endothelial function, abdominal fat, and carotid thickness were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Greater improvements (p < 0.05) occurred in EW-Swim vs. EW-Sed in body mass index (z-BMI, −16%, d+ 0.52), waist-to-height ratio (W/H, −8%, d+ 0.59–0.79), physical activity (37–53%, d+ 1.8–2.2), cardiorespiratory fitness (30–40%, d+ 0.94–1.41), systolic BP (SBP, −6–8%, d+ 0.88–1.17), diastolic BP (DBP, −9–10%, d+ 0.70–0.85), leptin (−14–18%, d+ 0.29–0.41), forearm blood flow (FBF, 26–41%, d+ 0.53–0.64), subcutaneous fat (SAT, −6%, d+ 0.18), and intra-abdominal fat (VAT, −16%, d+ 0.63). OB-Swim showed improvements vs. OB-Sed in TNFα (−17%, d+ 1.15) and adiponectin (22%, d+ 0.40). Swimming improved fitness and cardiometabolic risk in children/adolescents with overweight/obesity. (TCTR20220216001) Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mercury Sources, Emissions, Distribution and Bioavailability along an Estuarine Gradient under Semiarid Conditions in Northeast Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417092 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 708
Abstract
In the semiarid coast of northeast Brazil, climate change and changes in land use in drainage basins affect river hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry, modifying the estuarine environment and its biogeochemistry and increasing the mobilization of mercury (Hg). This is particularly relevant to the largest [...] Read more.
In the semiarid coast of northeast Brazil, climate change and changes in land use in drainage basins affect river hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry, modifying the estuarine environment and its biogeochemistry and increasing the mobilization of mercury (Hg). This is particularly relevant to the largest semiarid-encroached basin of the region, the Jaguaribe River. Major Hg sources to the Jaguaribe estuary are solid waste disposal, sewage and shrimp farming, the latter emitting effluents directly into the estuary. Total annual emission reaches 300 kg. In that estuary, the distribution of Hg in sediment and suspended particulate matter decreases seaward, whereas dissolved Hg concentrations increase sharply seaward, suggesting higher mobilization at the marine-influenced, mangrove-dominated portion of the estuary, mostly in the dry season. Concentrations of Hg in rooted macrophytes respond to Hg concentrations in sediment, being higher in the fluvial endmember of the estuary, whereas in floating aquatic macrophytes, Hg concentrations followed dissolved Hg concentrations in water and were also higher in the dry season. Animals (fish and crustaceans) also showed higher concentrations and bioaccumulation in the marine-influenced portion of the estuary. The variability of Hg concentrations in plants and sediments agrees with continental sources of Hg. However, Hg fractionation in water and contents in the animals respond to higher Hg availability in the marine-dominated end of the estuary. The results suggest that the impact of anthropogenic sources on Hg bioavailability is modulated by regional and global environmental changes and results from a conjunction of biological, ecological and hydrological characteristics. Finally, increasing aridity due to global warming, observed in northeast Brazil, as well as in other semiarid littorals worldwide, in addition to increased water overuse, augment Hg bioavailability and environmental risk and exposure of the local biota and the tradition of human populations exploiting the estuary’s biological resources. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Status and Prospect of Ecological Environment in the Belt and Road Initiative Regions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417091 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 749
Abstract
With the widespread recognition and in-depth implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), especially in the context of global climate change, the ecological environment of Belt and Road Initiative regions might be confronted with pressures and challenges with rapid socioeconomic development. In [...] Read more.
With the widespread recognition and in-depth implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), especially in the context of global climate change, the ecological environment of Belt and Road Initiative regions might be confronted with pressures and challenges with rapid socioeconomic development. In response to those potential environmental challenges, China has put forward Green BRI and enriched the new Silk Road with more environmental connotations, aiming to reduce the conflict between economic development and eco-environmental protection. Currently, there is a lack of systematic and holistic research on eco-environmental issues in BRI regions. In addition, feasible solutions to enhance BRI’s contribution to the eco-environment remain insufficient. Having systematically reviewed the relevant literature on the eco-environment in BRI regions, we found that most regions along the BRI routes are in sensitive zones of climate and geological change, with fragile eco-environments and strong vulnerability to climate change, natural disasters and human activities. The main eco-environment status of the BRI regions is as follows: (1) The total water resources in BRI regions account for only 36% of the global total, with uneven distribution and complex spatial precipitation, posing higher pressure on water security. (2) Vegetation varies significantly from region to region. The vegetation in South Asia is the richest, with its mean annual NDVI exceeding 0.7. The NDVI in East Europe, Russia and South China are between 0.4 and 0.7, and that in Central Asia and West Asia are below 0.2. (3) The BRI regions are abundantly blessed with natural resources, with the total recoverable oil reserves, natural gas reserves and the total mining area reaching 66%, 65.5% and 42.31% of the world’s total, respectively, but severe overexploitation and overconsumption of those resources degrade their eco-environment. Accordingly, future research directions, such as target on integrated, interdisciplinary and coordinated studies on eco-environmental issues in BRI regions, are proposed in this paper to achieve optimization of BRI’s contribution to eco-environment protection in BRI regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of Typical Alpine Lake Surface Elevation Variations and Different Driving Forces by Remote Sensing Altimetry Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417090 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Alpine lakes play a significant role in improving watershed ecology, adjusting water storage, and managing regional water resources. They are also a valuable freshwater reservoir, flood storage, and species gene pool in Central Asia. This article validated the accuracy of the CryoSat-2 footprints [...] Read more.
Alpine lakes play a significant role in improving watershed ecology, adjusting water storage, and managing regional water resources. They are also a valuable freshwater reservoir, flood storage, and species gene pool in Central Asia. This article validated the accuracy of the CryoSat-2 footprints altimetry dataset for the Lake Bosten and Lake Issyk-Kul ranges. The time series for the surface elevations of the Central Asian alpine lakes Karakul and Chatyrkul were established, based on footprints altimetry data. The lake hydrological drivers were analyzed using remote sensing meteorological reanalysis data of the lake basins. The following main conclusions were reached. The CryoSat-2 footprints altimetry dataset has high confidence in lake surface elevation monitoring. Compared with Hydroweb monitoring results, the agreement between the monitoring results in the range between Lake Bosten and Lake Issyk-Kul are 0.96 and 0.84. The surface elevation of Lake Karakul shows an overall increasing trend with a variation rate of +7.7 cm/yr from 2010 to 2020, which has a positive correlation with the temperature in the basin. This indicates that the increased temperature, which results in the increased snow and ice meltwater in the basin, is the main driving force of the increased lake evolution. The lake surface elevation of Lake Chatyrkul shows an overall decreasing trend, with a variation rate of −9.9 cm/yr from 2010 to 2020, which has a negative correlation with the temperature in the basin. This suggests that Lake Chatyrkul is poorly recharged by snow and ice meltwater. The main driving force of its evolution is the increased evaporative output of the lake due to the increase in temperature. These conclusions prove that temperature and alpine glacial variability within the lake basin play an important role in lake surface elevation variations in alpine regions of Central Asia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Simulation of an Improved Updraft Biomass Gasifier Based on Aspen Plus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417089 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
In this paper, numerical investigation and optimization is conducted upon an improved updraft gasifier which is expected to overcome the weakness of conventional updraft gasifier. The comprehensive Aspen Plus model of the improved updraft gasifier is based on the RYield and RCSTR reactor. [...] Read more.
In this paper, numerical investigation and optimization is conducted upon an improved updraft gasifier which is expected to overcome the weakness of conventional updraft gasifier. The comprehensive Aspen Plus model of the improved updraft gasifier is based on the RYield and RCSTR reactor. The tar prediction model is constructed, and the yield of tar is determined by the volatile of biomass and gasification temperature. The Aspen Plus simulation results agree very well with experiment results for the product yields and gasification efficiency, which shows the accuracy of the Aspen Plus model. The tar content in syngas of the improved gasifier is proved to be much lower than that of the conventional one by this model. The inflection point of the gasification efficiency occurs when air ratio is 0.25, and the optimum steam proportion in the air is 7.5%. Such a comprehensive investigation could provide necessary information for the optimal design and operation of the improved updraft gasifier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbon Valorization of Biomass and Organic Waste)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of a Group-/Home-Based and a Weight-Machine-Based Exercise Training for Patients with Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis—A Secondary Analysis of Two Trial Interventions in a Real-World Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417088 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
This study aimed to compare an individual weight-machine-based strengthening program (MbT) with a group-/homebased training offering strengthening/functional exercises (GHT) in a general health care setting. A total of 657 participants (GHT = 521, MbT = 136) suffering from hip/knee OA were included and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare an individual weight-machine-based strengthening program (MbT) with a group-/homebased training offering strengthening/functional exercises (GHT) in a general health care setting. A total of 657 participants (GHT = 521, MbT = 136) suffering from hip/knee OA were included and analysed with a pre–post design (baseline (T0)/3-months (T1)). Primary outcomes were pain and physical functioning (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, range 0–10). Additionally, adherence and perceived patient benefit were measured (T1). Data were analysed with linear mixed models (time, treatment, baseline pain/physical impairment severity) adjusted for patient characteristics. No significant between-group differences in pain reduction/functional improvements (time*treatment*baseline pain/physical impairment severity, pain/function: n.s.; time*treatment, pain: p = 0.884, function: p = 0.067). Within-group improvements were dependent on baseline severity: Higher severity levels demonstrated larger changes from baseline. Perceived patient-benefit (very high to high, GHT: 78%, MbT: 92%) and exercise adherence (Dropouts T1: GHT: 27.8%, MbT: 16.2%; adherence to supervised sessions: GHT: 89%, MbT: 92%) was slightly better in the MbT. In summary, both MbT and GHT, showed positive results for patients with at least moderate disease symptoms. Findings for physical functioning, perceived patient-benefit, exercise adherence hint towards a superiority of MbT. Individual preferences should be considered when prescribing exercise therapy. Trial registration: (1) German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00009251. Registered 10 September 2015. (2) German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00009257. Registered 11 September 2015. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Isolation and Degradation Characteristics of PBAT Film Degrading Bacteria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417087 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
In recent years, PBAT (polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate) mulch has become one of the most commonly used biodegradable mulching films. In this paper, five potential strains of PBAT film degrading bacteria were screened from the soil sample using PBAT film as the sole carbon source. [...] Read more.
In recent years, PBAT (polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate) mulch has become one of the most commonly used biodegradable mulching films. In this paper, five potential strains of PBAT film degrading bacteria were screened from the soil sample using PBAT film as the sole carbon source. A highly efficient PBAT degrading strain JZ1 was isolated by comparing the degradation performance of PBAT mulching film identified as Peribacillus frigoritolerans S2313 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The capacity of the strain to degrade PBAT film was optimized by adjusting the cultivation conditions such as nitrogen source, pH, and inoculum volume. After 8 weeks of cultivation, the actual degradation rate of the strain to PBAT mulch film reached 12.45%. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) coupled with EDX (energy dispersive spectroscopy) analysis showed that microbial degradation is an oxidation process and is mainly due to the amorphous regions of the PBAT film. The biodegradation of PBAT film by Peribacillus frigoritolerans may provide a promising method for regulating the degradation progress of PBAT film in the farmlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biodegradation of Pollutants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Climate Change and Nutrition: Implications for the Eastern Mediterranean Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417086 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is considered among the world’s most vulnerable to the dire impacts of climate change. This review paper aims at (1) characterizing climate change in countries of the EMR; (2) examining the potential effects of climate change on the [...] Read more.
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is considered among the world’s most vulnerable to the dire impacts of climate change. This review paper aims at (1) characterizing climate change in countries of the EMR; (2) examining the potential effects of climate change on the nutritional and health status of the population; and (3) identifying the most vulnerable population groups. The paper explored several climate change indicators including daily temperatures, extreme temperature, daily precipitation, extreme precipitation (flooding, drought, storms, etc.), humidity, CO2 concentrations and sea surface temperature in EMR countries. Findings suggest that climate change will exert a significant adverse effect on water and food security and showed that the nutritional status of the population, which is already characterized by the triple burden of malnutrition, is likely to worsen via three main pathways mediated by climate change, namely, its impact on food security, care and health. Women, infants, children, those living in poor households and those experiencing displacement will be among the most vulnerable to the nutritional impacts of climate change. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations from the Initiative on Climate Action and Nutrition, which can support the region in tackling the critical nexus of climate change and nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Validation of Lund University Sexual Harassment Inventory (LUSHI)—A Proposed Instrument for Assessing Sexual Harassment among University Employees and Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417085 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The objective was to investigate the validity and reliability of a new instrument assessing sexual harassment at a public university in Sweden. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions resulted in a 10-item instrument, the ‘Lund University Sexual Harassment Inventory’ (LUSHI). A survey was [...] Read more.
The objective was to investigate the validity and reliability of a new instrument assessing sexual harassment at a public university in Sweden. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions resulted in a 10-item instrument, the ‘Lund University Sexual Harassment Inventory’ (LUSHI). A survey was sent to all staff, including PhD students, and students, with a response rate of 33% (n = 2736) and 32% (n = 9667), respectively. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha statistics were applied. Having experienced one or more of 10 specific behaviors was defined as sexual harassment exposure and was reported by 17.1% of staff/PhD students and 21.1% of students. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors with Eigenvalues above 1, labeled ‘unwanted sexual attention of soliciting type’ and ‘unwanted sexual attention of non-soliciting type’. Rape/attempted rape fell outside of the two factors. The Cronbach’s alpha values of the original 10-item scale and of the two newly formed scales were 0.80, 0.80, and 0.66, respectively. The mentioned statistics were markedly similar among men, women, and non-binary individuals and between staff/PhD students and students. We conclude that the 10-item instrument could be used for assessing sexual harassment in university settings or any type of workplace. Full article
Article
Young Adult Development Indicators for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous People: A Cross-National Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417084 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Worldwide, Indigenous youth face ongoing challenges and inequalities. Increasing our understanding of life course patterns in Indigenous youth will assist the design of strategies and interventions that encourage positive development. This study aimed to increase understanding of resilience and positive development in Indigenous [...] Read more.
Worldwide, Indigenous youth face ongoing challenges and inequalities. Increasing our understanding of life course patterns in Indigenous youth will assist the design of strategies and interventions that encourage positive development. This study aimed to increase understanding of resilience and positive development in Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth across Australia and the United States of America. The Australian sample comprised 9680 non-Indigenous and 176 Pacific Islander and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The USA sample comprised 2258 non-Indigenous and 220 Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian and Native American/American Indian peoples. Data were used to examine how Indigenous background, volunteering, and community involvement at average age 15 years (Grade 9) predicted five young adult positive development indicators: Year 12 (Grade 12) school completion, tertiary education participation, independent income, paid employment, and intimate relationship formation from age 18 to 28 years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that while Indigenous youth showed slower increases in positive young adult development over time, when adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage, there was a reduction in this difference. Moreover, we found that Grade 9 community involvement and volunteering were positively associated with young adult development for Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth. Findings indicate the importance of addressing structural inequalities and increasing adolescent opportunities as feasible strategies to improve positive outcomes for young Indigenous adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescents)
Article
Morphological Pattern of Building Clusters in Cold Regions: Evidence from Harbin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417083 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
The rapidly changing global conditions of the environment and climate have resulted in higher requirements for urban design. Significant annual temperature variations and large day/night temperature differences in cold-region cities leads to high energy consumption. Therefore, it is challenging to achieve low energy [...] Read more.
The rapidly changing global conditions of the environment and climate have resulted in higher requirements for urban design. Significant annual temperature variations and large day/night temperature differences in cold-region cities leads to high energy consumption. Therefore, it is challenging to achieve low energy consumption in cold-region cities. Urban morphology focuses on the physical elements of urban areas, reflecting the relationship between the city and its environment and the city’s response to natural climatic conditions. Building clusters are common in cold regions due to the extreme climate. Thus, it is crucial to study the energy performance of cities by considering urban morphology. This study focuses on four morphological patterns of building clusters: point, linear, courtyard, and mixed patterns. A case study is conducted in Harbin, a cold-region city in China. Samples of the four morphological patterns are extracted, and GIS analysis and manual labeling are used to analyze the dominant morphological patterns of building clusters in cold regions. Average nearest-neighbor analysis is used to obtain quantitative results and determine the prevalence of different morphological patterns of building clusters in cold regions. This process can be used to determine the dominant patterns of urban building clusters and provide a scientific basis for selecting the morphological patterns of new building clusters in cold regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influences of Climate Change and Land Use Change on the Habitat Suitability of Bharal in the Sanjiangyuan District, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417082 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 666
Abstract
One of the biggest dangers to the degradation of biodiversity worldwide is climate change. Its oscillations in the future could result in potential alterations to species populations and habitat structure. With Sanjiangyuan District as the study site, an uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) was [...] Read more.
One of the biggest dangers to the degradation of biodiversity worldwide is climate change. Its oscillations in the future could result in potential alterations to species populations and habitat structure. With Sanjiangyuan District as the study site, an uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized to investigate the number and location of the bharal (Pseudois nayaur). The Maximum Entropy model and the Minimum Cumulative Resistance model (MaxEnt-MCR) were coupled to simulate the distribution of wildlife. On this basis, the future geographical distribution of bharal under different climate scenarios was simulated, and the ecological corridor and habitat centroid of bharal were revealed. The results showed that the suitable area of the bharal habitat was 4669 km2, which was mainly concentrated in the Maduo, Qumalai, and Gonghe counties. The potential distribution of the species under different future climate scenarios had a decreasing trend. Under the SSP-245 scenario, the habitat area of bharal in 2030 and 2050 decreased by 25.68 and 44.61% compared with the present situation and cumulatively decreased by 1199 and 2083 km2, respectively. Under the SSP-585 scenario, the habitat area of bharal in 2030 and 2050 decreased by 27.5 and 48.44%, with a total reduction of 1284 and 2262 km2, respectively. Furthermore, a complete loss of habitat was predicted in Gonghe County by 2050. In addition, it was observed that the landscape structure in Sanjiangyuan District would be more fragmented and complex. The continued climate change will seriously affect the habitat distribution of this species. Therefore, preventive measures, such as protecting habitat areas and establishing ecological corridors for bharal, should be implemented in the Sanjiangyuan District. Such measures should not focus solely on the potential degradation but should also be extended to include potential distribution areas for future migration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Experiences of Nursing Instructors Related to Safety Issues Using Students as Practice Models in Laboratories: A Focus Group Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417081 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Aim: Nursing school students perform invasive (i.e., injection, venipuncture) and/or non-invasive procedures (i.e., giving a bed bath and back massage) on each other to master these skills, and nursing instructors reported related safety issues. This study aimed to explore nursing instructors’ experiences concerning [...] Read more.
Aim: Nursing school students perform invasive (i.e., injection, venipuncture) and/or non-invasive procedures (i.e., giving a bed bath and back massage) on each other to master these skills, and nursing instructors reported related safety issues. This study aimed to explore nursing instructors’ experiences concerning their students’ psychological and physical safety when using students as practice models in nursing skills laboratories. Methods: A qualitative design using focus group interviews and thematic analysis was employed. Two semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight instructors with experience in teaching nursing skills in laboratories. This study was evaluated by the Institutional Review Board at Eulji University (EU18-51) in the Republic of Korea. Results: Three main themes emerged to describe nursing instructors’ safety-related experiences when using students as practice models in nursing skills laboratories: (1) a dilemma between the experimental learning of students and the need to keep students safe, (2) perception related to psychological safety, and (3) an inadequate safety reporting system. Conclusions: When instructors consider using students’ bodies to practice nursing skills, they experience a dilemma between the students’ experimental learning and the need to keep them safe. Thus, methods to maximize student learning and student safety guidelines should be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
Article
More than a Physical Problem: The Effects of Physical and Sensory Impairments on the Emotional Development of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417080 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
With the introduction of the ICD-11 and DSM-5, indicators of adaptive behavior, including social–emotional skills, are in focus for a more comprehensive understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. Emotional skills can be assessed with the Scale of Emotional Development-Short (SED-S). To date, little is known [...] Read more.
With the introduction of the ICD-11 and DSM-5, indicators of adaptive behavior, including social–emotional skills, are in focus for a more comprehensive understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders. Emotional skills can be assessed with the Scale of Emotional Development-Short (SED-S). To date, little is known about the effects of physical disorders and sensory impairments on a person’s developmental trajectory. The SED-S was applied in 724 adults with intellectual disabilities, of whom 246 persons had an additional physical and/or sensory impairment. Ordinal regression analyses revealed an association of movement disorders with more severe intellectual disability and lower levels of emotional development (ED) on the overall and domain levels (Others, Body, Material, and Communication). Visual impairments predicted lower levels of ED in the SED-S domains Material and Body, but not the overall level of ED. Hearing impairments were not associated with intellectual disability or ED. Epilepsy correlated only with the severity of intellectual disability. Multiple impairments predicted more severe intellectual disabilities and lower levels of overall ED. In conclusion, physical and sensory impairments may not only affect physical development but may also compromise intellectual and emotional development, which should be addressed in early interventions. Full article
Article
Association between Physical Activity Levels and Brain Volumes in Adults Visiting Radio-Imaging Center of Tertiary Care Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417079 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Background and aim: There is evidence to support the favorable impact of physical activity (PA) on brain volume. However, the empirical evidence exploring the relationship between physical and sedentary behavior remains mixed. We aimed to explore the relationship between PA and sedentary behavior [...] Read more.
Background and aim: There is evidence to support the favorable impact of physical activity (PA) on brain volume. However, the empirical evidence exploring the relationship between physical and sedentary behavior remains mixed. We aimed to explore the relationship between PA and sedentary behavior and brain volume. Methods: The study sample (n = 150, mean age = 39.7 years) included patients interviewed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) who underwent an MRI brain scan. From the images obtained, we measured total intracranial, gray matter, and white matter volume along with the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Multivariable linear regression analysis was done. Results and discussion: Left hippocampus and overall PA were positively and significantly associated (β = 0.71, p = 0.021) whereas time spent on vigorous physical activity showed a negative association (β = −0.328, p = 0.049) with left hippocampal volume. Conclusion: We found a positive association between total PA and the left hippocampus, whereas vigorous PA showed a negative association with the left hippocampus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Examining the Association between Sports Participation and Mental Health of Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417078 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Sports participation has been linked to various health outcomes; however, there is scant literature exploring this relationship in developing countries. We used a mixed method approach to examine the association between sports participation and mental health of Bangladeshi adolescents (n = 320; [...] Read more.
Sports participation has been linked to various health outcomes; however, there is scant literature exploring this relationship in developing countries. We used a mixed method approach to examine the association between sports participation and mental health of Bangladeshi adolescents (n = 320; 13–17 years; 59% boys) and to explore sports preferences and barriers to sports participation across genders. A survey collected team and non-team sports participation, depression, and life satisfaction. Focus groups (16 boys, 16 girls) explored preferences for, and barriers to, sports participation. Regression analysis showed that higher team and non-team sports participation were associated with lower depressive symptoms in boys (β = −1.22, 95% CI:−2.55 to −0.10; β = −2.50, 95% CI:−3.83 to −1.16, respectively), while greater participation in team sports was associated with less depression in girls (β = −2.44, 95% CI:−4.63 to −0.24). Participation in team and non-team sports was positively associated with life satisfaction for boys and girls. Boys reported preferences for playing football and cricket, while girls favored skipping and running. Prolonged time on electronic devices was reported as barriers to sports participation in both genders. Furthermore, household chores, family restrictions, and unsafe environment were reported by girls. Participation in team sports may provide mental health benefits for both genders, while non-team sports may be more beneficial to boys than girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploring the Role of Land Transfer and Social Capital in Improving Agricultural Income under the Background of Rural Revitalization
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417077 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Under the background of rural revitalization in China, with the process of urbanization and the implementation of China’s land system reform, rural workers gradually gain multiple income streams. However, increasing agricultural income remains the final guarantee for professional farmers to shake off poverty, [...] Read more.
Under the background of rural revitalization in China, with the process of urbanization and the implementation of China’s land system reform, rural workers gradually gain multiple income streams. However, increasing agricultural income remains the final guarantee for professional farmers to shake off poverty, and land is still their last security. We applied the OLS model and mediation model to a dataset of 3789 households in 25 provinces obtained from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) to investigate the influence of farmland transfer and social capital on farmers’ agricultural incomes. The results show that farmland “transfer in” and social capital significantly help to increase agricultural income directly, and farmland “transfer in” behavior plays a vital mediating role, influencing the positive effect of social capital on agricultural income. The study examined the logical social capital-agricultural land transfer-agricultural income correlation in the progression of rural society, from “hollow” to “reflux”, under the continuous expansion of rural revitalization strategies, which is of great practical significance for re-recognizing the positive role of rural social capital and agricultural land transfer in improving the income of professional farmers and realizing the overall goal of rural revitalization. The results also provide a theoretical basis for guiding and leveraging the effective use of social capital to promote agricultural land transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment, Planning and Land Use)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Mixed Emotions on Consumer Improvisation Behavior in the Environment of COVID-19: The Moderating Effect of Tightness-Looseness Culture
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417076 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Organizations and individuals are unprepared for an unexpected outbreak of COVID-19. While most of the literature focuses on improvised reactions at the organizational level, this paper focuses on understanding improvised reactions at the individual level. This paper draws on previous research applying improvisation [...] Read more.
Organizations and individuals are unprepared for an unexpected outbreak of COVID-19. While most of the literature focuses on improvised reactions at the organizational level, this paper focuses on understanding improvised reactions at the individual level. This paper draws on previous research applying improvisation to the field of consumer behavior and introduces consumer knowledge acquisition as a mediating variable and tightness-looseness culture as a moderating variable from the perspective of mixed emotions of awe and anxiety to explain the mechanism of consumers with mixed emotions of awe and anxiety on improvisation behavior based on the environment of a COVID-19 outbreak. Data from 330 participants in Study 1 examined the effect of mixed emotions of awe and anxiety on improvisation behavior through knowledge acquisition, and data from 434 participants in Study 2 examined the moderating effect of relaxed culture. The findings suggest that consumers with mixed emotions report a higher willingness to acquire knowledge and report higher levels of improvisational behavior. Consumers behaved differently in different environments. Consumers with mixed emotions responded more strongly to improvisation in the loose-culture environment than in the tight-culture environment, and the mixed emotions of awe and anxiety had a positive effect on individual consumers’ improvisational behavior through the mediating role of knowledge acquisition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Infection Control Teams in Reducing Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417075 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
The infection control team (ICT) ensures the implementation of infection control guidelines in healthcare facilities. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ICT, with or without an infection control link nurse (ICLN) system, in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). We searched four [...] Read more.
The infection control team (ICT) ensures the implementation of infection control guidelines in healthcare facilities. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ICT, with or without an infection control link nurse (ICLN) system, in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). We searched four databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in inpatient, outpatient and long-term care facilities. We judged the quality of the studies, conducted meta-analyses whenever interventions and outcome measures were comparable in at least two studies, and assessed the certainty of evidence. Nine RCTs were included; all were rated as being low quality. Overall, ICT, with or without an ICLN system, did not reduce the incidence rate of HCAIs [risk ratio (RR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45–1.07], death due to HCAIs (RR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.04–2.69) and length of hospital stay (42 days vs. 45 days, p = 0.52). However, ICT with an ICLN system improved nurses’ compliance with infection control practices (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00–1.38). Due to the high level of bias, inconsistency and imprecision, these findings should be considered with caution. High-quality studies using similar outcome measures are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Infection Control Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on Inanimate Surfaces: Don’t Trust Ct Value
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17074; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417074 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 545
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 RNA is frequently identified in patient rooms and it was speculated that the viral load quantified by PCR might correlate with infectivity of surfaces. To evaluate Ct values for the prediction of infectivity, we investigated contaminated surfaces and Ct-value changes after disinfection. [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 RNA is frequently identified in patient rooms and it was speculated that the viral load quantified by PCR might correlate with infectivity of surfaces. To evaluate Ct values for the prediction of infectivity, we investigated contaminated surfaces and Ct-value changes after disinfection. Viral RNA was detected on 37 of 143 investigated surfaces of an ICU. However, virus isolation failed for surfaces with a high viral RNA load. Also, SARS-CoV-2 could not be cultivated from surfaces artificially contaminated with patient specimens. In order to evaluate the significance of Ct values more precisely, we used surrogate enveloped bacteriophage Φ6. A strong reduction in Φ6 was achieved by three different disinfection methods. Despite a strong reduction in viability almost no change in the Ct values was observed for UV-C and alcoholic surface disinfectant. Disinfection using ozone resulted in a lack of Φ6 recovery as well as a detectable shift in Ct values indicating strong degradation of the viral RNA. The observed lack of significant effects on the detectable viral RNA after effective disinfection suggest that quantitative PCR is not suitable for predicting the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on inanimate surfaces. Ct values should therefore not be considered as markers for infectivity in this context. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop